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Water Cycle and Groundwater. Water Cycle and Groundwater Water can be all 3 states of matter – solid, liquid, gas Percentages of water on Earth: 75% of.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Cycle and Groundwater. Water Cycle and Groundwater Water can be all 3 states of matter – solid, liquid, gas Percentages of water on Earth: 75% of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Cycle and Groundwater

2 Water Cycle and Groundwater Water can be all 3 states of matter – solid, liquid, gas Percentages of water on Earth: 75% of earth is covered with water, of that:  ~97.2% salt water  ~2% frozen in glaciers  ~0.6% deep underground  ~0.2% surface water  ~0.01% in atmosphere Water in ground water is 50 times more than all the lakes and rivers combined! Water in ground water is 50 times more than all the lakes and rivers combined!

3 Water is the Universal Solvent; IT CAN DISSOLVE ANYTHING It is a polar molecule; A molecule whose atoms have a slight negative and positive electric charge

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5 Water Cycle Hydrosphere: the sphere of water that surrounds the earth, including the water in the atmosphere, groundwater, running water, lakes, oceans and glaciers.

6 Water Cycle -movement of water from one part of the hydrosphere to another. -movement of water from one part of the hydrosphere to another.

7 Water Cycle Evaporation: heat from the sun causes water to change into a gas called water vapor; energy is absorbed BY THE WATER, evaporation is a COOLING process (area evaporated from cools) Transpiration: process where water moves up through a plant, eventually exiting through tiny holes in the leaves (Evapotranspiration: combination of evaporation and transpiration) (Sublimation - conversion from solid to gas, w/o liquid stage; process of snow and ice changing water vapor w/o first melting into water)

8 Condensation: water vapor changing into liquid in the atmosphere to form clouds; energy is released BY THE WATER, condensation is a WARMING process, area condensed onto warms. (Deposition - opposite of sublimation; where water vapor changes directly into ice—such a snowflakes and frost) Precipitation: condensed water falling to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, or hail. Runoff: water that neither soaks into the ground nor evaporates, but instead flows across Earth’s surface and eventually into streams, lakes, or oceans. Water Cycle

9 Where does water go? Ground water - water that soaks into the ground and collects in the pore spaces between particles of rock and soil

10 Water budget: income and spending of water for a region. (expected income vs. expenditures) Extra moisture is stored in the soil – stored between the grains Recharge = continued rainfall – soil becomes saturated, water table rises Surplus = rainfall is greater than the need and soil water storage is full Too little moisture - time of soil ‘usage’ Deficit = need for moisture is greater than the Deficit = need for moisture is greater than the rainfall and the soil water storage is gone. rainfall and the soil water storage is gone. Ground Water

11 Porosity: the percentage of a material’s volume that is pore space, how much water that rock or soil can hold Permeable: describes rock or soil that has connecting pores that allow water to pass through easily Ground Water

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14 Capillary: rate at which water is pulled upward from the water table into pore spaces by capillary action (the larger the pore space the poorer the capillary action) Impermeable: rock or soil that has very small pores, preventing water from passing through (aquitard)

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16 Ground Water

17 Aquifer: layer of permeable rock that has connecting pores and transmits water freely Ground Water

18 Zone of Aeration: area where the pores are filled with air, usually near the ground surface Water Table: top of the zone of saturation Zone of Saturation: area where all the pores in a rock are completely filled with water, usually below the ground surface

19 Ground Water

20 Artesian Well: well in which water under natural pressure rises to the surface without being pumped

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22 Spring: point at which that water table meets Earth’s surface, causing water to flow from the ground Ground Water

23 Hot spring spring of warm groundwater, caused when the water is heated by rocks that contact magma under Earth’s surface

24 Hot springs

25 Geyser Geyser : hot spring of groundwater that erupts periodically, shooting water and steam into the air

26 Geyser

27 Cave Cave large underground opening formed when groundwater gradually dissolves rock

28 Karst Topography regions characterized by sinkholes, sinkhole ponds, lost rivers and underground drainage.

29 Karst Topography

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33 Sink Holes (within Karst Topography) (within Karst Topography)

34 Contaminant A substance that is either present in an environment where it does not belong or is present at levels that might cause harmful effects to humans or the environment A substance that is either present in an environment where it does not belong or is present at levels that might cause harmful effects to humans or the environment

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38 Point Source Pollutions – Originating from a single, identifiable source, such as a discharge pipe from a factory or a sewage plant. Point Source Pollutions – Originating from a single, identifiable source, such as a discharge pipe from a factory or a sewage plant. Non-Point Source Pollution- A contributory factor to water pollution that cannot be traced to a specific spot; for example: pollution that results from water runoff from urban areas, construction sites, and agricultural operations. Non-Point Source Pollution- A contributory factor to water pollution that cannot be traced to a specific spot; for example: pollution that results from water runoff from urban areas, construction sites, and agricultural operations. VOC- Volatile Organic Compounds VOC- Volatile Organic Compounds

39 HowManyFacesDoYouSee?

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