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Chapter 29: Metamorphism of Calcareous and Ultramafic Rocks Calcareous rocks are predominantly carbonate rocks, usually limestone or dolostone Typically.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29: Metamorphism of Calcareous and Ultramafic Rocks Calcareous rocks are predominantly carbonate rocks, usually limestone or dolostone Typically."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 29: Metamorphism of Calcareous and Ultramafic Rocks Calcareous rocks are predominantly carbonate rocks, usually limestone or dolostone Typically form in a stable continental shelf environment along a passive margin They may be pure carbonate, or they may contain variable amounts of other precipitates (such as chert or hematite) or detrital material (sand, clays, etc.) The spectrum from pure carbonate to purely clastic rocks is essentially complete Become metamorphosed when the passive margin becomes part of an orogenic belt

2 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Metacarbonates are metamorphosed calcareous rocks in which the carbonate component is predominant Marbles are nearly pure carbonate Calc-silicate rocks: carbonate is subordinate and may be composed of Ca-Mg-Fe-Al silicate minerals, such as diopside, grossular, Ca-amphiboles, vesuvianite, epidote, wollastonite, etc. Skarn: calc-silicate rock formed by metasomatism between carbonates and silicate-rich rocks or fluids  Contact between sedimentary layers  Contact between carbonate country rocks and a hot, hydrous, silicate intrusion, such as a granite

3 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Figure Chemographics in the CaO-MgO-SiO 2 -CO 2 -H 2 O system, projected from CO 2 and H 2 O. The green shaded areas represent the common composition range of limestones and dolostones. Due to the solvus between calcite and dolomite, both minerals can coexist in carbonate rocks. The dark red left half of the triangle is the area of interest for metacarbonates. Carbonated ultramafics occupy the right half of the triangle. Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

4 Figure A portion of the Alta aureole in Little Cottonwood Canyon, SE of Salt Lake City, UT, where talc, tremolite, forsterite, and periclase isograds were mapped in metacarbonates by Moore and Kerrick (1976) Amer. J. Sci., 276, Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

5 Figure T-X CO2 phase diagram for siliceous carbonates at P = 0.1 GPa. Calculated using the program TWQ of Berman (1988, 1990, 1991). The green area is the field in which tremolite is stable, the reddish area is the field in which dolomite + diopside is stable, and the blue area is for dolomite + talc. Compatibility diagrams, similar to those in Figure 29.4, show the mineral assemblages in each field. Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

6 Figure The sequence of CaO-MgO-SiO 2 -H 2 O-CO 2 compatibility diagrams for metamorphosed siliceous carbonates (shaded half) along an open-system (vertical) path up metamorphic grade for X CO2 < 0.63 in Figure The dashed isograd requires that tremolite is more abundant than either calcite or quartz, which is rare in siliceous carbonates. After Spear (1993) Metamorphic Phase Equilibria and Pressure-Temperature-Time Paths. Mineral. Soc. Amer. Monograph 1.

7 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Figure Metamorphic zones developed in regionally metamorphosed dolomitic rocks of the Lepontine Alps, along the Swiss-Italian border. After Trommsdorff (1966) Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., 46, and (1972) Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., 52, Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

8 Figure T-X CO2 phase diagram for siliceous carbonates at P = 0.5 GPa, calculated using the program TWQ of Berman (1988, 1990, 1991). The light-shaded area is the field in which tremolite is stable, the darker shaded areas are the fields in which talc or diopside are stable. Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

9 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Figure 29.7a. T-X H2O diagram illustrating the shapes and relative locations of the reactions for the isograds mapped in the Whetstone Lake area. Reactions 1, 2, and 4 are dehydration reactions and reaction 3 is the Ky = Sil transition, all in metapelites. Reaction 5 is a dehydration-decarbonation in calcic rocks with a temperature maximum at X H2O = After Carmichael (1970) J. Petrol., 11,

10 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Figure 29.7b. Isograds mapped in the field. Note that isograd (5) crosses the others in a manner similar to that in part (a). This behavior is attributed to infiltration of H 2 O from the syn-metamorphic pluton in the area, creating a gradient in X H2O across the area at a high angle to the regional temperature gradient, equivalent to the T-X diagram. After Carmichael (1970) J. Petrol., 11,

