2Announcement Psychology Club is visiting HOPE LODGE tonight Meet in front of Addlestone Library at 6:00pmWe will be playing bingo with the residents
3Agenda: What is Dementia? What is Alzheimer’s Disease? Statistics for the U.S.Stages of ADThe Brain and Alzheimer’sCausesRisk/Protective FactorsOther forms of dementia… How are they different from Alzheimer’s?
4Development of Dementia The pathological loss of brain function is known as dementia—literally “out of mind”, referring to severely impaired judgmentdementiairreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain damage or diseasebecomes more common with age, but it is abnormal and pathological even in the very old
5Alzheimer’s Disease First described by German psychiatrist -Alois Alzheimer (1906)Generally diagnosed in people over 65 years of age-Early-onset (before 65); only 5-10% of patients-Several genetic causes4.5+ million Americans suffer from it-5% of years of age-Nearly 50% of 85+1 in 6 women over 55; 1 in 10 men over 55Alzheimer’s Disease: is the most common form of dementia in which structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thoughts and behaviors.
8Symptoms of pre-dementia Early symptoms similar to age-related or stress-induced memory lossDifficulty remembering recently learned factsSubtle cognitive difficultiesExecutive function of attentivenessPlanning, flexibilityAbstract thinkingImpairment in semantic memoryNew memory formationMild confusion/ApathyAs early as 5-10 years (some say 20 years) before official diagnosis
9Mild Alzheimer’s Disease Memory loss for recent eventshard time remembering newly learned informationDifficulty with problem solving, complex tasks and sound judgmentstasks such as planning a family event or balancing a checkbook become overwhelming, often experience lapses in judgmentChanges in personalitymay become withdrawn, irritable, or angry when unexpected, decreased attention spanDifficulty organizing and expressing thoughtsGetting lost or misplacing belongingscommon to lose or misplace things, trouble finding way around
10Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Showing increasingly poor judgment and deepening confusionlose track of where they are, confuse friends and family members, and often wanderExperience even greater memory lossmay be unable to recall addresses, phone numbers, storiesNeed help with some daily activitiesUndergo significant changes in personality and behaviornot uncommon to develop unfounded suspicions, hear or see things, grow restless and agitated, may bite, kick, scream, etc.
11Severe Alzheimer’s Disease Lose the ability to communicate coherentlyRequire daily assistance with personal caretotal assistance with dressing, eating, etc.Experience a decline in physical abilitiesunable to walk, get up, or hold up one’s head
12The Brain and Alzheimer’s Disease Two major structural changes:Neurofibrillary tanglesBundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structures (contain abnormal forms of tau protein)2. Amyloid plaquesDense deposits of deteriorated amyloid protein, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells
15These images represent a cross-section of the brain as seen from the front. The cross-section on the left represents a normal brain and the one on the right represents a brain with Alzheimer's disease.In Alzheimer's disease, there is an overall shrinkage of brain tissue. The grooves or furrows in the brain, called sulci (plural of sulcus), are noticeably widened and there is shrinkage of the gyri (plural of gyrus), the well-developed folds of the brain's outer layer. In addition, the ventricles, or chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, are noticeably enlarged. In the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, short-term memory begins to fade (see box labeled ‘memory') when the cells in the hippocampus, which is part of the limbic system, degenerate. The ability to perform routine tasks also declines. As Alzheimer's disease spreads through the cerebral cortex (the outer layer of the brain), judgment declines, emotional outbursts may occur and language is impaired. As the disease progresses, more nerve cells die, leading to changes in behavior, such as wandering and agitation. In the final stages of the disease, people may lose the ability to recognize faces and communicate; they normally cannot control bodily functions and require constant care. On average, the disease lasts for 8 to 10 years, but individuals with Alzheimer’s can live for up to 20 years.
17Causes? Several competing hypotheses: Cholinergic hypothesis Caused by reduced synthesis of acetylcholineDestruction of these neurons causes disruptions in distant neuronal networks (perception, memory, judgment)Amyloid hypothesisAbnormal breakdown; buildup of amyloid beta depositsDamaged amyloid proteins build to toxic levels, causing call damage and deathTau hypothesisCaused by tau protein abnormalitiesFormation of neurofibrillary tangles
18Risk Factors Obesity High blood pressure Head trauma High cholesterol Being American!Higher rates inJapanese-Americans than JapaneseAfrican-Americans than AfricansDepressionLower rates in highly educatedBeneficial consequences of learning and memory
19Possible Protective Factors EducationThe ability of the brain to change suggests to some that staying mentally active as you age may help to maintain healthy brain synapses. A 2002 study reported an association between frequent participation in cognitively stimulating activities (such as reading, doing crossword puzzles, visiting museums) and a reduced risk for Alzheimer's.ExerciseLowers risk of high blood pressure and other risk factors associated with Alzheimer’sAlcohol ConsumptionMen who consume one to three drinks of alcohol per day cut their risk of developing the disease by nearly half. Among women, however, the risk was reduced by only 4%. The type of alcohol had no effect on the results. But further study is needed. In the meantime, experts do not recommend drinking alcohol to fend off Alzheimer's disease.Source: Harvard Health Publication
20Other forms of Dementia Subcortical DementiasForms of dementia that begin with impairments in motor ability and produce cognitive impairment in later stagesParkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Multiple Sclerosis are subcortical dementiasReversible Dementiadementia caused by medication, inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse (Korsakoff’s Syndrome), depression, or other mental illness can sometimes be reversed
21Self-Quiz: Alzheimer’s Disease Apple was on the list.Home was on the list.Which of these were not on the list?BananaPenCarHouseTieTRUEFALSE
22What’s NormalWhat’s NotForgetting your ATM number or where you parked.Forgetting what an ATM card is or what kind of car you own.Forgetting what you were about to sayForgetting how to do an everyday task, like writing a check.Forgetting which day of the week you had a dental appointmentGetting lost in your own neighborhood.Misplacing of losing your keys or phonePutting the ice tray in the oven instead of the freezerForgetting the name of the person who sits in front of you in classForgetting who your family members are
23HAVE A HAPPY THANKSGIVING BREAK! Thank you!HAVE A HAPPY THANKSGIVING BREAK!