Presentation on theme: "Project Management, Project Process, Project Orientation and Scope"— Presentation transcript:
1Project Management, Project Process, Project Orientation and Scope Session 5Project Management, Project Process, Project Orientation and Scope
2Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
3Project Management Process PlanMeasureControlProjectInitiationClosureExecutionThere are many ways to describe the process of managing a project. In our view it devolves into the above five components:Project InitiationThis is the formal start of a project, involving its initial definition. In most respects this is the key to effective project management and successful projects.PlanningThis is the act of defining the work that needs to be conducted to achieve the project objectives and to create the required deliverables.MeasuringIn this course we distinguish planning and scheduling. The ‘measure’ activity involves the initial scheduling and the subsequent tracking of progress, and any re-planning, as work proceeds.ControllingThis involves managing risk, managing quality, in fact all of the management activities surrounding the conduct of the projectProject ClosureFormal project closure completes the project process and involves confirming that the objectives and deliverables have been achieved to the client’s satisfaction.Planning, measuring and controlling activities commence in the Project Initiation stage, and continue, as a cycle, throughout the execution of the project.
4What is a project? - assessment A set of activitiesWith a definite beginning and endTo achieve a specific set of deliverablesExampleLaunching a product is not a projectLaunching and managing the product life cycle is.
5Why Initiate Projects? Principally: so that we know what we are trying to achieveso that we know what the constraints areso that later we can negotiateso that we can measure our successAlso:so that the project has a formal start point andeveryone knows what they have to doso that we protect ourselves and our project
6Project Characteristics – check list All projects:create changehave composite goals and objectivesare uniqueinvolve a variety of resourcesare limited in time and scopeThe word ‘project’ appears to mean different things to different people, and gets applied to just about any activity that we undertake. In fact though, much of the work we undertake is not project-based at all.At the simplest level, a project is any endeavour with a defined, or definable, end product (deliverable) where the creation of the end product requires the use of resources. The word embraces the idea that a project has a defined duration.In this session we use the term ‘project’ to be an activity with:agreed objectives and a defined final deliverablean agreed durationwhich uses one or more resourcesis limited in time and scopeis uniqueBy implication, at the end of the project the resources applied to the activity move on to other work (unless fully consumed).When we talk of project management, we are speaking of projects, a described above, managed in a formal way.
7Project Uncertainties Input UncertaintyThe skills and labour that is available and the desired mix of skills , the roles , experience , reliability involvement availability and solvency of suppliers and subcontractors and material and provision .Process uncertaintyThe risk involved in the project activities, including the work breakdown, the integration and linking of activities , management of bottlenecks and understanding critical paths , the speed of environmental changes , stakeholders , expectations and interrelationships and even politics .Output UncertaintyThe fit of the result with client and stakeholder requirements , specification changes and market changes during the project .Different with similar marketing project, similar budgets , timescales and performance would result in different project approaches , staff involved etc . The organisation goals , culture and resources , would impact on the nature of the project .
8Project Scope – for assessment Sets the stage for developing a project plan .A definition of the end result or mission of you project – a product or service for your client / customer .The primary purpose - define as clearly as possible the deliverables for the end user and to focus project plans .Project Scope ChecklistProject ObjectiveDeliverablesMilestonesTechnical requirementsLimit and exclusionsReviews with customers.The most difficult part is to ensure that all the unnecessary work is not undertaken .The critical element here is to define what is to be included and employing the project scope checklist helps here. A starting point in identifying project scope is to determine the project stakeholders and their requirements. Stakeholders include senior management /project sponsors/project participants /customers and consumers.Getting precise requirements out of the more general terms of reference is essential . These should be :SpecificMeasurableEmploying a project scope checklistClearly , project scope is the keystone interlocking all element of a project plan . To ensure that scope definition is complete, you may wish to use the following checklist.Project objective – the first step of project scope definition is to overall objective to meet your customer need(s). For example as a result of extensive market research a computer software company decides to develop a program that automatically translates verbal sentences in English to Russian . The project within 3 years at a cost not exceeding 1.5 M . The project objective answers the question of what , when and how much !
