6Community of practice Learning as social participation: “Learning viewed as situated activity has as its defining characteristic a process that we call legitimate peripheral participation. By this we mean to draw attention to the point that learners inevitably participate in communities of practitioners and that the mastery of knowledge and skills requires newcomers to move toward full participation in the sociocultural practices of a community.”(Lave & Wenger, 1991: 29)
8Legitimate peripheral participation gaining access to resources (conversational and other language learning opportunities) depends on:access to the social and verbal activities of the target language community of practice;being accepted is central to access to language learning opportunity;success derived partly from their own actions, partly from their respective communities’ willingness to adapt and to accept them as legitimate participants.“ [structure and agency](Toohey and Norton 2001 cited in Mitchell and Myles 2004)
9Community of practice What is meant by participation? Participation = “a process of being active participants in relationship to these communities (i.e. formation of identity)”Wenger 1998:4)
10Community of Practice (CoP) A social theory of learning Apprenticeships in non-school settingsLittle explicit teachingNewcomers assume increasinglyresponsible rolesEtienne Wenger1998
12CoP theory based on situated learning (Lave and Wenger 1991:29)
13Situated learning Based on socio-cultural theory Learning as a social process shaped by the social contextLanguage learning is shaped by the setting, the participants, their roles, the activities undertaken, and the resources used.Richards and Schmidt 2010
14Situated learning Learning that takes place in a ‘real’ environment. Outside the classroomField tripsLanguage learning in shops, kitchens, gardensMeetings with TL speakersInternshipsInside the classroomTask-based learningProblem-based learningSubject learning through another language (Immersion/CLIL)Classroom as community of practice (Toohey 2000, 2001)
15 Think of your language learning. What Your COPs? Think of your language learning. Whatcommunities of practice do/did you belong to insideand outside classrooms?Children ask parents to recreate Masterchef recipesChildren are forcing parents to become more adventurous in the kitchen after watching cookery programmes like Masterchef and Come Dine With Me, a new study found.
16Community = based on… Mutual engagement Joint enterprise members interact with each otherJoint enterprisecommon endeavourShared repertoire“common resources of language, styles and routines by which they express their identities as members of the group”(based on Wenger 1998, discussed in Barton and Tusting 2005:2)
17COP research orientations Product orientation: what do learners need to participate in a community of practice?e.g. based on needs analysis for academic disciplines: what academic and language skills are needed to complete the task (see Ferris, 1998; Ferris & Tagg, 1996a, 1996b).Process oriented: how are students socialised? Investigation of the situated or socially and temporally constructed process by which newcomers become socialized into a community of practice.e.g. looking at discourses at various levels of schooling (e.g., Belcher, 1994; Casanave, 1992, 1995; Duff, 2001, 2002; Harklau, 1999, 2000; Morita, 2000; Prior, 1998; Spack, 1997; Toohey, 2000).
18Think about your COPs See handout Think of a learning context, where you were a newcomer in community of practicePlease describe this community of practice, using the conceptual framework provided in the handout.
19Community of Practice Central idea: situated approaches to learning Taken up across social, educational and management sciencesUsed, applied, criticised, adapted and developed by a wide range of researchers(Barton and Tusting 2005:introduction)
20Used in... Management Education Virtual world “Theory of learning which acknowledges networks and groups which are informal and not the same as formal structures. ““Useful as theory” and “of value in practice”(Barton & Tusting 2005:3)
21Community of practice: strength It takes learning out of the classroom (life-long learning)Addresses learning in the workplace and everyday life.Helps understand difference between formal and informal education(Barton & Tusting 2005: 3)
22Development of the concept of CoP Early concepts: cognitive (product orientation)“thinking is a practical activity which is adjusted to meet the demands of the situation” (Rogoff & Lave 1987:7)Later concepts: socio-cultural (process orientation)“concepts of learning are shifted from apprenticeship, through notions of situated learning to communities of practice. In particular the notion of community of practice provides a set of concepts which view learning as a form of participation in activities. “ (based on Lave and Wenger 1991, discussed in Barton and Tusting 2005)
23Development of the concept of CoP learning as social participationthe individual as an active participant [agency] in the practices of social communitiesconstruction of his/her identity through these communitiesCOP as a means for organisations to become more effective.(Wenger 2002)
