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Project Management, Project Process, Project Orientation and Scope

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1 Project Management, Project Process, Project Orientation and Scope
Session 5 Project Management, Project Process, Project Orientation and Scope

2 Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

3 Project Management Process
Plan Measure Control Project Initiation Closure Execution There are many ways to describe the process of managing a project. In our view it devolves into the above five components: Project Initiation This is the formal start of a project, involving its initial definition. In most respects this is the key to effective project management and successful projects. Planning This is the act of defining the work that needs to be conducted to achieve the project objectives and to create the required deliverables. Measuring In this course we distinguish planning and scheduling. The ‘measure’ activity involves the initial scheduling and the subsequent tracking of progress, and any re-planning, as work proceeds. Controlling This involves managing risk, managing quality, in fact all of the management activities surrounding the conduct of the project Project Closure Formal project closure completes the project process and involves confirming that the objectives and deliverables have been achieved to the client’s satisfaction. Planning, measuring and controlling activities commence in the Project Initiation stage, and continue, as a cycle, throughout the execution of the project.

4 What is a project? - assessment
A set of activities With a definite beginning and end To achieve a specific set of deliverables Example Launching a product is not a project Launching and managing the product life cycle is.

5 Why Initiate Projects? Principally:
so that we know what we are trying to achieve so that we know what the constraints are so that later we can negotiate so that we can measure our success Also: so that the project has a formal start point and everyone knows what they have to do so that we protect ourselves and our project

6 Project Characteristics – check list
All projects: create change have composite goals and objectives are unique involve a variety of resources are limited in time and scope The word ‘project’ appears to mean different things to different people, and gets applied to just about any activity that we undertake. In fact though, much of the work we undertake is not project-based at all. At the simplest level, a project is any endeavour with a defined, or definable, end product (deliverable) where the creation of the end product requires the use of resources. The word embraces the idea that a project has a defined duration. In this session we use the term ‘project’ to be an activity with: agreed objectives and a defined final deliverable an agreed duration which uses one or more resources is limited in time and scope is unique By implication, at the end of the project the resources applied to the activity move on to other work (unless fully consumed). When we talk of project management, we are speaking of projects, a described above, managed in a formal way.

7 Project Uncertainties
Input Uncertainty The skills and labour that is available and the desired mix of skills , the roles , experience , reliability involvement availability and solvency of suppliers and subcontractors and material and provision . Process uncertainty The risk involved in the project activities, including the work breakdown, the integration and linking of activities , management of bottlenecks and understanding critical paths , the speed of environmental changes , stakeholders , expectations and interrelationships and even politics . Output Uncertainty The fit of the result with client and stakeholder requirements , specification changes and market changes during the project . Different with similar marketing project, similar budgets , timescales and performance would result in different project approaches , staff involved etc . The organisation goals , culture and resources , would impact on the nature of the project .

8 Project Scope – for assessment
Sets the stage for developing a project plan . A definition of the end result or mission of you project – a product or service for your client / customer . The primary purpose - define as clearly as possible the deliverables for the end user and to focus project plans . Project Scope Checklist Project Objective Deliverables Milestones Technical requirements Limit and exclusions Reviews with customers. The most difficult part is to ensure that all the unnecessary work is not undertaken .The critical element here is to define what is to be included and employing the project scope checklist helps here. A starting point in identifying project scope is to determine the project stakeholders and their requirements. Stakeholders include senior management /project sponsors/project participants /customers and consumers. Getting precise requirements out of the more general terms of reference is essential . These should be : Specific Measurable Employing a project scope checklist Clearly , project scope is the keystone interlocking all element of a project plan . To ensure that scope definition is complete, you may wish to use the following checklist. Project objective – the first step of project scope definition is to overall objective to meet your customer need(s). For example as a result of extensive market research a computer software company decides to develop a program that automatically translates verbal sentences in English to Russian . The project within 3 years at a cost not exceeding 1.5 M . The project objective answers the question of what , when and how much !