9Example - A Scoping Matrix AspectIn ScopeOut of ScopeGeographyUK MainlandNorthern Ireland , Eire, Scottish IslandsRetailersNational Supermarket ChainsSymbol independents, Spar, regiona supermarket chainsTimescalesWithin 12 monthsBeyond 12 monthsFocusExisting project rangesNew productsPreparing forms that detail the requirements and priorities can help focus and involves key stakeholders and raise issues. A typical form is presented in table aboveThe project scope is understanding what is outside scope , as well as in scope. Defining the parameters or boundaries may be essential in a project. You will often have to detail some activities or outcome that are specifically outside the scope. These should also be expressly stated to avoid misunderstandings .Other elements that may be included in a scope statement areAssumptionsConstrainsSource: Official CIM course book – PMIM, 2009
10Organisational Context for Projects Corporate levelChange ManagementNew Market EntryDepartmental /Market LevelPromotional ProjectsRolling out of Sales force reporting system.Geographical LevelNew Product Development.Every strategic initiative in a firm involves change management and that is best accomplished through the tools and techniques of project management .Project management thus becomes the enabler , the vehicle through which all strategic change happens , the project itself is the gap filler. The bridge between what is and what will be. Projects should be undertaken within the usual corporate and functional planning process. The objectives set at different levels will set the foundations of strategy. Project management is often critical in ensuring the required changes are put in place .Projects can be set at Corporate level department level and product level or even market and geographical levels . It is clear that projects are a essential part of the business activities at all levels . The challenge then is to promise and manage these appropriately to meet the organisations needs.Organisations and departments typically have many projects at any given time. Projects need to be aligned with the organisations strategic priorities., and prioritised to ensure that the organisations resources are focused on the priorities of the organisation.Red and Levin (2008) have recommended the use of project portfolio management (PPM) enables organisations to select resources and implement projects to ensure that the right projects are selected on the bass of their benefit to the organisation, and also taking account of the organisations resources.Most PPM approaches result in a prioritised list of the most important projects . Yet sometimes impractical. If a number or projects are competing for approval at a project board or equivalent, then the relative strength of support and position of power of the project champions will often influence the decision .
11The Project Organisation Defining the project orgnsisation is a key part of the initial project planning . The structure and composition of the project team organisation needs to defined at this stage in the project.The project organisation is related to the scale of the task and the potential budget available.Organisational wide projects tend to have cross functional teams , spanning different functional specialism's .The team in marketing projects is often drawn mainly the marketing department, and may also include marketing services organisations, often in addition to other work responsibilities.Project teams are ad hoc groups which work in the project as part of their normal activities or a specialist focused project team .
12Project ManagerThe project manager is unique because they manages temporary, non-repetitive activities and frequently acts independently of the formal organization.They:gather resources to complete a fixed-life project on time, on budget, and within specifications.are the direct link to the customer and must manage the interface between customer expectations and what is feasible and reasonable. Tprovide direction, coordination, and integration to the project team, which is often made up of part-time participants loyal to their functional departments.are responsible for performancetrade-off between the time, cost, and performance requirements of the project.-In a small sense project managers perform the same functions as other managers . That is, they plan , motivate and control .However the what makes them unique is that they manage temporary , non repetitive activities to complete a fixed life project .-Unlike functional managers who takeover existing operations , project managers creates a project team where none existed before. They should decide what and how things should be done instead of running set processes. They must meet the challenges of each phase of the project life cycle, and even oversee the dissolution of their operations when the project is completed.Project managers must work with a diverse troupe of characters to complete projects. They are typically the direct link to the customers and must manage the tension between customer expectations and what is feasible and reasonable . Project managers provide direction , coordination , and integration of the project team , which is often made up of part time participants loyal to their functional departments . They often must work with a cadre of outsiders , vendors, suppliers , subcontractors…who do not necessarily share their project intelligence.While project management is not for the timid. Working on projects can be extremely rewarding experience . Project managers and team members can feel immense pride in their accomplishments, whether it is a new bridge, a new product , or needed service . Good project managers are always in demand. Every industry is looking for effective people who can get the right things done on time . Clearly project management is a challenging and exciting profession .
