2The Biblical Foundation of the true Church of Christ 4: But to each one of us grace has been given as Christ apportioned it. 8 This is why it says: "When he ascended on high, he led captives in his train and gave gifts to men." 9 (What does "he ascended" mean except that he also descended to the lower, earthly regions? 10 He who descended is the very one who ascended higher than all the heavens, in order to fill the whole universe.) 11 It was he who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors /teachers, 12 to prepare God's people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up 13 until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ.
3The Biblical foundation requires ApostlesProphetsEvangelistsPastors/teachers
4When the Apostles DiedAfter the supernatural gifts given to only Apostles and then to prophets by Apostles, There were only 3 functioning roles in the Church of Christ.They are: Elder (Pastor/Bishop/Overseer), Evangelist, and Deacon.
5Acts 20:27-31For I have not hesitated to proclaim to you the whole will of God. 28 Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. Be shepherds of the church of God, which he bought with his own blood. 29 I know that after I leave, savage wolves will come in among you and will not spare the flock. 30 Even from your own number men will arise and distort the truth in order to draw away disciples after them. 31 So be on your guard! Remember that for three years I never stopped warning each of you night and day with tears.
6Biblical Leadership– Elder (organization) The elders were also known as:Bishops (Grk., episkopos, overseer) - for their duty was to oversee the local congregation - cf. Ac 20:17; 1Pe 5:1-2Pastors (Grk. poimen, shepherd) - for their task was to shepherd and feed the flock of God - cf. Ac 20:17,28; 1 Pe 5:1-2Elder, bishop, and pastor were not three distinct offices, but different ways to describe the men and their work -
7Biblical Leadership- Elder (Organization) A congregation that was completely and scripturally organized...Contained a plurality of qualified men serving as bishops - e.g., Php 1:1They were assisted by qualified men serving as deacons - ibid.Their authority was limited to their local congregationThey were to take heed to the flock of God "among which" the Holy Spirit made them overseers - Ac 20:28They were to shepherd the flock "among them", serving as overseers - 1Pe 5:1-2The elders of one congregation did not have oversight of Christians in other churches
8Biblical Leadership – Elder (Service) Elders were 'shepherds' (pastors) and 'overseers' (bishops) of the congregationTaking heed to themselves - Ac 20:28aTaking heed to the flock of God among them - Ac 20:28b; 1 Pe 5:2Leading by example - 1Pe 5:3Watching out for trouble - Ac 20:29-31Depending upon God and His Word - Ac 20:32
9Biblical Leadership – Elder (Service) Elders were to be 'teachers' and 'rulers' of the flockAble to teach - 1Ti 3:2Able to rule others well - 1Ti 3:4-5; 5:17Holding fast what they were taught - Tit 1:9Able to use the word to exhort and convict - Tit 1:9
10Biblical Leadership - Evangelists Means “to bring good news.”Instruct brethren of their responsibilities – 1 Timothy 4:6Reprove those that Sin – 1 Timothy 5:19Keep the Commandments of God no matter what – 1 Timothy 5:21To Preach the Word – 2 Timothy 4:1-2Be preparedCorrectRebukeEncourage
11Biblical Leadership - Evangelists To set in order things neededEncouraging the appointment of elders - Tit 1:5Training teachers, equipping the saints for ministry - 2 Ti 2:2; cf. Ep 4:11-12Teaching against false teachers and false doctrine - 1Ti 1: 3-4; Tit 1:10-11,13To set an example for the brethrenIn word, in conduct, in love, in faith, in purity - 1 Ti 4:12A pattern of good works, in doctrine showing integrity, reverence - Tit 2:7
12Biblical Leadership - Evangelists To be devoted to the Word of GodGiving attention to reading, exhortation and teaching - 1 Ti 4:13Being careful to handle the Word of God properly - 2Ti 2:15In contrast to the work of elders (i.e., pastors, bishops)...Elders are to take heed to themselves and to the flock of God - Ac 20:28Evangelists are to take heed to themselves and to the doctrine (teaching) - 1Ti 4:16