9 Example - A Scoping Matrix
Aspect In Scope Out of Scope Geography UK Mainland Northern Ireland , Eire, Scottish Islands Retailers National Supermarket Chains Symbol independents, Spar, regiona supermarket chains Timescales Within 12 months Beyond 12 months Focus Existing project ranges New products Preparing forms that detail the requirements and priorities can help focus and involves key stakeholders and raise issues. A typical form is presented in table above The project scope is understanding what is outside scope , as well as in scope. Defining the parameters or boundaries may be essential in a project. You will often have to detail some activities or outcome that are specifically outside the scope. These should also be expressly stated to avoid misunderstandings . Other elements that may be included in a scope statement are Assumptions Constrains Source: Official CIM course book – PMIM, 2009

10 Organisational Context for Projects
Corporate level Change Management New Market Entry Departmental /Market Level Promotional Projects Rolling out of Sales force reporting system. Geographical Level New Product Development. Every strategic initiative in a firm involves change management and that is best accomplished through the tools and techniques of project management . Project management thus becomes the enabler , the vehicle through which all strategic change happens , the project itself is the gap filler. The bridge between what is and what will be. Projects should be undertaken within the usual corporate and functional planning process. The objectives set at different levels will set the foundations of strategy. Project management is often critical in ensuring the required changes are put in place . Projects can be set at Corporate level department level and product level or even market and geographical levels . It is clear that projects are a essential part of the business activities at all levels . The challenge then is to promise and manage these appropriately to meet the organisations needs. Organisations and departments typically have many projects at any given time. Projects need to be aligned with the organisations strategic priorities., and prioritised to ensure that the organisations resources are focused on the priorities of the organisation. Red and Levin (2008) have recommended the use of project portfolio management (PPM) enables organisations to select resources and implement projects to ensure that the right projects are selected on the bass of their benefit to the organisation, and also taking account of the organisations resources. Most PPM approaches result in a prioritised list of the most important projects . Yet sometimes impractical. If a number or projects are competing for approval at a project board or equivalent, then the relative strength of support and position of power of the project champions will often influence the decision .

11 The Project Organisation
Defining the project orgnsisation is a key part of the initial project planning . The structure and composition of the project team organisation needs to defined at this stage in the project. The project organisation is related to the scale of the task and the potential budget available. Organisational wide projects tend to have cross functional teams , spanning different functional specialism's .The team in marketing projects is often drawn mainly the marketing department, and may also include marketing services organisations, often in addition to other work responsibilities. Project teams are ad hoc groups which work in the project as part of their normal activities or a specialist focused project team .

12 Project Manager The project manager is unique because they manages temporary, non-repetitive activities and frequently acts independently of the formal organization. They: gather resources to complete a fixed-life project on time, on budget, and within specifications. are the direct link to the customer and must manage the interface between customer expectations and what is feasible and reasonable. T provide direction, coordination, and integration to the project team, which is often made up of part-time participants loyal to their functional departments. are responsible for performance trade-off between the time, cost, and performance requirements of the project. -In a small sense project managers perform the same functions as other managers . That is, they plan , motivate and control . However the what makes them unique is that they manage temporary , non repetitive activities to complete a fixed life project . -Unlike functional managers who takeover existing operations , project managers creates a project team where none existed before. They should decide what and how things should be done instead of running set processes. They must meet the challenges of each phase of the project life cycle, and even oversee the dissolution of their operations when the project is completed. Project managers must work with a diverse troupe of characters to complete projects. They are typically the direct link to the customers and must manage the tension between customer expectations and what is feasible and reasonable . Project managers provide direction , coordination , and integration of the project team , which is often made up of part time participants loyal to their functional departments . They often must work with a cadre of outsiders , vendors, suppliers , subcontractors…who do not necessarily share their project intelligence. While project management is not for the timid. Working on projects can be extremely rewarding experience . Project managers and team members can feel immense pride in their accomplishments, whether it is a new bridge, a new product , or needed service . Good project managers are always in demand. Every industry is looking for effective people who can get the right things done on time . Clearly project management is a challenging and exciting profession .

13 Project Management Manages: project scope, by defining the goals and work to be done, in sufficient detail to facilitate understanding and corrective action should the need arise the human resources involved in the project communication, to see that the appropriate parties are informed and have sufficient detail to keep the project on track time, by planning and meeting a schedule quality, so that the project results are satisfactory costs, so that the project is performed at the minimum practical cost and within budget if possible Project Management Institute The Project Management Institute describes the role of the Project Manager as above. We may have some alternative definition in mind, but it will probably include all or most of the above. Project management can be one of the most demanding of jobs. Projects are not always easy to manage, for all sorts of reasons, and this course describes some concepts and structures which will make the job a little easier.