13Project ManagementManages:project scope, by defining the goals and work to be done, in sufficient detail to facilitate understanding and corrective action should the need arisethe human resources involved in the projectcommunication, to see that the appropriate parties are informed and have sufficient detail to keep the project on tracktime, by planning and meeting a schedulequality, so that the project results are satisfactorycosts, so that the project is performed at the minimum practical cost and within budget if possibleProject Management InstituteThe Project Management Institute describes the role of the Project Manager as above. We may have some alternative definition in mind, but it will probably include all or most of the above.Project management can be one of the most demanding of jobs. Projects are not always easy to manage, for all sorts of reasons, and this course describes some concepts and structures which will make the job a little easier.
14Determinants of Project Management Structure The seven factors that should influence the choice of project management structure as identified by Hobbs and Menard (1993).Size of projectStrategic importanceNovelty and need for innovationNeed for integration (number of departments involved)Environmental complexity (number of external interfaces)Budget and time constraints.Stability of resources requirements.While many organiations have simplistic project management approaches , job advertisement state that they are looking for ‘good project managers’ within the requirements for a range of marketing jobs. However marketing projects differ on the basis of ,The type of organiation (project oriented organiation or traditionally structured organiations)The size and complexity of the project (e.g strategic change vs . Operational projects)The scope of the project (e.g cross functional vs. one within a marketing department )The larger , more complex or risky a project the more important it is to have formal project management . Informal approaches to project management, especially in functionally organised organisations ,are viewed as a sure [path to disaster (brown ,2008). Accordingly , big projects increasingly use formal project management processes.
15Using the Existing Functional Organisation to administer Projects AdvantagesDisadvantagesNo ChangeFlexibilityIn depth ExpertiseEasy post project transitionLack of FocusPoor IntegrationSlowLack of OwnershipAdvantagesNo change – projects are completed within the basic functional structure of the parent organisation. There is no radical alteration in the design and operation of the parent organisation.Flexibility – There is maximum flexibility in the use of staff . Appropriate specialists in different function units can temporarily be assigned to work on the project and then return to their normal work. With a broad base of technical personnel available within each functional department , people can be switched among different projects with relative ease.In Depth Expertise – if the scope of the project is narrow and the proper functional unit is assigned primary responsibility, then in depth expertise can be brought to bear on the most crucial aspects of the project.Easy to project transition – Normal career paths within a functional division are maintained . While specialists can make significant contributions to projects , their functional fields is their professional home and the focus of their professional growth and advancement.
16Project Implementation – for assessment Developing the outline plan into an integrative project plan (Meredith and Mantell, 2000):Overview of scope and objectiveDetailed objectivesGeneral approach of the managerial and technical aspectsContractual requirementsSchedules for the worksResource issuesPersonnel requirementsMethods and standards of evaluationPotential problems or assumptionsContingency planning
17Project Termination and Evaluation Customer & stakeholder evaluationReviewing final status report with project teamRecording lessons learnedReviewing final report with sponsorCelebrating success
18Scope CreepWhen work is added to the project after the scope has been established and agreed.Avoiding scope creep:Education of the project team or sponsorEstablishing processes for changeProject contingency
19Scope Creep and Scope Change Changes that occur during projects can beMandatoryRequiredOptionalChanges that occur in marketing projectsThe target market segment is changing preferences, for example owing to the economic environment.A competitor has launched a new product.An external partner has withdrawn from the project.IT consultant Gopal kapur says that project managers should act like guide dog at times , and show ‘intelligent disobedience ‘It is tempting for project sponsors to ask for changes in the project scope . However , he comments that some of these changes can be half baked , and that accepting these can lead to extensive scope creep.He advices project managers to learn to say no to their sponsors. And to overrule its owner when appropriate.Scope creep often starts with small changes in the total project or in one aspect of the project . These could include changes to fulfillment processes, or extent of catering menus.etc . or Venuses. Often these will have ‘knock on’ effects such as cancellation charges, additional costs, delays in completion . Its commonly known that small incremental changes can lead to the projects failure.
20Avoiding Scope CreepScope creep is limited by setting appropriate systems in place. Common Approaches done avoiding scope creep include.Education of the project team or sponsor – explain the impact of change on the project success often focuses people on avoiding the ‘best’ solution (e.g. adding every feature to a new product , rather than those specified in the project plan or that meet the target segments requirements )Establishing Processes for changes such as a change request.Using formal processes for approving changes can stop regular and monitor changes. Or indeed more substantial ones. Change request processes can be initiated with supporting documentation, which are to be submitted in writing to the project manager.
