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Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 1.2.3 Policy Value and Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 1.2.3 Policy Value and Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI Policy Value and Analysis and Evaluation Day 1 Education Sector Ankara 14 – 18 March, 2011 Mr. Kari Pitkanen

2 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Monday: Elements and indicators of national education systems and policies Tuesday: Approaches for strategy and planning of education sector + assignment to work with Case Turkey Wednesday: Working on Case Turkey: how to organise education reforms and continuous development Thursday: Presentations and discussions on the Case Turkey Friday: Organizing reform implementation and continuous development using performance management, budgeting and indicators Program of the Week

3 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  Education systems in Finland, Turkey and in the world  Structures  Characteristics  Policies  Data and indicators on education and training and related issues (EU, OECD, Turkey, Finland)  Discussions and conclusions on the development, up- to-date, future plans and needs in Turkey 1 st Day Monday, 14 th February 2011

4 4 Finland in brief  Independent since 1917  Member of the European Union 1995  Land area km 2  lakes  islands (min m 2 )  Population 5.3 million (17 inhabitants / km 2 )  Two official languages: Finnish (91.2%), Swedish (5.5%)  Religion: Lutheran (81.8%), orthodox (1.1%), others (1.2%), no religious affiliation (15.9%)  Immigrants: 3,6 % of population  Main exports: electronics, forest industry, metal and engineering

5 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Education system of Finland and Benchmarking to Education in Turkey  Pre-primary 3 – 6/7 years old Primary 6/7 – 11/12 years old Lower secondary 11/12 – 14/15 Upper secondary 14/15 – 17/18 Tertiary (higher) 17/18 – 22/23 22/23

6 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Characteristics of National Educations Systems 6 Compulsion Pre-primary/ primary/ lower secondaryUpper secondary OrganizationPublicPrivate FinancingPublicStudent fees/subsidized Governance and ownershipCentralizedRegional/local CurriculumCentral/national coreRegional/local options/free Professional supportInspectionConsultative services National tests and examsFrequent testing of learning outcomes National examination in completion of upper secondary general school School choiceNo optionsFreedom for parents/students Educational pathsOpenDead ends Teacher educationTeacher education college degree Bachelor/Master level degree

7 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 1. Educational attainment of adult population % (2008) Indicators on Education and Training for Policy Planning and Setting (OECD; Education at glance 2010) Pre-primary and primary Lower secondary Upper secondaryTertiary OECD Turkey Finland

8 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 2. Population with at least Upper Secondary Education (2008) % Age group 25 – – 34 OECD7180 Turkey3040 Finland8190

9 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 X) Highest xx) Second after Ireland 3. Annual Average Growth (%) in Attainment in the 25 – 64 Year-old Population 1998 – 2008 Below upper secondary Upper secondaryTertiaryAll Turkey x) +7.6 xx) +2.6 xx) OECD Finland o.3

10 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 4. Employment Rates (%) and Educational Attainment, by Gender, 25 – 64 years-old (2008) Pre-primary and primary Lower secondary Upper secondaryTertiaryAll Turkey  Males  Females OECD  Males  Females Finland  Males  Females

11 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 5. Relative Earnings of the Population with Income Employment (25 – 64 olds) Below upper secondary Post secondary Tertiary type BTertiaryAll tertiary Turkey  Males  Females OECD  Males  Females Finland  Males  Females

12 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 7. Proportion of Adults Reporting Good Health, by Level of Education Below upper secondary Upper secondaryTertiary Turkey OECD Finland

13 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 8. Proportion of Adults Expressing Interest in Politics Below upper secondary Upper secondaryTertiary Turkey0.39o OECDo Finland

14 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 9. Classification of Educational Expenditure Spending on educational institutionsSpending on education outside educational institutions Spending on educational core services e.g. public spending on instructional servicese.g. subsidized private spending on books e.g. subsided private spending in educational institutions e.g. private spending on books and other school materials or private tutoring e.g. private spending on tuition fees Spending on research and development e.g. public spending in university research e.g. funds from private industry for research and development in educational institutions Spending on educational services other than instruction e.g. public spending on ancillary services, such as meals, transport to schools or housing in the campus e.g. subsidized private spending on student living costs or reduced price of transport e.g. private spending on fees for ancillary servicese.g. private spending on student living costs or transport

15 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 X) Public spending only 10. Expenditure on Educational Institutions as a Percentage of GDP (1995, 2000, 2007) Turkey1.7 x) 2.5- OECD5.7-- Finland6.35.6

16 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI Age Cohorts % (Eurostat 2010) Total Turkey EU (27) Finland