24Critique of CoP No critical examination of the concept of community No distinction among different types of learningLegitimate peripheral participation is a single, undifferentiated construct, when relationships are often hierarchical.(Haneda 2006)Membership of a community is not a helpful notion, since membership varies.(Gee 2004)Does not consider language, literacy, discourse and powerOversimplifications of management training(Barton & Tusting 2005)
26Classrooms as a COPLearning together: Children and adults in the school community“The teachers shape the curriculum around the children’s interests, using children’s curiosity, being alert to opportunities for learning as they occur”Teamwork is emphasised and teachers, children and parents are all viewed as part of the learning community.(Rogoff, Turkanis and Bartlett 2001:39)
28L2 socialisation“Those who approach a new language thus do so not simply by learning a system of new ways in which to express and interpret their native ways of acting and feeling, but also by learning the preferences and theories of a new community. “(based on Ochs 2002, discussed in Young 2009
29Language socialisation (Duff 1995:508)constructed throughDomains of knowledge, beliefs, affect, roles, identities, and social representationsLanguage practices and social interaction
30Language socialisation perspective systematic account of the wider frameworks and socially recognized situations within which speech acts are performed.predicts that there will be a structured strategic relationship between language development and ‘culturally organised situations of use’.”(Mitchell and Myles 2004:236)“Thick explanation” (Watson-Gegeo 2004:340)
31The study of language socialisation shows “how language forms correspond with the values, beliefs, and practices of a particular group and how novices can come to adopt them in interaction” (Cole & Zuengler 2003:99) Emphasis on novice and expert / oldtimer and newcomer.
32Questions re language socialisation Research: widening agenda, “often including new populationdemographics” (Duff 1995)PowerSocialisation into language ideologies (whose ideology?)Who is the novice who is expert? (agency)Adoption or resistance of norms and rules?Which language(s) are legitimate in the classroom and for what purposes?
33Post-structuralist perspective “Social structures are often hidden and taken for granted, yet can influence our assumptions about cognition, assessment of cognitive skills, and pedagogy.”(Watson-Gegeo 2004: )All activities in which the learners regularly interact with others in the family, community, workplace, or classroom are not only by definition socially organized and embedded in cultural meaning systems, but are inherently political. [...] There is no context-free language learning, and all communicative contexts involve social, cultural, and political dimensions that affect which linguistic forms are available or taught and how they are represented.(Watson-Gegeo 2004:340)
34Newer perspectives Anthropological perspective: “Focus on subjective experience and identity in relation to participation in practice. They engage with issues of individual and collective identity and struggles for social change, drawing on the work of Bakhtin and Bourdieu as well as Vygotsky. “(based on Chaiklin and Lave 1996, discussed in Barton and Tusting 2005:5)Hypermodernity/supermodernityAge of technology, individuals have the power to overcome natural limitations
35Critical questions......we need to ask of ourselves and of our students:“Why are we teaching/learning English (or an other language)?What does this teaching/learning imply in our highly diverse but rampantly politically structured world?What are the political implications of our teaching, learning, and researching language learning and pedagogy?Whom does this work empower and whom does it disempower?”(Watson-Gegeo 2004: 343)
36Spaces not communities? It is questionable as to whether people who interact in a space, or in some subgroup, really form a community?We should think about spaces rather than communitiescreating spaces wherein diverse sorts of people can interact is a leitmotif of the modern worldGee 2004:78-79
37Spaces matterAre classrooms such spaces where diverse people can interact?
38Physical or virtual? VILLAGE LANGUAGE LEARNING AND COMMUNITY BUILDING IN SECOND LIFE(VILLAGE IS AN ACRONYM FOR VIRTUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING AND GROUP EXPERIENCE)Physical or virtual?
39Second Life Language learning in second life (an example) English learning for teens in second life (offered by the British Council)second-life-for-teensDo your students use social media?
40Distributed knowledge/competencies What knowledge do students bring to class?How can they help/scaffold each other?What do students know that teachers don’t know?Can any of this be used as a resource in your classroom?
42Research findings from Berlin study 2 factors that can lead to group cohesionTeaching styleBilingual education (two-way immersion)
43Two-way immersion (bilingual or dual-language education) Classes: 50% dominant-language speakers50% speakers of one other languageTwo teachers one of each language/cultureThe same curriculumLessons: 50% in one language50% in the partner languageLanguage choice based on local languages.