21Knowledge ExplosionThe growth in new knowledge has increased the complexity of projects because projects encompass the latest advances , Building a road 30years ago was a some what simple process, today each area has increased in complexity . Project complexity has increased the need to integrate the divergent technologies. Project management has emerged as an important discipline for achieving this task.Corporate downsizingThe last decade has seen a dramatic restructuring of organisational life. Project Management is wiping out the middle management layer of organisations as a means of ensuring the work gets done. Companies also outsource significant segments of project work, and project managers have to manage not only their own people but also their counterparts in different organisations .Increased Customer FocusIncreased competition has placed a premium on customer satisfaction. Customers no longer simply settle for generic products and services,. They want customised products and services that cater to their specific needs. Project Management is critical both to development of customised products and services and to sustaining lucrative relationships with customers .In summary there are a variety of environmental forces interacting in today's business world that contribute to the increased demand for good project management across all industries and sectors.
22Agency WorkThe following factors should be avoided to avoid scope creep,Have a written agreement about what is involved in the project.Detail budgets in initial agreements and specify what is and what is not included in these.Detail the processes to be undertaken, with estimated budgets and timescales.Details reporting schedules and processes that are in place to manage focus and scope creep in advance.Detail the key contacts in between the organization, as failing to do so may result in several parties getting involved.
23Project Termination and Project Evaluation .A decision to terminate a project occurs when one or more of the following occur .A project is superseded , possibly by competitors actions or a new technical development .A project is killed by management before completion , often once its internal sponsor leaves or another initiative has greater priority of fit.Projects are deprived of funds and starve to death.Projects are integrated into the routine activities of an organisation .The decision to terminate a project is not the end of the project management process , which ends after the project evaluation . Evaluation determines how well the project met its objectives , including time , cost and quality , and how the needs of its stakeholders were met . Project evaluation helps develop learning to guide future projects.Small Projects have informal reviews, but larger projects need formal reviews. Although evaluation takes place throughout the project , an integrated evaluation at the end of the project reflects on reasons for success and failure that may be missed in operational management. Project audits are rigorous reviews, using structured approach and often undertaken by an independent party.
24Project Orientated Culture Project orientated culture (POC) has a management style that focuses on:Empowerment of employeesProcess orientationContinuous organisational change
25Project Oriented Organisation Sees ‘Management by projects’ as a central element of organizational strategy.Has a portfolio approach to managing projects .Has a project management culture and organisation , with use of project teams to solve business problems.Has central coordinating facilities structures to support projects but changing project structures for project duration.Flatter structures.More Fluid – project teams forming and disbanding with dynamics of the marketplace and business requirements .The type of Orgaanisational orientation to projects and the size, topic and uncertainty of the task also on the nature of the project team. The main project team organisations include:Project structures – Project teams are formed around specific projects . This is suited to large, long term projects, and is common in high tech companies , management consultancies or advertising agencies.Typically , project teams are put together at the start of the project and disbanded at the end of the project . Project teams encourage commitment from the team members . The team can be built quickly , so are ideal when speed is critical . However , new jobs may not be available for project team members on the completion of the project.
26Project Oriented Culture Culture - value and norms of the organisationProjected Oriented Culture promotes a Management style that focuses onEmpowerment of employeesProcess orientationContinuous organisational changeProject oriented culture should be led from the top of an organisationCross functional and contradictory style.Culture reflects the personality of the organiation !The decision for combining a discussion of project management structures and organisational structures in this chapter can be traced to a conversation one had with two project managers who work for a medium – sized information technology firm .The managers developing a new operating platform that would be critical to the future success of their company . When they tried to describe how this project was organised , One manager began to sketch out on a napkin a complicated structure involving 52 different teams , each with a project leader and a technical leader . In response to our further probing to understand how this system worked , the manager stopped short and pro claimed ‘The key to making this structure wok is the culture of our company ‘ This approach would never work at company Y , where I worked before , because of our culture here we are able to pull it off .What is Organisational cultureOrganisational culture refers to a system of shared norms , beliefs , values and assumptions which binds together people, thereby creating shared meanings. This system is manifested by customs and habits that amplify the values and beliefs of the organiation, for example, egalitarianism may be expressed in the informal dress worn at a high tech firm. Conversely , mandated uniforms at a department store reinforce respect for the hierarchy.Culture reflect the personality of the organisation and, similar to an individuals personality , can enable us to predict attitudes and behaviours of organisational members. Culture is also one of the defining aspects of an organiation that sets it apart form other organiations even in the same industry.
