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The Art of Interviewing in Qualitative Research Alison Seymour Occupational Therapy Lecturer School Of Healthcare Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "The Art of Interviewing in Qualitative Research Alison Seymour Occupational Therapy Lecturer School Of Healthcare Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Art of Interviewing in Qualitative Research Alison Seymour Occupational Therapy Lecturer School Of Healthcare Studies

2 Introduction MSc Dissertation: A qualitative investigation into how Problem-based Learning impacts on the development of team working skills in Occupational Therapy students May 2009

3 Methodology - Rationale Focus of the research was on the students experience of PBL Qualitative methodology – concerned with understanding people, their experiences and how they make sense of these (Taylor 2001) Methodology supported my own beliefs about the nature of knowledge, i.e. validity of the individuals perspective This belief is also underpins the occupational therapy philosophy, i.e. CC and multiple meanings

4 Method Data collection method must fit the chosen methodology (Finlay 2006) Qualitative in depth interviews (10) ‘they allow us to enter into the other persons perspective and find out those things we cannot directly observe’ (Patton 2002 p341) Used a general interview guide approach – open structure but explore the same set of issues with each participant (Patton 2002)

5 Method Themes for the interview guide developed from the research objectives and from the literature review Used as a prompt rather than a rigid set of Qs Allowed me to explore individual issues as they arose with each participant (Patton 2002)

6 Method This style of interviewing is similar to a conversation, interviewer is interested in certain topics but not all Qs are prepared and asked in the same way (Taylor 2001) Important not to ask leading Qs but you do need some structure in order to decide what is relevant to the research Qs (Hammersley and Atkinson 2007)

7 Interview Guide – (final version following pilot interview example Qs) So firstly, what sort of skills do you think are needed to work as part of a team? ( probe task –orientated and process) RO 1 – defining team working skills What aspects of the course do you think have helped you develop any of your team working skills (probe group work, self directed learning, practice placement) RO 2 – what aspects of the PBL curriculum So how do you think these skills have actually developed? Is it through your experiences on the course? Have you been aware of these skills developing? RO 3 – how skills develop Thinking about your experience on this course, in what ways do you feel prepared for team working when you begin your practice as an occupational? ( probe links between PBL tutorials and practice placement experience) RO 4 – perception of readiness for practice

8 Carrying out the interviews Pilot interview – useful to evaluate the trustworthiness of the interview guide, do the Qs elicit the data you need to answer your research Qs? To tape or not to tape? Field notes

9 Carrying out the interviews Location? Positioning of chairs Security? Participant reaction Personal disclosure

10 Results Four key themes emerged from the analysis of the transcribed interview data which related to team working: Socio – emotional skills The arena The process Confidence

11 Results “you can read all you want about team work but if you are in it everyday for two years you pick up things that you would never have been able to pick up in a book, and for me because I am much better learning practically, I can read it, but I need to feel it and do it, I think that was a brilliant way of teaching for me” (Jan)

12 Ethical Considerations ‘Interviews are interventions’ (Patton 2002) Interviews do affect people, expose feelings, often not anticipated Therapist or researcher? Power relationships between interviewer and interviewee Interviewer may also be at risk, location, exposure to information, disclosure.

13 The art of interviewing Qualitative methods are highly personal and interpersonal, they take you into the world of the participant and in-depth interviewing opens up what is inside people. It is therefore more intrusive than other methods and an ethical framework is needed to deal with issues that arise. (Patton 2002)

14 References Finlay, L. (2006) Mapping Methodology in L. Finlay and C. Ballinger (eds) Qualitative Research for Allied Health Professionals, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, pp. 9 - 29. Hammersley, M. and Atkinson, P. (2007) Ethnography Principles in Practice 3rd Ed, London, Routledge. Patton, M.Q. (2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, 3 rd Ed, London, Sage Publications. Taylor, S. (2001) D844 Ethnography Study Guide, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

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