13Church Government after the Apostles Clement, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, written in late in the first century, always speaks of the pastorate in the plural as “bishops,” serving along with the deacons. (Clement 1 Corinthians Letter Chapter 42)Half a decade later, in the early second century, Polycarp still is referring to a plurality of elders as “presbyters.” (Polycarp Epistle to the Philippians Chapter 5, 6)The Patriarchs of the church provide us a good mapping of the various changes that began to take place shortly after the Apostolic age of the church. Clement, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, written in late in the first century, always speaks of the pastorate in the plural as “bishops,” serving along with the deacons. Half a decade later, in the early second century, Polycarp still is referring to a plurality of elders as “presbyters.”Clement 1 Corinthians Letter Chapter 42Polycarp Epistle to the Philippians Chapter 5, 6
14What does Catholic mean? Catholic means universal or throughout the whole world
15Ignatius, Epistle to the Syrmneans Chapter 9 “Revere God and the bishop… Honour thou God indeed, as the Author and Lord of all things, but the bishop as the high-priest, who bears the image of God-of God. Inasmuch as he is a ruler, and of Christ, in his capacity of a priest.…[there is no] one in the Church greater than the bishop, who ministers as a priest to God for the salvation of the whole world.…He who presumes to do anything without the bishop, thus both destroying the [Church's] unity, and throwing its order into confusion? For the priesthood is the very highest point of all good things among men… Let the laity be subject to the deacons; the deacons to the presbyters; the presbyters to the bishop; the bishop to Christ, even as He is to the Father.”
16The Epistle of Ignatius Who was Ignatius?Epistle of Maria to Ignatius - Maria, a proselyte of Jesus Christ, to Ignatius, most blessed bishop of the apostolic Church that is at Antioch, beloved in God the Father, and Jesus:
17Ignatius“…so neither do ye anything without the bishop and presbyters.” Just in case one is left wondering what Ignatius means by such a distinction, he explains in another letter, “even as the bishop is the representative of the Father of all things, and the presbyters are the Sanhedrin of God.” (Ignatius, Letter to the Magnesians) VII (Ignatius, Epistle to the Tallians) IIIHowever, Ignatius, Polycarp’s contemporary and fellow disciple of John, predominantly writes of a single bishop. Most notably is the mention in one of his letters, a distinction between the elders and the bishop:
18The Catholic ChurchThe combination “the Catholic Church” is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110 A.D. The words run: “Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church.” (The Authority of the Bishop is the same as the Authority of Christ)
19Ignatius of AntiochChapter 2 - Be Subject to the Bishop - For, since ye are subject to the bishop as to Jesus Christ, ye appear to me to live not after the manner of men, but according to Jesus Christ, who died for us, in order, by believing in His death, ye may escape from death. It is therefore necessary that, as ye indeed do, so without the bishop ye should do nothing, but should also be subject to the presbytery, as to the apostle of Jesus Christ, who is our hope, in whom, if we live, we shall [at last] be found.
20Ignatius of AntiochChapter 7 - The Same Continued - And do ye reverence your bishop as Christ Himself, according as the blessed apostles have enjoined you. He that is within the altar is pure, wherefore also he is obedient to the bishop and presbyters: but he that is without is one that does anything apart from the bishop, the presbyters, and the deacons. Such a person is defiled in his conscience, and is worse than an infidel. For what is the bishop but one who beyond all others possesses all power and authority, so far as it is possible for a man to possess it, who according to his ability has been made an imitator of the Christ Of God? And what is the presbytery but a sacred assembly, the counselors and assessors of the bishop?
