2REFERENCES CFP 213 – CF Health Manual Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 14th Edition, Maxcy-Roseneau-Last
3SOURCES OF WATERFIRST STAGE:The original source of all water is from the sea, by evaporation due to solar heat. Water vapour rises and condenses to form clouds, and on further cooling, the clouds precipitate their contents as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
4SOURCES OF WATERSECOND STAGE:All the precipitation falls back upon the earth’s surface, some of it in direct return to the seas, the remainder falling on land where it will:a. Follow the earth’s contours to form rivers and streams;b. Collect in hollows to form lakes and ponds; andc. Soak into the earth’s crust.
5SOURCES OF WATERTHIRD STAGE:The sun’s heat again evaporates water from the seas, lakes, ponds, and river surfaces and this water is again precipitated. Many rivers and streams are tributaries of the seas.Some of the water which has soaked into the ground is collected by the root systems of plants, in fact by all vegetation, and again evaporated from the foliage (transpiration) by solar heat. All the foregoing three stages are part of a continuous process which is known as “the hydrological cycle” and it is upon the continuity of this cycle that all life on earth depends.
6CYCLE OF WATERThe cycle of water or hydrological cycle.
7SOURCES OF WATER Rain Water: In some areas, rain water is a major source of water supply. Such water is collected in cisterns, tanks, or reservoirs by run-off from the roofs of buildings and from mountain or upland areas.Rain water is subject to pollution from the atmosphere through which it passes, and from the collecting surfaces over which it flows.
8SOURCES OF WATERRain Water:This water is soft and well suited for laundry purposes. However, soft water will dissolve metals and, for this reason, rain water which has flowed through lead pipes or over lead or copper gutters may be dangerous to consumers.Generally speaking, rain water which is free from gross chemical pollution and which has been disinfected is fit for use.
9SOURCES OF WATER Rain Water: Where rain water is in use, all cisterns, etc, should be individually checked for:a. Chemical contaminants;b. Mosquito larvae;c. Dead animals and birds; andd. Cross-connection with septic tanks or cesspools.
10SOURCES OF WATERSurface Water:In the cycle of water it has been noted that when precipitation from the clouds falls on land, it will follow the contours to form rivers and streams and collect in hollows forming lakes and ponds.All such water courses are referred to as (surface water) in contrast to “ground water.”
11SOURCES OF WATERSurface Water:Because all surface sources are, for the greater part, maintained by water which has flowed over the ground surface, through a catchment area populated by human and animal life, such sources are readily subject to contamination.It is for this reason, that no water supply should be used from a surface source without previous disinfection.
12SOURCES OF WATERAquifer:An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
13SOURCES OF WATERAquifers may be considered as falling into two categories - confined and unconfined. A confined aquifer is one sandwiched between two impermeable rocks, and an unconfined aquifer is one where the water-table marks its upper limit.
14AQUIFERThe graphic shows the difference between a confined and unconfined aquifer.
15SOURCES OF WATER Ground Water: Water which has percolated through the earth’s crust seeps down until it reaches an impermeable stratum above which it collects. The level of the water above the impermeable stratum is known as the “ground water table”.Ground Water.
16SOURCES OF WATER Ground Water: All wells and springs are fed from ground water sources. This is a point to remember when planning septic tanks or other waste disposal systems which discharge or seep into the ground, for once a ground water source has become contaminated there are no practical means for its rehabilitation.
17SOURCES OF WATER Oceans and Brackish Waters: These are unsuitable for water supply but, in conditions of dire necessity, fresh water can be obtained from them by one of several desalination processes.
18SOURCES OF WATERThe most appropriate method for desalination of seawater is thermal distillation. Distillation is widely used in oil-rich areas where water is extremely limited, such as the Middle East and the West Indies.
19SOURCES OF WATERWith brackish waters, where the salt content is less than 10% that of seawater, reverse osmosis or electrodialysis may be used.