11 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Figure 29.7a. T-X H2O diagram illustrating the shapes and relative locations of the reactions for the isograds mapped in the Whetstone Lake area. Reactions 1, 2, and 4 are dehydration reactions and reaction 3 is the Ky = Sil transition, all in metapelites. Reaction 5 is a dehydration-decarbonation in calcic rocks with a temperature maximum at X H2O = b. Isograds mapped in the field. Note that isograd (5) crosses the others in a manner similar to that in part (a). This behavior is attributed to infiltration of H 2 O from the syn- metamorphic pluton in the area, creating a gradient in X H2O across the area at a high angle to the regional temperature gradient, equivalent to the T-X diagram. After Carmichael (1970) J. Petrol., 11,

12 Figure Schematic T-X CO2 diagram illustrating the characteristic shape of typical dehydration reactions, such as those that generate orthopyroxene from hornblende or biotite. Notice that the amphibolite facies to granulite facies can be accomplished by either an increase in temperature or infiltration of CO 2 at a constant temperature. Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

13 Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks Figure Map of isograds in the pelitic Waterville and calcareous Vassalboro formations of south-central Maine. After Ferry (1983) J. Petrol., 24,

14 Metamorphism of Ultramafic Rocks Figure Petrogenetic grid for water-saturated ultramafic rocks in the system CaO-MgO-SiO 2 -H 2 O produced using the TWQ software of Berman (1988, 1990, 1991). The green arrow represents a typical medium P/T metamorphic field gradient. The dark blue area represents the stability range of anthophyllite in “normal” ultramafic compositions. The lighter blue area represents the overall stability range of anthophyllite, including more siliceous ultramafic rocks. After Spear (1993) Metamorphic Phase Equilibria and Pressure- Temperature-Time Paths. Mineral. Soc. Amer. Monograph 1.

15 Metamorphism of Ultramafic Rocks Alpine peridotites: uppermost mantle = base of slivers of oceanic lithosphere that become incorporated into the continental crust along subduction zones Dismembered portions of ophiolites: pieces of oceanic crust and mantle that either separate from the subducting slab and become incorporated into the accretionary wedge of the subduction zone, or (more commonly) get trapped between two terranes during an accretion event Strings of ultramafic bodies in orogens follow major fault zones separating contrasting rock bodies. Interpreted as remnants of oceanic crust + mantle that once separated collisional terranes, and thus mark the suture zone Association of blueschist facies rocks with the ultramafics further supports a subduction-related origin

16 The suture zone is marked by the mélange and particularly by the occurrence of ultramafic rocks composing the mantle portion of the ocean lithosphere

17 Metamorphism of Ultramafic Rocks Chain of ultramafic bodies in Vermont indicating a suture zone of the Ordovician Taconic Orogeny. The ultramafics mark a closed oceanic basin between North American rocks and an accreted island arc terrane. From Chidester, (1968) in Zen et al., Studies in Appalachian Geology, Northern and Maritime. Wiley Interscience.

18 Metamorphism of Ultramafic Rocks Figure Chemographics of ultramafic rocks in the CMS-H system (projected from H 2 O) showing the stable mineral assemblages (in the presence of excess H 2 O) and changes in topology due to reactions along the medium P/T metamorphic field gradient illustrated in Figure Star represents composition of a typical mantle lherzolite. Dashed reactions represent those that do not occur in typical ultramafic rocks, but rather in unusually SiO 2 - rich or SiO 2 -poor varieties. After Spear (1993) Metamorphic Phase Equilibria and Pressure-Temperature-Time Paths. Mineral. Soc. Amer. Monogr. 1.

19 Metamorphism of Ultramafic Rocks Figure Simplified T-X CO2 phase diagram for the system CaO-MgO-SiO 2 -H 2 O-CO 2 at 0.5 GPa, calculated using the program TWQ of Berman (1988, 1990, 1991). The diagram focuses on ultramafic-carbonate rocks and omits reactions involving quartz. The shaded fields represent the stability ranges of serpentine-antigorite (purple), anthophyllite in typical low-SiO 2 ultramafics (blue), and tremolite in low- SiO 2 ultramafics (green). Winter (2010) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.


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