14 Determinants of Project Management Structure
The seven factors that should influence the choice of project management structure as identified by Hobbs and Menard (1993). Size of project Strategic importance Novelty and need for innovation Need for integration (number of departments involved) Environmental complexity (number of external interfaces) Budget and time constraints. Stability of resources requirements. While many organiations have simplistic project management approaches , job advertisement state that they are looking for ‘good project managers’ within the requirements for a range of marketing jobs. However marketing projects differ on the basis of , The type of organiation (project oriented organiation or traditionally structured organiations) The size and complexity of the project (e.g strategic change vs . Operational projects) The scope of the project (e.g cross functional vs. one within a marketing department ) The larger , more complex or risky a project the more important it is to have formal project management . Informal approaches to project management, especially in functionally organised organisations ,are viewed as a sure [path to disaster (brown ,2008). Accordingly , big projects increasingly use formal project management processes.

15 Using the Existing Functional Organisation to administer Projects
Advantages Disadvantages No Change Flexibility In depth Expertise Easy post project transition Lack of Focus Poor Integration Slow Lack of Ownership Advantages No change – projects are completed within the basic functional structure of the parent organisation. There is no radical alteration in the design and operation of the parent organisation. Flexibility – There is maximum flexibility in the use of staff . Appropriate specialists in different function units can temporarily be assigned to work on the project and then return to their normal work. With a broad base of technical personnel available within each functional department , people can be switched among different projects with relative ease. In Depth Expertise – if the scope of the project is narrow and the proper functional unit is assigned primary responsibility, then in depth expertise can be brought to bear on the most crucial aspects of the project. Easy to project transition – Normal career paths within a functional division are maintained . While specialists can make significant contributions to projects , their functional fields is their professional home and the focus of their professional growth and advancement.

16 Project Implementation – for assessment
Developing the outline plan into an integrative project plan (Meredith and Mantell, 2000): Overview of scope and objective Detailed objectives General approach of the managerial and technical aspects Contractual requirements Schedules for the works Resource issues Personnel requirements Methods and standards of evaluation Potential problems or assumptions Contingency planning

17 Project Termination and Evaluation
Customer & stakeholder evaluation Reviewing final status report with project team Recording lessons learned Reviewing final report with sponsor Celebrating success

18 Scope Creep When work is added to the project after the scope has been established and agreed. Avoiding scope creep: Education of the project team or sponsor Establishing processes for change Project contingency

19 Scope Creep and Scope Change
Changes that occur during projects can be Mandatory Required Optional Changes that occur in marketing projects The target market segment is changing preferences, for example owing to the economic environment. A competitor has launched a new product. An external partner has withdrawn from the project. IT consultant Gopal kapur says that project managers should act like guide dog at times , and show ‘intelligent disobedience ‘ It is tempting for project sponsors to ask for changes in the project scope . However , he comments that some of these changes can be half baked , and that accepting these can lead to extensive scope creep. He advices project managers to learn to say no to their sponsors. And to overrule its owner when appropriate. Scope creep often starts with small changes in the total project or in one aspect of the project . These could include changes to fulfillment processes, or extent of catering menus.etc . or Venuses. Often these will have ‘knock on’ effects such as cancellation charges, additional costs, delays in completion . Its commonly known that small incremental changes can lead to the projects failure.

20 Avoiding Scope Creep Scope creep is limited by setting appropriate systems in place. Common Approaches done avoiding scope creep include. Education of the project team or sponsor – explain the impact of change on the project success often focuses people on avoiding the ‘best’ solution (e.g. adding every feature to a new product , rather than those specified in the project plan or that meet the target segments requirements ) Establishing Processes for changes such as a change request. Using formal processes for approving changes can stop regular and monitor changes. Or indeed more substantial ones. Change request processes can be initiated with supporting documentation, which are to be submitted in writing to the project manager.