20WELL DESIGN AND CONTAMINATION EOWELL DESIGN AND CONTAMINATIONTP 5
22WELL DESIGN Wells: There are two major classifications of wells: ShallowDeep.
23WELL DESIGNShallow wells:Trap ground water below its surface and, of course, above the first impermeable stratum. The level of the water in this type of well will depend upon the season and amount of precipitation, so that the yield is variable.
24WELL DESIGNShallow wells are readily subject to contamination either from surface water leaking through the top and sides, or from heavy demand depressing the surrounding water table thus entraining pollution from a distance.
25WELL DESIGNIf the surrounding soil is high in calcium (chalk or limestone), the water will be hard. Water from shallow wells must be disinfected before use. Such wells are seldom more than 30 feet in depth. The quantity of water will be limited.
26WELL DESIGN Deep wells: Are sunk below the first impermeable stratum. This means that the supply come from below the first layer and is separated from it. Should water from above the first layer reach the deep well supply it will have, to some extent, been filtered through the interstices of the first layer.
27WELL DESIGNDeep wells are also subject to contamination from remote sources if the geological formation is fissured. Deep well water may be hard but in general, will be of better quality than that from a shallow well.
28WELL DESIGNThe quantity of water available will be greater than from shallow wells, but may become limited by heavy demand.
29WELL DESIGNIn both shallow and deep wells the well top and casing should be of impervious construction down to the water level.
30WELL DESIGN Artesian wells: Are deep wells in which the water is under natural pressure and which rises under its own head to the surface. The quantity of water will be copious.
31WELL DESIGNSprings:Occur where an impervious stratum emerges on to the surface, usually on sloping ground, below a water table. Springs may be polluted in the same way as wells, but may occasionally be of high yield.
32WELL DESIGNDug Well:Excavated by hand or mechanical equipment; may be feet in diameter and 15 – 35 feet deep; not usually dependable source of water and susceptible to contamination when subjected to heavy rains (runoff)
33WELL DESIGN Bored Well: Constructed with hand or machine-driven auger; vary in diameter from 2 – 30 inches and 25 – 60 feet deep; casing of concrete, clay, metal or plastic pipe is necessary to prevent soil formation from caving into the well
35WELL DESIGN Driven and Jetted Well: Consist of a well point with a screen attached, or a screen with the bottom open, which is driven or jetted into a water-bearing formation found at comparatively shallow depth
36WELL DESIGN Drilled Well: Generally superior to all other types of wells; less likely to become contaminated and a more dependable source of water. It is usually 4 – 12 inches in diameter and may reach depths of 750 – 1000 feet
38WELL DESIGNWell Development:All well drill methods cause smearing and compaction or cementing of clay, mud and fine material on the bore hole wall and in the crevices of the formations penetrated; reduces sidewall flow of water into the well and thus yield;
39WELL DESIGNvarious methods used to remove these materials; development continued until discharge is practically clear of sand; final step is testing for yield followed by disinfection
40WELL DESIGNGrouting:Common cause of contaminated wells through rock, clay, or hardpan is failure to properly seal the annular space around the well casing; proper seal required to prevent water movement between aquifers.
41WELL DESIGNTo protect aquifers, and prevent entry of contaminated surface or near-surface water; proper cement grouting between drill hole and well casing (a ring-like structure known as the annulus) can prevent this.
44WELL CONTAMINATION Bacteriological Contamination: Treat or boil water used for drinking or culinary purposes
45WELL CONTAMINATION Chemical Contamination: Boiling will not remove chemicals except volatiles; treatment (filtration) may remove some
46WELL CONTAMINATION Action: Abandonment of well (if practical) and connection to municipal water supply; determine cause of contamination and rectify; drill new well
47WELL CONTAMINATION Probable Causes of Bacteriological Contamination: Lack of or improper disinfection following repair or constructionFailure to seal the annulus (annular space around the casing)
48WELL CONTAMINATIONFailure to provide tight, sanitary seal where pump lines pass through casingWastewater pollution through polluted strata or a fissured or channelled formationNote! Chemical contamination usually means the aquifer has been polluted.