27IntroductionThis lesson gives you an introduction to the project management basicsHistorically project management was given limited attention in academic texts in marketing.However professional project management has gained recognition , and thus us now recognized as a factor impacting on marketing performance .This chapter will also address analysing , planning , implementation and control of projects management by the marketing function , or in which the marketing function is a participant.It detail the key issues undertaken in the three main stages on the project management life cycle.
28Agenda Foundations of Project Management. Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
29Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
30Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
31Learning OutcomesSection 3 : Assessing, managing and mitigating risks associated with marketing projects (weighting 25%)3.7 Critically Evaluate different Approaches to developing a culture of project planning within the marketing function and the organisation.3.8 Critically Evaluate soft and Hard projects in the context of marketing and consider the differences in terms of project implementation.
32Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
33Agenda Foundations of Project Management Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
34Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture Determinants of Project Management StructureMarketing Project Interface –Matrix structuresProject ScopeScope Creep and Scope Change
36Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture Determinants of Project Management Structure.Disadvantages of a project management Matrix in organiation .Project ScopeScope Creep and Scope Change
37Agenda Project Orientation Project Oriented Culture Determinants of Project Management Structure.Disadvantages of a project management Matrix in organiation .Project ScopeScope Creep and Scope Change
38Agenda Foundations of Project Management. Project Life Cycle Organisational Context For projectsTypes Of ProjectsProject InitiationProject ImplementationProject Termination and Project Evaluation
42Foundations of Project Management Project Management is no longer a special need management . It is rapidly becoming a standard way of doing business. An increasing percentage of the typical firms effort is being devoted to projectsSeveral reasons why this is the case are as followsCompression of the Product Life cycleGlobal CompetitionKnowledge ExplosionCorporate DownsizingIncreased customer FocusSmall Projects Represent big ProblemsCompression of the product Life CycleOne of the most significant driving forces behind the demand for project management is the shortening of the product life cycle. For example today in high tech industries the product life cycle is averaging 1-3 years. Only 30 years ago , life cycles of years were not common. Speed that comes with implementing project management therefore becomes a competitive advantage . More and more organisations are relying on cross functional project teams to get new products and services to the market as quickly as possible.Global CompetitionToday's open markets demand not only cheaper products and services but also better products and services. This has led to the emergence of the quality movement across the world. Project management with its triple focus on time cost and performance is proving to be efficient , flexible way to get things done.
43Effective Project Management The success or failure of a project is based on whether targets are achieved on:Required performance (quality)Cost (money invested)Due date (delivery)If you fail to plan – you plan to fail !!
44Organisational Contexts for Projects Project management is the enabler through which strategic change is happensProjects can be set at various levels:CorporateDepartmentalProductMarketProject Portfolio Management enables organisations to select, resource and implement projects
45Project Initiation The key elements of Project Initiation are Project SelectionThe Project Manager Role.The project OrganizationInitial Project PlanningEvaluation of potential ProjectsDeciding which and how many to supportImplies that there are a number of projects under consideration.These are judged against Objective(quantitative) an subjective (Qualitative)criteria.Every project begins with a proposal, but not every proposal can or should become a project. In a world of limited resources, choices have to be made. Not every project has viability. And, amongst those that do, limited resources (people, time, money and equipment), must be applied judiciously. The goal of the project selection process is to analyze project viability, and to approve or reject project proposals based on established criteria, following a set of structured steps and checkpoints.An organisation may decide to go ahead on a project for the launch of a new product because ofA window of opportunity that existsPast experienceThe potential profit andThe degree of riskOne manager or a small team of people may make selection decisions. This could be discussed and debated . With varying levels supporting information.