21 Knowledge Explosion The growth in new knowledge has increased the complexity of projects because projects encompass the latest advances , Building a road 30years ago was a some what simple process, today each area has increased in complexity . Project complexity has increased the need to integrate the divergent technologies. Project management has emerged as an important discipline for achieving this task. Corporate downsizing The last decade has seen a dramatic restructuring of organisational life. Project Management is wiping out the middle management layer of organisations as a means of ensuring the work gets done. Companies also outsource significant segments of project work, and project managers have to manage not only their own people but also their counterparts in different organisations . Increased Customer Focus Increased competition has placed a premium on customer satisfaction. Customers no longer simply settle for generic products and services,. They want customised products and services that cater to their specific needs. Project Management is critical both to development of customised products and services and to sustaining lucrative relationships with customers . In summary there are a variety of environmental forces interacting in today's business world that contribute to the increased demand for good project management across all industries and sectors.

22 Agency Work The following factors should be avoided to avoid scope creep, Have a written agreement about what is involved in the project. Detail budgets in initial agreements and specify what is and what is not included in these. Detail the processes to be undertaken, with estimated budgets and timescales. Details reporting schedules and processes that are in place to manage focus and scope creep in advance. Detail the key contacts in between the organization, as failing to do so may result in several parties getting involved.

23 Project Termination and Project Evaluation
.A decision to terminate a project occurs when one or more of the following occur . A project is superseded , possibly by competitors actions or a new technical development . A project is killed by management before completion , often once its internal sponsor leaves or another initiative has greater priority of fit. Projects are deprived of funds and starve to death. Projects are integrated into the routine activities of an organisation . The decision to terminate a project is not the end of the project management process , which ends after the project evaluation . Evaluation determines how well the project met its objectives , including time , cost and quality , and how the needs of its stakeholders were met . Project evaluation helps develop learning to guide future projects. Small Projects have informal reviews, but larger projects need formal reviews. Although evaluation takes place throughout the project , an integrated evaluation at the end of the project reflects on reasons for success and failure that may be missed in operational management. Project audits are rigorous reviews, using structured approach and often undertaken by an independent party.

24 Project Orientated Culture
Project orientated culture (POC) has a management style that focuses on: Empowerment of employees Process orientation Continuous organisational change

25 Project Oriented Organisation
Sees ‘Management by projects’ as a central element of organizational strategy. Has a portfolio approach to managing projects . Has a project management culture and organisation , with use of project teams to solve business problems. Has central coordinating facilities structures to support projects but changing project structures for project duration. Flatter structures. More Fluid – project teams forming and disbanding with dynamics of the marketplace and business requirements . The type of Orgaanisational orientation to projects and the size, topic and uncertainty of the task also on the nature of the project team. The main project team organisations include: Project structures – Project teams are formed around specific projects . This is suited to large, long term projects, and is common in high tech companies , management consultancies or advertising agencies. Typically , project teams are put together at the start of the project and disbanded at the end of the project . Project teams encourage commitment from the team members . The team can be built quickly , so are ideal when speed is critical . However , new jobs may not be available for project team members on the completion of the project.

26 Project Oriented Culture
Culture - value and norms of the organisation Projected Oriented Culture promotes a Management style that focuses on Empowerment of employees Process orientation Continuous organisational change Project oriented culture should be led from the top of an organisation Cross functional and contradictory style. Culture reflects the personality of the organiation ! The decision for combining a discussion of project management structures and organisational structures in this chapter can be traced to a conversation one had with two project managers who work for a medium – sized information technology firm . The managers developing a new operating platform that would be critical to the future success of their company . When they tried to describe how this project was organised , One manager began to sketch out on a napkin a complicated structure involving 52 different teams , each with a project leader and a technical leader . In response to our further probing to understand how this system worked , the manager stopped short and pro claimed ‘The key to making this structure wok is the culture of our company ‘ This approach would never work at company Y , where I worked before , because of our culture here we are able to pull it off . What is Organisational culture Organisational culture refers to a system of shared norms , beliefs , values and assumptions which binds together people, thereby creating shared meanings. This system is manifested by customs and habits that amplify the values and beliefs of the organiation, for example, egalitarianism may be expressed in the informal dress worn at a high tech firm. Conversely , mandated uniforms at a department store reinforce respect for the hierarchy. Culture reflect the personality of the organisation and, similar to an individuals personality , can enable us to predict attitudes and behaviours of organisational members. Culture is also one of the defining aspects of an organiation that sets it apart form other organiations even in the same industry.