49WELL CONTAMINATION Sewage Disposal Systems is suspected of Use of a dye such as water-soluble sodium or potassium fluorescein (orange dye) or ordinary salt can be used as a tracer; solution flushed into suspected source may appear in well water within hrs; may be detected by sight, taste or analysis.
50WELL CONTAMINATION Underground seal is suspected of contamination: Use a dye or salt solution or even plain water can be poured around the casing. The seal might also be excavated for inspection.
51WELL CONTAMINATION The side of the casing is suspected of When holes in the side of the casing, channels along the length of the casing leading to the well source, crevices or channels connecting surface pollution with the water-bearing stratum, or the annulus. Use a dye or salt solution or even plain water can be used to trace the pollution.
52WELL CONTAMINATION Well sidewalls not watertight: If a dug well shoes evidence of contamination, the well sidewalls may be found to consist of stone or brick lining which is far from being watertight. In such cases the upper 6 to 10 ft should be removed and replaced with a poured concrete lining and platform.
53WELL CONTAMINATION Chemical contamination is suspected: Chemical contamination of a well and the groundwater aquifer can result from spills, leaking gasoline and oil tanks or improper disposal of chemical wastes such as by dumping on the ground in landfills, lagooning (artificial pool to accommodate overspill) or similar methods.
54WELL CONTAMINATIONOnce a stratum is contaminated, it is very difficult to prevent future pollution of the well unless all water from such a stratum is effectively sealed off.
55WELL CONTAMINATIONMoving the offending sewage disposal system to a safe distance or replacing a leaking oil or gasoline tank is possible but evidence of the pollution may persist for some time.
56WELL CONTAMINATIONUnless all the sources of pollution can be found and removed, it is recommended that the well be abandoned and filled with neat cement grout, puddled clay or concrete to prevent the pollution from travelling to other aquifers or wells.
59FIELD WATER SUPPLYWATER SUPPLY IN THE FIELD:In the field, water point operation is a responsibility of the Engineer Field Squadron. The selection of a water point will always be subject to the tactical situation.
60FIELD WATER SUPPLYThis may prevent the use of one ideal water source in favour of another which is, possibly, less desirable from the hygienic standpoint, but better suited to the operational plan.This is a principle which CFMS personnel must keep in mind.
61FIELD WATER SUPPLYWater point selection:The selection of water points is decided by the force commander, usually represented by a staff officer in consultation with an engineer officer and a CFHS officer.
62FIELD WATER SUPPLYThis enables a decision to be made which includes the tactical engineering, and medical aspects of the situation. Water points are sited wherever water exists in sufficient quantity to meet the actual, or anticipated demand.
63FIELD WATER SUPPLY They should: Water point selection:They should:be accessible by road and as close as possible to the unit areas to be served;provide sufficient space for vehicles to turn around;
64FIELD WATER SUPPLYbe provided with equipment of adequate capacity to rapidly filter, disinfect, and fill tanks and containers; andbe provided, where necessary, with sedimentation tanks for preliminary settlement of suspended matter.
65FIELD WATER SUPPLY Types of Water Points: A mobile water treatment unit set up at an available source provides a water point which is limited only by the yield from the source and the capacity of the treatment unit.Types of Water Points.d.
66FIELD WATER SUPPLYThe operation of these units is, as noted, an engineering responsibility the object of which is to produce drinking water which has been clarified, filtered, and disinfected to the satisfaction of the CFMS.
67FIELD WATER SUPPLY Types of Water Points: Municipal water works systems may be utilized as water points on active service, provided that such water satisfies, or can be made to satisfy, medical requirementsAny industrial or privately owned water source may be utilized as a water point provided that medical requirements can be met.
68FIELD WATER SUPPLY Types of Water Points: A filled tank vehicle may furnish the water point at its destination. Bulk Milk trucks, for example, can be easily converted to water carrying vehicles, however Gasoline tank trucks must not be used for this purpose. At all times, it must be assured that the tanks have been cleaned and disinfected prior to use, and that the water conveyed has been disinfected.