21Ignatius of AntiochChapter 13 – Conclusion - Fare ye well in Jesus Christ, while ye continue subject to the bishop, as to the command [of God]
22Ignatius Epistle to Magnesians Chapter 6 – Preserve Harmony Chapter 6 - Preserve HarmonySince therefore I have, in the persons before mentioned, beheld the whole multitude of you in faith and love, I exhort you to study to do all things with a divine harmony, while your bishop presides in the place of God, and your presbyters in the place of the assembly of the apostles, along with your deacons, who are most dear to me, and are entrusted with the ministry of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father before the beginning of time, and in the end was revealed. Do ye all then, imitating the same divine conduct, pay respect to one another, and let no one look upon his neighbor after the flesh, but do ye continually love each other in Jesus Christ. Let nothing exist among you that may divide you ; but be ye united with your bishop, and those that preside over you, as a type and evidence of your immortality.
23Ireneaus – Bishop of Lyons, France. Against Heresies 182-188A.D. Chapter 4 – The Truth is to be found nowhere but in the Catholic Church; section 1- Suppose there arise a dispute relative to some important question among us, should we not have recourse to the most ancient Churches with which the apostles held constant intercourse, and learn from them what is certain and clear in regard to the present question? For how should it be if the apostles themselves had not left us writings? Would it not be necessary, [in that case,] to follow the course of the tradition which they handed down to those to whom they did commit the Churches?
24Some Questions -Read Ephesians 4:1-13… What is missing in the writings of Ireneaus and Ignatius?What Commandment or tradition from God necessary for Salvation or to be a Christian should we follow that is not written down in the bible?Eph 4: As a prisoner for the Lord, then, I urge you to live a life worthy of the calling you have received. 2 Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love. 3 Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace. 4 There is one body and one Spirit— just as you were called to one hope when you were called— 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism; 6 one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. 7 But to each one of us grace has been given as Christ apportioned it. 8 This is why it says: "When he ascended on high, he led captives in his train and gave gifts to men." 9 (What does "he ascended" mean except that he also descended to the lower, earthly regions? 10 He who descended is the very one who ascended higher than all the heavens, in order to fill the whole universe.) 11 It was he who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors and teachers, 12 to prepare God's people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up 13 until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ.Even a brief reading of the New Testament will reveal that the Catholic Church does not have its origin in the teachings of Jesus, or His apostles. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the papacy, worship / adoration of Mary, petitioning saints in Heaven for their prayers, apostolic succession, the ordinances of the church functioning as sacraments, infant baptism, confession of sin to a priest, purgatory, indulgences, or the equal authority of church tradition and Scripture. So, if the origin of the Catholic Church is not in the teachings of Jesus and His apostles, as recorded in the New Testament, what is the true origin of the Catholic Church?
25Christianity was terribly persecuted in the first century Christianity was terribly persecuted in the first century. It was not until Constantine “legalized” Christianity at the Edict of Milan in A.D. 313.Later, in A.D. 325, Constantine called together the Council of Nicea, in an attempt to unify Christianity. Constantine envisioned Christianity as a religion that could unite the Roman Empire, which at that time was beginning to fragment and divide.Just as Constantine refused to fully embrace the Christian faith, but continued many of his pagan beliefs and practices, so the Christian church that Constantine promoted was a mixture of true Christianity and Roman paganism.
26Pagan Influences into Christianity – Isis the Queen of heaven The Cult of Isis, an Egyptian mother-goddess religion, was absorbed into Christianity by replacing Isis with Mary. Many of the titles that were used for Isis, such as “Queen of Heaven,” “Mother of God,” and “theotokos” (God-bearer) were attached to Mary. Mary was given an exalted role in the Christian faith, far beyond what the Bible ascribes to her, in order to attract Isis worshippers to a faith they would not otherwise embrace. Many temples to Isis were, in fact, converted into temples dedicated to Mary.