27 Introduction This lesson gives you an introduction to the project management basics Historically project management was given limited attention in academic texts in marketing. However professional project management has gained recognition , and thus us now recognized as a factor impacting on marketing performance . This chapter will also address analysing , planning , implementation and control of projects management by the marketing function , or in which the marketing function is a participant. It detail the key issues undertaken in the three main stages on the project management life cycle.

28 Agenda Foundations of Project Management. Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

29 Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

30 Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

31 Learning Outcomes Section 3 : Assessing, managing and mitigating risks associated with marketing projects (weighting 25%) 3.7 Critically Evaluate different Approaches to developing a culture of project planning within the marketing function and the organisation. 3.8 Critically Evaluate soft and Hard projects in the context of marketing and consider the differences in terms of project implementation.

32 Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

33 Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

34 Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture
Determinants of Project Management Structure Marketing Project Interface –Matrix structures Project Scope Scope Creep and Scope Change

35 Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture
Determinants of Project Management Structure Marketing Project Interface – Matrix structures Project Scope Scope Creep and Scope Change

36 Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture
Determinants of Project Management Structure. Disadvantages of a project management Matrix in organiation . Project Scope Scope Creep and Scope Change

37 Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture
Determinants of Project Management Structure. Disadvantages of a project management Matrix in organiation . Project Scope Scope Creep and Scope Change

38 Agenda Foundations of Project Management. Project Life Cycle
Organisational Context For projects Types Of Projects Project Initiation Project Implementation Project Termination and Project Evaluation

39 Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture
Determinants of Project Management Structure. Marketing Project Interface –Matrix structures . Project Scope Scope Creep and Scope Change

40 Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture
Determinants of Project Management Structure. Marketing Project Interface –Matrix structures . Project Scope Scope Creep and Scope Change

41 The Initial Project Plan
Project name Business Case Objectives Deliverables Customers Customer requirements Customer needs Other stakeholders Resources needed – human, financial, schedule

42 Foundations of Project Management
Project Management is no longer a special need management . It is rapidly becoming a standard way of doing business. An increasing percentage of the typical firms effort is being devoted to projects Several reasons why this is the case are as follows Compression of the Product Life cycle Global Competition Knowledge Explosion Corporate Downsizing Increased customer Focus Small Projects Represent big Problems Compression of the product Life Cycle One of the most significant driving forces behind the demand for project management is the shortening of the product life cycle. For example today in high tech industries the product life cycle is averaging 1-3 years. Only 30 years ago , life cycles of years were not common. Speed that comes with implementing project management therefore becomes a competitive advantage . More and more organisations are relying on cross functional project teams to get new products and services to the market as quickly as possible. Global Competition Today's open markets demand not only cheaper products and services but also better products and services. This has led to the emergence of the quality movement across the world. Project management with its triple focus on time cost and performance is proving to be efficient , flexible way to get things done.

43 Effective Project Management
The success or failure of a project is based on whether targets are achieved on: Required performance (quality) Cost (money invested) Due date (delivery) If you fail to plan – you plan to fail !!

44 Organisational Contexts for Projects
Project management is the enabler through which strategic change is happens Projects can be set at various levels: Corporate Departmental Product Market Project Portfolio Management enables organisations to select, resource and implement projects

45 Project Initiation The key elements of Project Initiation are
Project Selection The Project Manager Role. The project Organization Initial Project Planning Evaluation of potential Projects Deciding which and how many to support Implies that there are a number of projects under consideration. These are judged against Objective(quantitative) an subjective (Qualitative)criteria. Every project begins with a proposal, but not every proposal can or should become a project.  In a world of limited resources, choices have to be made.  Not every project has viability.  And, amongst those that do, limited resources (people, time, money and equipment), must be applied judiciously.  The goal of the project selection process is to analyze project viability, and to approve or reject project proposals based on established criteria, following a set of structured steps and checkpoints. An organisation may decide to go ahead on a project for the launch of a new product because of A window of opportunity that exists Past experience The potential profit and The degree of risk One manager or a small team of people may make selection decisions. This could be discussed and debated . With varying levels supporting information.

