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Leicester Warwick Medical School Neoplasia 1 What is a Tumour? Professor Rosemary A Walker Department of Pathology.

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Presentation on theme: "Leicester Warwick Medical School Neoplasia 1 What is a Tumour? Professor Rosemary A Walker Department of Pathology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leicester Warwick Medical School Neoplasia 1 What is a Tumour? Professor Rosemary A Walker Department of Pathology

2 WHAT IS A TUMOUR? a swelling inflammatory – abscess neoplasm - growth

3 NEOPLASM Abnormal growth of cells which persists after initiating stimulus has been removed Cell growth has escaped from normal regulatory mechanisms Benign Malignant

4 BENIGN NEOPLASM Cells grow as a compact mass and remain at their site of origin

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7 MALIGNANT NEOPLASM Growth of cells is uncontrolled Cells can spread into surrounding tissue and spread to distant sites Cancer = a malignant growth

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10 HOW DO TUMOURS DEVELOP? There has to be a change to DNA The change must cause an alteration in cell growth and behaviour The change must be non-lethal and be passed onto daughter cells

11 HOW DO TUMOURS DEVELOP? Alteration is to more than one gene Genes concerned are oncogenes/tumour suppressor genes Sequence of gene alterations from normal to benign to malignant Intrinsic and extrinsic / inheritance and environment key factors

12 CLONALITY Alterations in genes regulating growth and behaviour occur in every cell – monoclonal population Evidence from studying G6PD In heterozygotes cells contain either G6PD A or G6PD B, but tumours in those people consist of cells that all have the same enzyme NORMALCANCER OR ABAAAAABBBBB

13 HOW DO NEOPLASTIC CELLS DIFFER FROM NORMAL CELLS? Alterations in growth control proliferation cell death factors regulating growth and response Alterations in cellular interactions cell-cell cell-stroma

14 GROWTH CONTROL Increased cell proliferation more cells enter cell cycle cell cycle “speeded up” Cells have changed life span Alterations in cell death-decreased apoptosis Modification of cell metabolism Angiogenesis

15 GROWTH CONTROL Increased or decreased growth factor receptors or altered receptors Synthesis of growth factors – autocrine or paracrine effect Excess/modified growth control proteins e.g. oncoproteins

16 Increased DNA synthesis and proliferation Growth factor receptor = Growth factor Autocrine Paracrine

17 CELLULAR INTERACTIONS Cell-cell interactions Cell-stromal interactions with basement membrane Important for cell and tissue differentiation, embryogenesis, growth regulation

18 Ordered Cytoskeleton Cell receptors Basement membrane Desmosomes Disorganised Cytoskeleton Loss of cell receptors

19 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS Size Growth characteristics Vascularity/necrosis Function Invasion/metastasis

20 BENIGN Nuclear variation in size and shape minimal Diploid Low mitotic count, normal mitosis Retention of specialisation MALIGNANT Nuclear variation in size and shape minimal to marked, often variable Range of ploidy Low to high mitotic count, abnormal mitosis Loss of specialisation DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

21 BENIGN Structural differentiation retained Organised Functional differentiation usually MALIGNANT Structural differentiation shows wide range of changes Not organised Functional differentiation often lost DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

22 DYSPLASIA Premalignant condition Increased cell growth Cellular atypia Altered differentiation Can range from mild to severe Sites -cervix -bladder -stomach

23 IN-SITU MALIGNANCY Epithelial neoplasm with features of malignancy altered cell growth cytological atypia altered differentiation BUT-no invasion through basement membrane

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26 POSSIBLE EVENTS Benign BenignDysplasia BenignDysplasia In-situ Benign Dysplasia In-situInvasive Dysplasia In-situInvasive In-situInvasiveInvasive

27 TYPES OF NEOPLASMS Benign Malignant Epithelial Connective tissue Lymphoid /haemopoietic Germ cell

28 BENIGN EPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS Papilloma squamous transitional Adenoma glandular

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31 MALIGNANT EPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS Carcinomas Squamous: skin Transitional: bladder Adeno: stomach, colon Basal cell:skin

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35 CONNECTIVE TISSUE NEOPLASMS Smooth muscle:Leiomyoma Fibrous tissue:Fibroma Bone:Osteoma Cartilage:Chondroma Fat:Lipoma Nerve:Neurofibroma Nerve sheath:Neurilemmoma Glial cells:Glioma

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37 CONNECTIVE TISSUE NEOPLASMS Smooth muscle:Leiomyosarcoma Bone:Osteosarcoma Fibrous tissue:Fibrosarcoma Cartilage:Chondrosarcoma Fat:Liposarcoma Nerve:Neurofibrosarcoma Nerve sheath:Neurilemmosarcoma Glial cells:Malignant glioma

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39 LYMPHOID Malignant lymphoma (B and T) Hodgkins Disease BONE MARROW Acute and chronic leukaemia

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42 GERM CELL Testis Teratoma Seminoma Ovary Dermoid Cyst


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