27MithraismOne of the key features of Mithraism was a sacrificial meal, which involved eating the flesh and drinking the blood of a bull. Mithras, the god of Mithraism, was “present” in the flesh and blood of the bull, and when consumed, granted salvation to those who partook of the sacrificial meal (theophagy, the eating of one’s god). Mithraism also had seven “sacraments,” making the similarities between Mithraism and Roman Catholicism too many to ignore. Constantine and his successors found an easy substitute for the sacrificial meal of Mithraism in concept of the Lord’s Supper / Christian Communion. Sadly, some early Christians had already begun to attach mysticism to the Lord’s Supper, rejecting the Biblical concept of a simple and worshipful remembrance of Christ’s death and shed blood. The Romanization of the Lord’s Supper made the transition to a sacrificial consumption of Jesus Christ, now known as the Catholic Mass / Eucharist, complete.
28HenotheistsMost Roman emperors (and citizens) were henotheists. A henotheist is one who believes in the existence of many gods, but focuses primary on one particular god, or considers one particular god supreme over the other gods. For example, the Roman god Jupiter was supreme over the Roman pantheon of gods. Roman sailors were often worshippers of Neptune, the god of the oceans. When the Catholic Church absorbed Roman paganism, it simply replaced the pantheon of gods with the saints. Just as the Roman pantheon of gods had a god of love, a god of peace, a god of war, a god of strength, a god of wisdom, etc., so the Catholic Church has a saint who is “in charge” over each of these, and many other categories. Just as many Roman cities had a god specific to the city, so the Catholic Church provided “patron saints” for the cities.
29Emperor ConstantineBackground: Later, Emperor Constantine made Christianity of Power. These Bishops became powerful and different bishops fought to claim power and authority as the ruling bishop of their territory. Finally, it got to the point when decisions at Christian councils were not binding until approved by the Emperor. As the Church grew and different churches became more powerful. Soon enough, the Church with the most power became the leading clergyman or leading bishop in that certain area. Finally, the difference between Elder and Bishop became apparent. Remember, A Bishop is the same as a pastor, elder, or overseer. But now the bishop of the most influential church in a given district began to wield authority over the other bishops in that district, and in that way a new office was created. In AD 341, at the dedication Council of Antioch, it was declared that in each province the bishop of the most important city was to be accorded special authority. But here is the key, each powerful Bishop was under the rank and control of the Emperor of Rome. Then the control split into four different divisions: Constantinople, Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria. Finally, Rome became the centralized Power and the most prominent. Roman Catholics assert that Peter was the first Pope, but historical facts disagree with that teaching. Because of different Power claims, historicists are divided between who was the first Catholic Pope – Leo I or Gregory the Great.
30Emperor Justinian to Bishop John II (533 A.D.) “Therefore, We have exerted Ourselves to unite all the priests of the East and subject them to the See of Your Holiness, and hence the questions which have at present arisen, although they are manifest and free from doubt, and according to the doctrines of your Apostolic See, are constantly firmly observed and preached by all priests, We have still considered it necessary that they should be brought to the attention of Your Holiness. For we do not suffer anything which has reference to the state of the Church, even though what causes difficulty may be clear and free from doubt, to be discussed without being brought to the notice of Your Holiness, because you are the head of all the Holy Churches, for We shall exert Ourselves in every way (as has already been stated), to increase the honor and authority of your See.”In the year AD 533, state emperor Justinian made an imperial degree in a letter he sent to the Roman bishop John II:“Therefore, We have exerted Ourselves to unite all the priests of the East and subject them to the See of Your Holiness, and hence the questions which have at present arisen, although they are manifest and free from doubt, and according to the doctrines of your Apostolic See, are constantly firmly observed and preached by all priests, We have still considered it necessary that they should be brought to the attention of Your Holiness. For we do not suffer anything which has reference to the state of the Church, even though what causes difficulty may be clear and free from doubt, to be discussed without being brought to the notice of Your Holiness, because you are the head of all the Holy Churches, for We shall exert Ourselves in every way (as has already been stated), to increase the honor and authority of your See.”(ed. Scott, 1932) Book 1:1:4