46 The Initial Project Plan
The project scope and objectives . The proposed start and finish dates . The deliverables (i.e. desired outcomes or results) should also be specified. The project management methodologies to be used . Any constrains or limiting factors, (time , money , people or equipment, weather conditions , cultural problems) Any potential risks in the project and detail how these are going to be managed and monitored. The overall budget for the project. Outline plans detailing the required tasks , likely budgets and schedules are prepared by the key participants, scrutinized by the project manager and the project team and integrated into a composite project plan. Trade offs between time and resource issues may be required to integrate these different plans. This integrative approach is essential for project buy-in from team members and use their expertise. The project manager normally is responsible for coordinating the composite plan and gaining its approval . Marketing projects tend to be less detailed that some other technical disciplines at this point because of the types of projects tasks, most detailing planning takes place in the project implementation stage in marketing.

47 Project Implementation
Developing the outline plan into an integrative approach Overview of the objectives and scope Detailed objectives The general approach of the managerial and technical aspects off the project. Contractual requirements. Schedules for the work . Resource Issues. Personal requirements . Methods and standards of evaluation . Potential problems and assumptions Contingency planning The majority of the work in projects in place within the project process however , this section is shorter than that for implementation. A summary checklist is presented below . Does the project plan trial What the project and the project management will achieve? How will the project be managed ?(methodology) When will the project be complete? Who will do what tasks? When will each task be done ? What resources are required ? How mush money is required and available ? What risks exist and how will these be managed? How will the project be evaluated? What contingency planning is in place ? Identifying these components disguises the complexity of project planning and implementation . It is often said that the negotiation begins after the project scope is agreed. From then on, project management is about the ‘soft ‘ factors of managing people, reconciling the projects interests with those of other participants.

48 Project Orientation Project orientated organisations (POO):
Sees ‘management by projects’ as central to strategy Portfolio approach to managing projects Has a project management culture and organisation Has infrastructure to support projects

49 Project Scope The work involved in achieving the outcome of the project and defining what should and should not be included. The project scoping document should include: Project Name Date and version of the document Background Scope overview Objectives Outcomes and deliverables Participants Constraints, Risks Budgets, schedules Evaluation Key roles and participants Sponsor Project manager Project teams and roles Experts Signature lines

50 Project Oriented Structure
Board Of Directors Project Portfolio Group Project A Project B Project C Business Operations Production Sales Expert Pool Central Services Corporate Financial Centre Corporate Admin Centre Project Management Support Centre A project management structure system provides a framework for launching and implementing project activities within a parent organisation. A good system appropriately balances the need of both the parent organisation and the project by defining the interface between the project and parent organisation in terms of authority, allocation or resources and eventual integration of project outcomes into mainstream operations. Many business organisations have struggled with creating a system for organizing projects while managing ongoing operations . One of the major reasons for this struggled with creating a system for organizing projects while managing ongoing operations . One of the major reasons for this struggles that projects contradict fundamental designs principles associated with traditional organisations . Source: Official CIM course book – PMIM, 2009

51 Marketing Project Interface –Matrix structures
Although strengths of the matrix structure such as practicality, efficiency, flexibility are considerable , unfortunately so are the weaknesses. The dysfunctional conflict Infighting Stressful Slow A leading consultant states ‘ not only is there a tension between the functional objectives, in many instances they are in fact 180 degrees opposite ‘ Dysfunctional Conflict -the matrix approach is predicated on tension between organisational managers and project managers who bring critical expertise and perceptiveness to the project . Such tension is viewed as a necessary mechanism for achieving an appropriate balance between complex technical issues. And unique project requirements. While the intent is noble the effect is sometimes analogues to opening Pandora's box . Legitimate conflict can spill over to a personal level , resulting from conflicting agendas and accountabilities, Worthy discussions can degenerate into heated arguments that engender animosity among the managers involved .

