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Bridges and Lanterns EARLI 2009 Symposium Concepts of Doctoral Supervision Dr Anne Lee, University of Surrey

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1 Bridges and Lanterns EARLI 2009 Symposium Concepts of Doctoral Supervision Dr Anne Lee, University of Surrey

2 Some alternative models of supervision Apprenticeship (Master-Slave model – Grant 2005, 2008) Support and Structure matrix (Gatfield 2005) Technical-Rational (Acker in Wisker 2005, Kiley unpub) Communities of Practice (Lave & Wenger 1991) Other key studies: Biographical/sociological (Delamont et al 2000, Li & Seale (2008) Manuals (Taylor & Beasley 2005; Wisker 2005)

3 Gatfield (2005) p 317

4 Is there a continuum? Project Management (Taylor & Beasley, Wisker, Acker, Kiley) (Gatfield) (Delamont, Li & Seale, Lave & Wenger, Grant) Identity

5 A framework for concepts of research supervision FunctionalEnculturationCritical Thinking EmancipationRelationship Development Supervisors Activity Rational progression through tasks Negotiated order Gatekeeping Master to apprentice Evaluation Challenge Mentoring, supporting constructivism Supervising by experience, developing a relationship Supervisor’s knowledge & skills Directing, Project management Diagnosis of deficiencies, coaching Argument, analysis Facilitation, Reflection Managing conflict Emotional intelligence Possible student reaction Organised Obedience Negotiation skills Role modelling, Apprentice- ship Constant inquiry, fight or flight Personal growth, reframing A good team member. Emotional intelligence

6 Possible significance Supervisor development Engendering creativity Applying the framework further to teaching and learning Identifying student needs?

7 Supervisor development 1 Student asks for help with getting a job Design a project which can be sold Make them go through job ads Use your network, phone a friend, Create a post for them Get them to research and analyse different possible career paths, Help them to identify their own resources Identify moments of inspiration which may indicate direction Create platforms for socialising, Appropriate self disclosure

8 Supervisor Development 2 Student is having problems with keeping up with agreed workload Set up a new appointment Specify demands and sanctions, Maybe make task smaller and shorter deadline Explain importance of deadlines and set up a study group with other students Examine 2 pages that have been handed in Listen to student’s reasons and respect them, Let them fail Be hurt, Meet informally, find out what is going on.

9 Examples of writing tasks in the framework FunctionalEnculturationCritical Thinking EmancipationRelationship Development Sample tasks Write 200 words a day. Submit a project plan like this… Focus your writing to summarise this argument on one page. Send work in advance of meetings Write in the style of these outstanding examples in our discipline. Rewrite this section showing how you have used supervisor’s feedback. Patchwriting. Explain where you are coming from methodologic ally. Justify your arguments Write a reflection in the first person about your progress so far. Do freewriting Decide on length and scope of your next writing task. Work in pairs to evaluate writing achievements and plan future goals. Shall we write a paper together? Possible student reaction Organised Completes tasks. Negotiation skills Understands and can model epistemology of discipline Justifies frame of reference and arguments Identifies own strengths and weaknesses. Becomes autonomous. Able to analyse and give feedback on own and others’ skills

10 Engendering creativity 1 I think they find the direction difficult, that I have been so directive. I think they thought that they could swan in and wander around the literature for a bit and do what they liked………so I have insisted that they are here 9am – 5pm five days a week. That is very hard for them…………… I am beginning to think the structure helps to make creativity, I would never have believed I would have said that. I think it is because people know where the boundaries are, they know what they have got to achieve and this helps in achieving that…they are putting up (creative ideas) on the wall…there is a sense of freedom in the structure I think. (Supervisor: Soft Applied).

11 Engendering creativity 2 I have one mature student who is a senior partner in (his organisation), and it is great being his supervisor, he is so on the ball. Part of me things ‘what on earth have I got to offer him’? Then it turns out that he is breaking new ground himself and he really wants somebody else who thinks in very bizarre ways, which is what I do. (Supervisor: Soft Pure).

12 Engendering creativity FunctionalEnculturationCritical Thinking EmancipationRelationship Development Creativity might arise from (see Kleiman 2008) A reaction to or resistance to constraints A process of incremental change Purposeful exploitation of chance occurrences Reacting to disorientation Creation of something new that has personal value

13 Applying the framework further? FunctionalEnculturationCritical Thinking EmancipationRelationship Development Role of the lecture Logical giving of information Introduction of key texts and people Explain how to evaluate, validate and challenge Point to sources of information Welcome Create learning partnerships Underlying approaches to teaching Prescriptive, possibly didactic Inclusive, participatory, demonstrating good practice. Analytical, theoretical, conceptual Enabling, empowering Friendship, altruism, co- inquirer Core beliefs about learning and knowledge Learning is about the accumulation of knowledge Learning is engaging in academic/profe ssional/disciplin ary practices Learning is about developing cognitive skills Learning is about discovery Learning is about shared development

14 What do students want? Identifying student motivation, objectives and needs FunctionalEnculturationCritical Thinking EmancipationRelationship Development What students might be seeking Certainty Clear signposts Evidence of progress Belonging Direction, Career opportunities, Role models Ability to think in new ways Ability to analyse, to recognise flaws in arguments Self awareness Autonomy Self actualisation Friendship Nurturing Equality

15 Core beliefs and values FunctionalEnculturationCritical Thinking EmancipationRelationship Development Beliefs about how people learn Structured Goal oriented Process Emulating Replicating Theorising Analysing Discovering Constructivism Being affirmed ValuesPractical applicability BelongingReason Rigour AutonomyLove Agape


17 References and further reading Brew A (2001) Conceptions of Research: a phenomenographic study. Studies in Higher Education. Taylor and Francis Oct 2001, 26 (3), 271-285, Delamont S, Atkinson P & Parry O (2000) The Doctoral Experience. Success and Failure in Graduate School. London. Falmer Press Deuchar, Ross(2008) 'Facilitator, director or critical friend?: contradiction & congruence in doctoral supervision styles',Teaching in Higher Education,13:4,489 — 500 Eley A, Jennings R (2005) Effective Postgraduate Supervision. Maidenhead. OU Press McGraw-Hill Education Lave & Wenger E (1991) Situated Learning: legitimate peripheral participation (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Lee, A. (2007). Developing Effective Supervisors’ Concepts of Research Supervision. South African Journal of Higher Education, 21(4) Lee, A (2008) How are doctoral students supervised? Concepts of research supervision. Studies in Higher Education 33(4) Lee, A (2008) Supervision Teams: making them work. London. SRHE Leonard D (2001) A Woman’s Guide to Doctoral Studies. Buckingham. OU Press Pearson M and Brew A (2002) Research Training and Supervision Development. Studies in Higher Education Vol 27 No 2 2002 Pearson M and Kayrooz C. (2004) Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice. Int. Journal for Academic Development 9(1) pp 99- 116 Routledge

18 References Grant B M (2005) The Pedagogy of Graduate Supervision: Figuring the Relations between Supervisor and Student PhD thesis. The University of Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand Grant B M (2008) Agonistic Struggle. Master–slave dialogues in humanities supervision. Arts & Humanities in Higher Education vol 7(1) 9–27 Li S & Seale (2008) Acquiring a Sociological Identity: An Observational Study of a PhD Project. Sociology 42.5 Taylor, S. and Beasley, N. 2005 A handbook for Doctoral Supervisors Routledge, Abingdon. Wisker. G., 2005. The Good Supervisor. (Basingstoke Palgrave Study Guides. Macmillan)

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