44Immersion programmes (international) One-way immersion or CLILImmersion programmes in Canada since the 1970sSpanish Primary Schools, Spanish-English (since 1996, 200’000 ss, 3-16)Many European countries mostly English (since 1990s)In England 47 in 2002 (CILT survey), ? projects (BIEN)Two-way immersion (in contexts of natural language contact)USA: approx 400 programmes (cal.org/twi/directory/)Europe:: Wales, Ireland, Euskadi, Catalunia, Switzerland, etc.Israel: several Arabic-Hebrew programmesGermany: Berlin, Hamburg, Wolfsburg, Sillenbuch, Hagen, Cologne, Frankfurt, Pirna, etc.(German with 11 languages)England: Clapham (Wix) and Fulham (London)
45Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin Language combinationsGerman – RussianGerman – FrenchGerman – EnglishGerman – ItalianGerman – SpanishIntegrated from school entry to university accessState maintainedApprox students currently in bilingual streamGerman – GreekGerman – TurkishGerman – PortugueseGerman – Polish
46Berlin – SESB locations 17 Primary13 Secondary+ Bilingual Kitas
47Study Research design (TWI=272, Control group=329) Main finding greater class cohesiongreater conflict resolution skills(Meier 2010)Confirmed by research from USA, Israel, Macedonia, Wix
48Esmée Fairbairn funded research Two-way immersion educationUsing language resources students bring to schoolBilingual socialisationModel of COP??
50Wix: Social relationships (qualitative) “but they seem really, really, really caring and they’re all good friends and they take good care of each other” (English teacher)“D’ailleurs, j’ai été frappée, moi, en début d’année par la complicité qu’il y avait entre eux. ” (French teacher)“Bilingual classes are very noisy” (several teachers)“they help each other” (several teachers)“tutorat naturel qui s’organise entre eux” (French teacher)
51Based on TWI literature and anecdotal evidence Distributed knowledge: changing roles of novices and expertsSensitive to peers’ needs: anticipate their peers’ learning needs, and constantly check that everyone has understood.Reciprocal assistance: The children are willing to help others, when they need help, and are willing to seek and accept help in other classes.Scaffolding strategies: The children seem to use a range of strategies to support their peers in their learning (translations, explanations, etc.)Not-knowing is normalised: the children learn some of the content in a second language, thus it is clear that they do not know and that they need to ask.Children take on responsibility: Children seem to take on important support roles in two-way immersion projects. Anecdotal evidence shows, that children want to go to school because their peers need them.
52Interactional learning Data collection in Wix Nov/Dec. 2012How would you do this?
53COP activity: mapping knowledge “Dialogue among learners can be as effective as instructional conversations between teachers and learners. Working collaboratively, people are able to co-construct distributed expertise as a feature of the group, and individual members are then able to exploit this expertise as an occasion for learning to happen. (...) Learners are capable of scaffolding each other through the use of strategies that parallel those relied upon by experts”.(Lantolf 2002:106)
54Summary and conclusion What did we talk about ?COPSocialisationSocially cohesive groupsWhat were interesting/important points for you?Reading for next weekMeier and Daniel (2011) ‘Just not being able to make friends’… (See handout)Advance warning: Session of 4th December 2012Bring poster (A4/A3) illustrating your idea for an essay (concept map,, mind map or other format)
55Selected literature on language COPs and L2 socialisation etc. Barton, David & Tusting, Karin (2005) Beyond Communities of Practice: Language, power, and social context. Cambridge: COPBreen, Michael (2001) Learner Contributions to Language Learning: New Directions in Research. LongmanDuff, P. (2007) Second language socialization as sociocultural theory: Insights and issues. Language Teaching, Oct 01, 2007; Vol. 40, No. 4, pGee, James Paul (2004) Situated Language and Learning: A critique of traditional schooling. New York and London: Routledge.Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Meier, G. and Daniels, H. (2011) Just not being able to make friends’: Social interaction during the year abroad in modern foreign language degrees. Research Papers in Education, 1-27.Wenger, Etienne Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Wenger, Etienne, and William M. Snyder Communities of practice: the organizational frontier. Harvard Business Review 78 (1):Young, Richard F. (2009) Discursive Practice in Language Learning and Teaching. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.