46The Initial Project Plan The project scope and objectives .The proposed start and finish dates .The deliverables (i.e. desired outcomes or results) should also be specified.The project management methodologies to be used .Any constrains or limiting factors, (time , money , people or equipment, weather conditions , cultural problems)Any potential risks in the project and detail how these are going to be managed and monitored.The overall budget for the project.Outline plans detailing the required tasks , likely budgets and schedules are prepared by the key participants, scrutinized by the project manager and the project team and integrated into a composite project plan. Trade offs between time and resource issues may be required to integrate these different plans. This integrative approach is essential for project buy-in from team members and use their expertise. The project manager normally is responsible for coordinating the composite plan and gaining its approval . Marketing projects tend to be less detailed that some other technical disciplines at this point because of the types of projects tasks, most detailing planning takes place in the project implementation stage in marketing.
47Project Implementation Developing the outline plan into an integrative approachOverview of the objectives and scopeDetailed objectivesThe general approach of the managerial and technical aspects off the project.Contractual requirements.Schedules for the work .Resource Issues.Personal requirements .Methods and standards of evaluation .Potential problems and assumptionsContingency planningThe majority of the work in projects in place within the project process however , this section is shorter than that for implementation.A summary checklist is presented below . Does the project plan trialWhat the project and the project management will achieve?How will the project be managed ?(methodology)When will the project be complete?Who will do what tasks?When will each task be done ?What resources are required ?How mush money is required and available ?What risks exist and how will these be managed?How will the project be evaluated?What contingency planning is in place ?Identifying these components disguises the complexity of project planning and implementation . It is often said that the negotiation begins after the project scope is agreed. From then on, project management is about the ‘soft ‘ factors of managing people, reconciling the projects interests with those of other participants.
48Project Orientation Project orientated organisations (POO): Sees ‘management by projects’ as central to strategyPortfolio approach to managing projectsHas a project management culture and organisationHas infrastructure to support projects
49Project ScopeThe work involved in achieving the outcome of the project and defining what should and should not be included.The project scoping document should include:Project NameDate and version of the documentBackgroundScope overviewObjectivesOutcomes and deliverablesParticipantsConstraints, RisksBudgets, schedulesEvaluationKey roles and participantsSponsorProject managerProject teams and rolesExpertsSignature lines
50Project Oriented Structure Board Of DirectorsProject Portfolio GroupProject AProject BProject CBusiness OperationsProductionSalesExpert PoolCentral ServicesCorporate Financial CentreCorporate Admin CentreProject Management Support CentreA project management structure system provides a framework for launching and implementing project activities within a parent organisation. A good system appropriately balances the need of both the parent organisation and the project by defining the interface between the project and parent organisation in terms of authority, allocation or resources and eventual integration of project outcomes into mainstream operations.Many business organisations have struggled with creating a system for organizing projects while managing ongoing operations . One of the major reasons for this struggled with creating a system for organizing projects while managing ongoing operations . One of the major reasons for this struggles that projects contradict fundamental designs principles associated with traditional organisations .Source: Official CIM course book – PMIM, 2009
51Marketing Project Interface –Matrix structures Although strengths of the matrix structure such as practicality, efficiency, flexibility are considerable , unfortunately so are the weaknesses.The dysfunctional conflictInfightingStressfulSlowA leading consultant states ‘ not only is there a tension between the functional objectives, in many instances they are in fact 180 degrees opposite ‘Dysfunctional Conflict -the matrix approach is predicated on tension between organisational managers and project managers who bring critical expertise and perceptiveness to the project . Such tension is viewed as a necessary mechanism for achieving an appropriate balance between complex technical issues. And unique project requirements. While the intent is noble the effect is sometimes analogues to opening Pandora's box . Legitimate conflict can spill over to a personal level , resulting from conflicting agendas and accountabilities, Worthy discussions can degenerate into heated arguments that engender animosity among the managers involved .
