MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Product Liability every manufacturer has a responsibility for damage and injuries that a product causes to people and property this responsibility may be transferred to the importer the liability may lead to payments for damages or other legal consequences
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Product Liability the product should be systematically and carefully scrutinised to determine what damage it may cause documentation of product development in respect of safety is important insurance companies will demand this documentation before covering the risk
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Product Liability before PLA: those affected had to prove that the damage had been caused by negligence on behalf of the manufacturer or distributor now: the burden of proof is on the manufacturer to demonstrate product safety considerations were integrated into design and production
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Product Liability Three types of defects that incur liability o design defects exist before the product is manufactured o manufacturing defects occur during the construction or production o defects in marketing improper instructions and failures to warn consumers of latent dangers in the product.
MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS British Standard Specifications EN Europaische Norm (European Standard) ISOInternational Organization for Standardization
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors British Standard Specifications o BS 1088:1966 (1988) untreated plywood for marine craft o BS EN 1095:1998 deck safety harnesses and safety lines o BS 4079:1966 (1988) plywood for marine craft treated against attack by fungi or marine borers o BS 4532:1969 (1989) snorkels and face masks o BS 7209:1990 (1997) water vapour permeable apparel fabrics o BS 7852:1997 code of practice for the design of canoes and kayaks the above list only shows a few representative examples
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Small craft – Hull construction and scantlings.. length up to 23 m 1Materials: resins, reinforcement, laminate (2000) 2Materials: sandwich cores (2002) 3Materials: steel, aluminium, wood, other (2002) 4Workshop/manufacturing conditions (2002) 5Design pressures, stresses, scantlings (2008) 6Structural arrangements and details (2008) 7Scantling determination of multihulls (2008) 8Rudders (2009) 9Sailing boats: appendages and rig attachment (2012) 10Scantlings – rig loads and attachments (new) +A1Coating plants. Spray booths. Safety (2009) Parts 1-7 in Plymouth Campus Library
Will Harris’ Cornish Crabber 12 o infused hull o scantlings specified using ISO 12215-5 spread sheet from MST329 design exercise o image courtesy of WH o video of demoulding video of demoulding 1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt British Standard BS EN 12215:2002
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors British Standard Specifications o eg BS 4994:1987 Design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics o may be appropriate to lightweight air-tanks for diving o Section 9 defines allowable and design unit loadings
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) o k 1 = factor relating to manufacture o k 2 = factor relating to long term behaviour o k 3 = factor relating to temperature o k 4 = factor relating to cyclic loading o k 5 = factor relating to curing procedure
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) o The design factor = 3 x k 1 x k 2 x k 3 x k 4 x k 5 o The factor 3 is constant and allows for materials strength reduction due to long-term loading (even in air) o No vessel or tank shall have K < 8
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) k 1 (method of manufacture) o k 1 = 1.5 for handwork o k 1 = 1.5 for machine controlled spray application o k 1 = 3.0 for hand-held spray application for spray application, strands shall be >32 mm long
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) k 2 (chemical environment) o k 2 = 1.2 with a thermoplastic liner o k 2 = 1.2 to 2.0 without a thermoplastic liner o Appendix E gives guidance on selection of k 2
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) o k 3 (temperature) from 1 to 1.25 (Fig.1) dependent on heat distortion temperature o k 4 (cyclic loading) from Figure 2 o k 5 (curing procedure) = 1.1 for post-cure to manufacturer spec n = 1.3 for operation up to 45ºC = 1.5 for operation over 45ºC
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Safety factors BS 4994:1987 (FRP vessels and tanks) o k 1 = 1.53.0 o k 2 = 1.22.0 o k 3 = 1.01.25 o k 4 = 1.12.0 o k 5 = 1.11.5 K =6.53467.5 defaults to 8
MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt The CE mark The official marking required by the European Community for all Electric- and Electronic equipment that will be sold, or put into service for the first time, anywhere in the European community. It proves to the buyer -or user- that this product fulfills all essential safety and environmental requirements as they are defined in the so-called European Directives. The CE markings directive (93/68/EEC) was adopted in 1993. It amends 12 other directives. The CE-directive gives a detailed description of the initials CE and any other marks specific to a particular directive and the ways conformity may be acquired. The CE-mark must be put on the equipment, it's size must be 5 mm (0.2") or larger.
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt The CE mark In return for fulfilling the CE marking requirements, the manufacturer or its agent gets the opportunity to cover the entire European market using only one approval procedure for the topics covered in the miscellaneous directives. The member states of the EC cannot refuse any electronic or electrical product that has been CE marked (unless fraud suspected). For some products however, national regulations may exist, as long as the topics covered in these national regulations are not covered by a pan-European Directive. An example is Ergonomics in Germany for PC-related equipment.
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt The CE mark The manufacturer needs however: –be European, –or have an official department in the European Community, –or have an official agent or representative that is willing to take the liability for the CE-marking. The CE mark is sufficient to allow exporting to all EC members There are some restrictions left over for language variations in user documentation, notably safety instructions should be in the language of the country you are exporting to. The attachment of the CE mark to your product MUST be founded on a Compliance statement of the manufacturer or importer.Compliance statement
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt The CE mark 90/385/EECActive Implantable Medical Devices Directive 94/9/EC ATEX Directive (Electrical equipment for use in explosive atmospheres) 2000/9/ECCableway Installations for Passengers Directive 93/68/EECThe CE Marking Directive 93/15/EECCivil Uses of Explosives Directive 89/106/EEC Construction Products Directive 89/336/EEC Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive 96/57/ECEnergy Efficiency Requirements: Household Refrigerators and Freezers 92/75/EECEnergy Labelling Directive 90/396/EECGas Appliances Directive 92/42/EECHot Water Boilers Energy Efficiency Directive 98/79/ECIn-vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices 95/16/EC Lift Safety Directive 73/23/EECLow Voltage Directive Hot-links from http://www.conformance.co.uk/CE_MARKING/celist.html
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt The CE mark 98/37/EC Machinery Safety Directive 93/42/EECMedical Devices Directive 2000/14/ECNoise Emission of Outdoor Equipment Directive 90/384/EECNon-automatic Weighing Equipment Directive 89/686/EECPersonal Protective Equipment Directive 97/23/EC Pressure Equipment Directive 1999/5/ECRadio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive 94/25/ECRecreational Craft Directive 98/13/ECSatellite Earth Station Equipment Directive 87/404/EECSimple Pressure Vessels Directive 98/13/ECTelecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive 88/378/EECToy Safety Directive Hot-links from http://www.conformance.co.uk/CE_MARKING/celist.html
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Recreational Craft Directive The Recreational Craft Directive (94/25/EEC) Design and construction of boats from 2.5m to 24m hull length plus specified components. Published in Official Journal L164 (30 June 1994) In force 16 June 1996 (transition ends 15 June 1998) Implemented in the UK by the Recreational Craft Regulations 1996 (SI 1996:1353)
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Recreational Craft Directive The Directive does not apply to: craft intended solely for racing canoes, kayaks, gondolas and pedalos surfboards and sailboards historical replicas submersibles hovercraft and hydrofoils craft intended to be crewed and to carry passengers for commercial purposes (these are covered by another directive). craft built for use by the builder are also excluded provided they are not subsequently placed on the market for at least five years.
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Recreational Craft Directive Particular items of equipment are also covered o ignition-protected equipment for inboard and stern drive engines o start-in-gear protection devices for outboard engines o steering wheels, steering mechanisms and cable assemblies o fuel tanks and fuel hoses o prefabricated hatches and portlights.
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Recreational Craft Directive Administration requirements o the product be marked with the CE logo o the manufacturer compile a file of technical information In the case of complete craft or hulls, this file is to include test reports or calculations demonstrating that the craft has adequate stability in the anticipated sea conditions. The manufacturer also has to complete a Declaration of Conformity. the Directive also lays down requirements for type testing by a notified body and/or quality control procedures no special provision for used craft o as such it is impossible for second hand craft to comply o used craft cannot be CE marked and therefore cannot be legally imported into the EEA
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt RCD file of technical info. file of technical information o In the case of complete craft or hulls, this file is to include test reports or calculations demonstrating that the craft has adequate stability in the anticipated sea conditions. o the manufacturer also has to complete a Declaration of Conformity.
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Directive 2003/44/EC amending Directive 94/25/EC extend RCD scope to personal watercraft such as jet skis. limit values for exhaust (CO, hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxides and various pollutants) & sound emissions of petrol/diesel engines
MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Classification society (UK) Lloyds Register of Shipping Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Special Service Craft, 2003 for classification of monohull and multihull craft, yachts, high speed and light displacement craft constructed from steel, aluminium alloys and composites.
1-Sep-14MATS231 Week 07 PLA-RCD.ppt Classification societies o/seas American Bureau of Shipping (USA) Bureau Veritas (France) Det Norske Veritas (Norway) Registro Italiano Navale Group (RINA)