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Lifespan Development Alzheimer’s Disease Nina Deese.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Development Alzheimer’s Disease Nina Deese."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifespan Development Alzheimer’s Disease Nina Deese

2 Announcement Psychology Club is visiting HOPE LODGE tonight
Meet in front of Addlestone Library at 6:00pm We will be playing bingo with the residents

3 Agenda: What is Dementia? What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
Statistics for the U.S. Stages of AD The Brain and Alzheimer’s Causes Risk/Protective Factors Other forms of dementia… How are they different from Alzheimer’s?

4 Development of Dementia
The pathological loss of brain function is known as dementia—literally “out of mind”, referring to severely impaired judgment dementia irreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain damage or disease becomes more common with age, but it is abnormal and pathological even in the very old

5 Alzheimer’s Disease First described by German psychiatrist
-Alois Alzheimer (1906) Generally diagnosed in people over 65 years of age -Early-onset (before 65); only 5-10% of patients -Several genetic causes 4.5+ million Americans suffer from it -5% of years of age -Nearly 50% of 85+ 1 in 6 women over 55; 1 in 10 men over 55 Alzheimer’s Disease: is the most common form of dementia in which structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thoughts and behaviors.



8 Symptoms of pre-dementia
Early symptoms similar to age-related or stress-induced memory loss Difficulty remembering recently learned facts Subtle cognitive difficulties Executive function of attentiveness Planning, flexibility Abstract thinking Impairment in semantic memory New memory formation Mild confusion/Apathy As early as 5-10 years (some say 20 years) before official diagnosis

9 Mild Alzheimer’s Disease
Memory loss for recent events hard time remembering newly learned information Difficulty with problem solving, complex tasks and sound judgments tasks such as planning a family event or balancing a checkbook become overwhelming, often experience lapses in judgment Changes in personality may become withdrawn, irritable, or angry when unexpected, decreased attention span Difficulty organizing and expressing thoughts Getting lost or misplacing belongings common to lose or misplace things, trouble finding way around

10 Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease
Showing increasingly poor judgment and deepening confusion lose track of where they are, confuse friends and family members, and often wander Experience even greater memory loss may be unable to recall addresses, phone numbers, stories Need help with some daily activities Undergo significant changes in personality and behavior not uncommon to develop unfounded suspicions, hear or see things, grow restless and agitated, may bite, kick, scream, etc.

11 Severe Alzheimer’s Disease
Lose the ability to communicate coherently Require daily assistance with personal care total assistance with dressing, eating, etc. Experience a decline in physical abilities unable to walk, get up, or hold up one’s head

12 The Brain and Alzheimer’s Disease
Two major structural changes: Neurofibrillary tangles Bundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structures (contain abnormal forms of tau protein) 2. Amyloid plaques Dense deposits of deteriorated amyloid protein, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells

13 tangle plaques


15 These images represent a cross-section of the brain as seen from the front. The cross-section on the left represents a normal brain and the one on the right represents a brain with Alzheimer's disease.In Alzheimer's disease, there is an overall shrinkage of brain tissue. The grooves or furrows in the brain, called sulci (plural of sulcus), are noticeably widened and there is shrinkage of the gyri (plural of gyrus), the well-developed folds of the brain's outer layer. In addition, the ventricles, or chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, are noticeably enlarged. In the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, short-term memory begins to fade (see box labeled ‘memory') when the cells in the hippocampus, which is part of the limbic system, degenerate. The ability to perform routine tasks also declines. As Alzheimer's disease spreads through the cerebral cortex (the outer layer of the brain), judgment declines, emotional outbursts may occur and language is impaired. As the disease progresses, more nerve cells die, leading to changes in behavior, such as wandering and agitation. In the final stages of the disease, people may lose the ability to recognize faces and communicate; they normally cannot control bodily functions and require constant care. On average, the disease lasts for 8 to 10 years, but individuals with Alzheimer’s can live for up to 20 years.

16 Apple Pen Tie House Car

17 Causes? Several competing hypotheses: Cholinergic hypothesis
Caused by reduced synthesis of acetylcholine Destruction of these neurons causes disruptions in distant neuronal networks (perception, memory, judgment) Amyloid hypothesis Abnormal breakdown; buildup of amyloid beta deposits Damaged amyloid proteins build to toxic levels, causing call damage and death Tau hypothesis Caused by tau protein abnormalities Formation of neurofibrillary tangles

18 Risk Factors Obesity High blood pressure Head trauma High cholesterol
Being American! Higher rates in Japanese-Americans than Japanese African-Americans than Africans Depression Lower rates in highly educated Beneficial consequences of learning and memory

19 Possible Protective Factors
Education The ability of the brain to change suggests to some that staying mentally active as you age may help to maintain healthy brain synapses. A 2002 study reported an association between frequent participation in cognitively stimulating activities (such as reading, doing crossword puzzles, visiting museums) and a reduced risk for Alzheimer's. Exercise Lowers risk of high blood pressure and other risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s Alcohol Consumption Men who consume one to three drinks of alcohol per day cut their risk of developing the disease by nearly half. Among women, however, the risk was reduced by only 4%. The type of alcohol had no effect on the results. But further study is needed. In the meantime, experts do not recommend drinking alcohol to fend off Alzheimer's disease. Source: Harvard Health Publication

20 Other forms of Dementia
Subcortical Dementias Forms of dementia that begin with impairments in motor ability and produce cognitive impairment in later stages Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Multiple Sclerosis are subcortical dementias Reversible Dementia dementia caused by medication, inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse (Korsakoff’s Syndrome), depression, or other mental illness can sometimes be reversed

21 Self-Quiz: Alzheimer’s Disease
Apple was on the list. Home was on the list. Which of these were not on the list? Banana Pen Car House Tie TRUE FALSE

22 What’s Normal What’s Not Forgetting your ATM number or where you parked. Forgetting what an ATM card is or what kind of car you own. Forgetting what you were about to say Forgetting how to do an everyday task, like writing a check. Forgetting which day of the week you had a dental appointment Getting lost in your own neighborhood. Misplacing of losing your keys or phone Putting the ice tray in the oven instead of the freezer Forgetting the name of the person who sits in front of you in class Forgetting who your family members are


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