52Types of ProjectsProject Dimensions identified by Brown 2000 are as follows.Budget SizeTime SpanHuman Resources InvolvedComplexity of tasksCoordination requiredObeng’s (1994) Four distinct project Environments.Paint By NumbersMaking a MovieThe QuestThe Foggy ProjectPaint by numbers – Projects are low in process and outcome , uncertainty , e.g. . Installing point of sale (POS) displays in retailers outlets. The outcome is the same the installation of the POS display . The process (the way in which it is implemented) would be similar . However, differences, such as environmental factors.(e.g. existing store design) time issues (e.g. minimising staff and customer inconvenience ) and cost issues (e.g. adaptations for a given situation) mean this is not a completely routing process. Often , organisations have process protocols or manuals detailing core processes. The types of projects are considered ‘hard’ projects , because of their fixed processes and clarity of outcome.Making a movie – Projects are low in Process uncertainty and high in outcome uncertainty. Producers and directors know what is involved in making the movie , although the topic, location and people vary. however predicting the success of the movie is difficult. Projects such as new product or advertising campaign launches often have a similar pattern of high costs and a high risk of failure. These projects need clear , precise definition of outcomes and stakeholders expectations must be managed throughout the process. Timescales and budgets must be tightly controlled.The Quest – projects are high in process uncertainty and low in outcome uncertainty / These projects have focused outcomes , but it is not clear how or when this will be achieved. Some exploratory development projects , such as aids cures for pharmaceutical companies are in this category. Progress and resources reviews throughout these projects are essential to keep within cost. Further focus is essential to keep the project on target.
53Marketing ProjectsManaging projects has always been a central part of Marketing ActivityProject Work in marketing includes planning events , marketing research and campaigns, for example.Further Marketers' are involved in strategic , cross functional projects , such as new product or market development, or implementation change within the organsiation .The 3 core stages of a project areBeginningImplementationTerminationBeginning - a project begins or is initiated Once its planning startsImplementation - A Project takes place during the implementation stage . This is simplistic . To many people including the consumers or users, this is a time of more high visibility , but a very significant part of time can be spent in the planning and design processTermination – Once the management process is complete (including the shake down and project review) The project no longer exists and is terminatedProject management‘s contribution is now widely recognized as important within the functional areas of organisations . Marketing initiatives , activities and campaigns often fit the above definitions of projects. Professional project management gives attention to the various players , tasks ad outcomes for their success.The consideration of project management will first address the types of marketing projects (activities) , how they are undertaken (people and process) and why they do it (strategic goals , competitive position and customers satisfaction) success results from their effective coordination and integration.
54Project Scoping Document Project Name (and other project references)Date and Version of scoping documentBackground (can comprise the following)Project scope and review.Project objectivesProject outcomes and deliverablesParticipants , including departments and organisations.Key interfacesAssumptionsConstrainsRisksBudgetsSchedules(due date)Key Roles and responsibilitiesExecutive SponsorProject ManagerProject teams and rolesSignature lines – sign of charter’The scoping document is subdividing the major project deliverables in to smaller more manageable components. This is called a work breakdown structure.Project scoping document details the project scope statement and the project approach .Varies in length , depending on the scale and outcomes sought.This document has to be signed off by the managers as agreed to show that they are committing to this . This is called scope verification.This is then communicated to all parties.Varies form business to business.
55Project Life Cycle + Tuckman and Jensen (1977) Forming Storming Norming Adjourning Another way of illustrating the unique nature of project work is in terms of the project life cycle . Some project managers find it useful to use the project life cycle as the cornerstone for managing projects . The life cycle recognizes that the project life cycle has a limited life span, and that there are predictable changes in the level of effort and focus over the life of the project. There are a number of different life cycle models in the project management literature. Many are unique to a specific industry or type of project. For example a new software development project may consists of five phases: definition , design , code , integration /test, and maintenance . A generic cycle is depicted in figure above!The project life cycle typically passes' sequentially through four stages, defining , planning ,executing, and delivering. The starting point begins the moment the project is given the go ahead. Project effort starts slowly, builds to a peak, and then declines to delivery of the project to the customers.Defining Stage – Specifications of the project are defined, project objectives are established , teams are formed, major responsibilities are assigned.Planning Stage - The level of effort increases , and plans are developed to determine what project will entail, when it will be scheduled , who it will benefit , what quality level should be maintained , what the budget will be.Executing Stage – a major portion of the project work takes place . Both physical and mental. The physical product is produced a bridge , a report, a software pregame) Time , cost and specification measures are used for control.Delivering stage – Includes the two activities , delivering the project to the customer and redeploying project resources.Source: