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High-Temperature Superconducting Generators for Direct Drive Applications OZAN KEYSAN Institute for Energy Systems The University of Edinburgh April 2011

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Ozan KEYSAN 2 Superconductor? Abolish the OHM’s Law Kakani2009 Zero Resistivity

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Ozan KEYSAN 3 MERCURY The First Superconductor Material Discovered in 1911 Critical Temp = 4.2 K (-269 C)

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Ozan KEYSAN 4 Other Superconductors Schiferl2006 LIQUID NITROGEN?? OH NO!

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Ozan KEYSAN 5 Infinite Current? Unfortunately NOT.

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Ozan KEYSAN 6 YBCO (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) Current Density > 200 A/mm2 (5-10 A/mm2 for copper)

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Ozan KEYSAN 7 Perfect Diamagnetism

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Ozan KEYSAN 8 Applications: MagLev Train

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Ozan KEYSAN 9 Applications: Large Hadron Collider Superconducting Magnets Up to 16 T, Normal PM ~1.5 T

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Ozan KEYSAN 10 Applications: MRI

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Ozan KEYSAN 11 Power Applications Courtesy AMSC, InnoPower Superconductor Transmission Lines Fault Current Limiter

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Ozan KEYSAN 12 Power Applications : Electrical Machines Courtesy of Siemens, Converteam (ALSTOM) Siemens: 400 kW Converteam (ALSTOM): 5 MW HTS

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Ozan KEYSAN 13 Power Applications : Electrical Machines 36.5 MW, 120 rpm (U.S. Navy, AMSC) Courtesy of AMSC

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Ozan KEYSAN 14 Wind Turbine Applications? M. Lesser, J. Müller, “Superconductor Technology – Generating the Future of Offshore Wind Power,” BARD 5MW

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Ozan KEYSAN 15 Direct-Drive Solutions

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Ozan KEYSAN 16 Cost Comparison (HTSG vs. PMG) Lesser2009

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Ozan KEYSAN 17 Types of HTS Machines Rotating DC Superconducting Field Most Common Type Transient Torques on HTS wire Cryocooler Coupler + Brushes Low Reliability Cooling Times Magnetized Bulk HTS Very Difficult to Handle Demagnetization All Superconducting Machines AC Losses on HTS wire

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Ozan KEYSAN 18 Reliability? Stationary SC Coil No Cryogenic Coupler No Brushes No Transient Torque on SC Simplified Cooling, Isolation DC Field No AC losses Maximized Current

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Ozan KEYSAN 19 Homopolar HTSG

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Ozan KEYSAN 20 Homopolar HTSG

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Ozan KEYSAN 21 Axial Bipolar HTS Machine

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Ozan KEYSAN 22 Bonus: Bipolar Linear HTSG Suitable for WECs

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Ozan KEYSAN 23 Transversal Flux HTSG

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Ozan KEYSAN 24 Hasta la Vista! Thanks.

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