69FIELD WATER SUPPLY Number of Water Points: The number of water points to be provided will depend on:a. The availability of water sources such as lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, wells, and springs;b. The tactical situation as previously noted;c. The scale of water issue as advised by the medical service;d. The strength of the force to be supplied;e. The disposition of units in the area;f. The capacity of delivery vehicles and other equipment available; andg. The farthest distance to which water must be delivered.
70FIELD WATER SUPPLY Civilian Water Supplies: The respective responsibilities commanders, the medical and engineering services with regard to water supplies are not lessened where supplies are obtained from a treated municipal water supply system under contract between the municipality as the supplier and DND as the consumer.Civilian Water Supplies.
71FIELD WATER SUPPLYSamples taken from the municipal supply must have shown, and continue to show, satisfactory water quality on bacteriological examination.
74PROTECTION OF SOURCESGeneral Principles:In any program of water sanitation:First consideration is the protection from pollution of available sources of water supply;
75PROTECTION OF SOURCESSecond consideration, and almost equally important, principle is to protect unsuitable sources from unauthorized use by troops, or by civilians for whose care troops may be temporarily responsible .
76PROTECTION OF SOURCES Catchment Areas: Usually a civilian function which includes restriction of the land area involved for building development or use by campers; fencing of certain portions of the area to exclude animals; and patrolling to prevent unauthorized access and swimming.
77PROTECTION OF SOURCESPurification:The process of water treatment, including filtration and disinfection, is of paramount basic importance as a protective measure against disease.
78PROTECTION OF SOURCES Surface Waters: Where lakes or ponds are used as sources of water supply, the water should be taken from the deepest part, where possible.
79PROTECTION OF SOURCESWhen using rivers or streams, a point upstream from habitation or other source of pollution should be selected. In either case, strict attention must be given to disinfection of the supply.
80PROTECTION OF SOURCES Protection of Wells: Pollution of wells occurs from two sources: underground and surface and both must be guarded against.
81PROTECTION OF SOURCES Protection of Wells: Sources of underground pollution include drainage from outhouses, livestock operations, etc. Wells should not be located in the path of drainage from these like sources of contamination.
82PROTECTION OF SOURCESSetback distances cannot be accurately defined but a generally accepted minimum distance is 50 feet, preferably 100 feet between a well and a known source of contamination. This distance factor, however, is not in itself a guarantee of safety.
83PROTECTION OF SOURCES Protection of Wells: Surface control of pollution is largely a function of proper design such as sufficient clearance above grade of the well cap and adequate grading of soil around the well cap to allow surface water from rainfall to drain away and not pool.
86PROTECTION OF SOURCES Cisterns: Rain water cisterns are a source of supply in rural homes in Canada, and in those regions where other natural supplies do not exist.
87PROTECTION OF SOURCESCisterns are usually fed by roof run-off. In general, rain water collected from a tiled or slated roof will be safe to use after disinfection, provided NBC contamination is absent.
90PROTECTION OF SOURCES Cross-connection: A cross-connection is any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other unsafe water or other liquid, steam, or gas causing a flow from one system to the other.
93PROTECTION OF SOURCES Back-siphonage: Again, heavy demand upon a water service beyond its capacity, will result in a drop in pressure to an extent where the water instead of flowing towards a fixture begins to flow away from it.
94PROTECTION OF SOURCESBack-siphonage:This is call a “negative pressure”. Negative pressure sets up a suction in the fixture and can result in used, contaminated, or polluted water from the fixture, eg; a toilet or urinal, flowing back into the water service pipe.
95This is know as a “back-siphonage” This is know as a “back-siphonage”. It is a situation which can arise when an accommodation is occupied by more persons than it was designed for.
96PROTECTION OF SOURCESIt is likely to be a health hazard when a normal community population is increased by refugees from war or natural disaster.