52 Types of Projects Project Dimensions identified by Brown 2000 are as follows. Budget Size Time Span Human Resources Involved Complexity of tasks Coordination required Obeng’s (1994) Four distinct project Environments. Paint By Numbers Making a Movie The Quest The Foggy Project Paint by numbers – Projects are low in process and outcome , uncertainty , e.g. . Installing point of sale (POS) displays in retailers outlets. The outcome is the same the installation of the POS display . The process (the way in which it is implemented) would be similar . However, differences, such as environmental factors.(e.g. existing store design) time issues (e.g. minimising staff and customer inconvenience ) and cost issues (e.g. adaptations for a given situation) mean this is not a completely routing process. Often , organisations have process protocols or manuals detailing core processes. The types of projects are considered ‘hard’ projects , because of their fixed processes and clarity of outcome. Making a movie – Projects are low in Process uncertainty and high in outcome uncertainty. Producers and directors know what is involved in making the movie , although the topic, location and people vary. however predicting the success of the movie is difficult. Projects such as new product or advertising campaign launches often have a similar pattern of high costs and a high risk of failure. These projects need clear , precise definition of outcomes and stakeholders expectations must be managed throughout the process. Timescales and budgets must be tightly controlled. The Quest – projects are high in process uncertainty and low in outcome uncertainty / These projects have focused outcomes , but it is not clear how or when this will be achieved. Some exploratory development projects , such as aids cures for pharmaceutical companies are in this category. Progress and resources reviews throughout these projects are essential to keep within cost. Further focus is essential to keep the project on target.

53 Marketing Projects Managing projects has always been a central part of Marketing Activity Project Work in marketing includes planning events , marketing research and campaigns, for example. Further Marketers' are involved in strategic , cross functional projects , such as new product or market development, or implementation change within the organsiation . The 3 core stages of a project are Beginning Implementation Termination Beginning - a project begins or is initiated Once its planning starts Implementation - A Project takes place during the implementation stage . This is simplistic . To many people including the consumers or users, this is a time of more high visibility , but a very significant part of time can be spent in the planning and design process Termination – Once the management process is complete (including the shake down and project review) The project no longer exists and is terminated Project management‘s contribution is now widely recognized as important within the functional areas of organisations . Marketing initiatives , activities and campaigns often fit the above definitions of projects. Professional project management gives attention to the various players , tasks ad outcomes for their success. The consideration of project management will first address the types of marketing projects (activities) , how they are undertaken (people and process) and why they do it (strategic goals , competitive position and customers satisfaction) success results from their effective coordination and integration.

54 Project Scoping Document
Project Name (and other project references) Date and Version of scoping document Background (can comprise the following) Project scope and review. Project objectives Project outcomes and deliverables Participants , including departments and organisations. Key interfaces Assumptions Constrains Risks Budgets Schedules(due date) Key Roles and responsibilities Executive Sponsor Project Manager Project teams and roles Signature lines – sign of charter’ The scoping document is subdividing the major project deliverables in to smaller more manageable components. This is called a work breakdown structure. Project scoping document details the project scope statement and the project approach . Varies in length , depending on the scale and outcomes sought. This document has to be signed off by the managers as agreed to show that they are committing to this . This is called scope verification. This is then communicated to all parties. Varies form business to business.

55 Project Life Cycle + Tuckman and Jensen (1977) Forming Storming Norming Adjourning
Another way of illustrating the unique nature of project work is in terms of the project life cycle . Some project managers find it useful to use the project life cycle as the cornerstone for managing projects . The life cycle recognizes that the project life cycle has a limited life span, and that there are predictable changes in the level of effort and focus over the life of the project. There are a number of different life cycle models in the project management literature. Many are unique to a specific industry or type of project. For example a new software development project may consists of five phases: definition , design , code , integration /test, and maintenance . A generic cycle is depicted in figure above! The project life cycle typically passes' sequentially through four stages, defining , planning ,executing, and delivering. The starting point begins the moment the project is given the go ahead. Project effort starts slowly, builds to a peak, and then declines to delivery of the project to the customers. Defining Stage – Specifications of the project are defined, project objectives are established , teams are formed, major responsibilities are assigned. Planning Stage - The level of effort increases , and plans are developed to determine what project will entail, when it will be scheduled , who it will benefit , what quality level should be maintained , what the budget will be. Executing Stage – a major portion of the project work takes place . Both physical and mental. The physical product is produced a bridge , a report, a software pregame) Time , cost and specification measures are used for control. Delivering stage – Includes the two activities , delivering the project to the customer and redeploying project resources. Source:

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