17 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Headline targetsIndicators 75 % of the population aged should be employed Employment rate by gender, age group % of the EU's GDP should be invested in R&DGross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) The "20/20/20" climate/energy targets should be met (including an increase to 30% of emissions reduction if the conditions are right) Greenhouse gas emissions, base year 1990 Share of renewables in gross final energy consumption Energy intensity of the economy (proxy indicator for Energy savings, which is under development) The share of early school leavers should be under 10% and at least 40% of years old should have completed a tertiary or equivalent education Early leavers from education and training by gender Tertiary educational attainment by gender, age group Reduction of poverty by aiming to lift at least 20 million people out of the risk of poverty or exclusion Population at risk of poverty or exclusion (union of the three sub-indicators below) Persons living in households with very low work intensity Persons at risk of poverty after social transfers Severely materially deprived persons

18 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI % of the Population Aged Should Be Employed EUTurkeyFinland MalesFemalesTotalMalesFemalesTotalMalesFemalesTotal

19 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI % of EU’s GDP Should Be Invested in R&D EU (27) Turkey Finland

20 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Green house gas emission, base year 1990 (100) 3. Climate/Energy Targets Should Be Met EU (27)89 Turkey196 Finland100

21 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Percentage of the population aged with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training 4. The Share of Early School Leavers Should be Under 10% EU (27) Turkey Finland9.09.9

22 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 5. Tertiary Education Attainment, 30 – 34 Year- old EU (27) Turkey-14.7 Finland

23 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 6. Persons Living in Households with Very Low Work Intensity EU (27)109 Turkey-- Finland9.38.2

24 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Education Statistics by EUROSTAT (2010) 1. School Expectancy EU (27) Turkey Finland

25 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI years-old in Education EU (27) Turkey Finland

26 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 3. Pupils and Students (million) Excluding pre-primary education Europe (27) Turkey Finland

27 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 4. Students in Tertiary Education (million) RU (27) Turkey Finland

28 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 4. Share of Women Among Tertiary Students EU (27) Turkey Finland

29 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 5. Pupils in Upper Secondary Education Enrolled in Vocational Stream EU (27) Turkey34.6 (2003) 41.6 Finland

30 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 6. Pupil/Teacher Ratio in Primary Education Turkey Finland

31 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 7. Pupils Learning English in Upper Secondary General Education (%) EU (27) (2007) Turkey Finland

32 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 8. Expenditure on Education Change % Expenditure on education EU (27) (2001) Turkey (2006)+ 51 Finland Public spending in education, % of GDP EU (27) (units) Turkey Finland Private spending in education EU (27)0.63o Turkey (2004)+0.04 Finland

33 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 9. Population Total EU (27) Turkey67726 Finland year-old EU (27) Turkey Finland year-old EU (27) Turkey Finland

34 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  Reform of basic, upper secondary and tertiary education in Finland 1970 – 2005  Planning, decisions and organization of implementation  Results  Present organization and methods in planning and implementation of education policies  Division of tasks and responsibilities  Documents and strategies  Provision and financing of education and training  Linkages to performance management and budgeting  Assignment for group work on Wednesday 2 nd Day Tuesday, 15 th February

35 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  1972 – 1977 From parallel education to 9 years comprehensive basic school for all  1978 – 1988 Reform of upper secondary general and vocational education and training (VET)  1995 – 2000 Polytechnic education as new higher education institution  2000 – 2003 Reform of institutional structure of VET  2001 Pre-school education for 6 year olds  2001 – Qualitative development without structural changes 1. Brief History of Education Reforms in Finland

36 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  Political discussions and disputes for many years  1968 Law on School System  Main contents:  Abolishment of parallel basic education and establishment of comprehensive basic school (grades 1 – 9) for all  Municipal (local) education ownership and responsibility  Detailed regulation  High level of state financing  Gradual implementation by careful (and bureaucratic) planning procedures 2. The Comprehensive School Reform 36

37 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  According to the requirement of the central government and guidelines giving by the National Board of General Education all municipalities (more than 500) had to prepare reform implementation plan  School districts and network (incl. former state and private schools) aiming at full use of school building capacity  Placement of teachers (class and subject teachers)  Municipal Education Committees and Offices  And plenty of details  Agreements with other municipalities in provision of basic education  The local plans were first processed in the newly founded Education Departments of State Provincial Offices (12) headed by governors  Provincial Offices were supervised by the Ministry of Internal Affairs but the Education Departments were strictly connected to Ministry of Education and the National Boards of Education (General and Vocational) 2. Comprehensive School Reform Enforcement 37

38 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  The Provincial Offices sent the plans to the National Board of General Education which processed the plans for the Ministry of Education to present to the Central Government for final decision on Enforcement Plan of the Reform  Implementation started in 1972 in Lapland Province and finalized by implementation in the Capital Region in 1978 _______________________________________________________  In middle 1970s started design and planning of the reform of upper secondary education level  Plenty of committee work and contradictions  Do we combine VET and general education to form a youth school or do we keep them separate tracks 3. Reform Enforcement… 38

39 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  Separate tracks for general and vocational education  Quantitative proportion of the tracks a big issue  Government decision on principle as starting point  Followed by multi-level planning  Directives from MoE to Provincial State Offices and via the Offices to the schools  Quantitative objectives for general education and sectors of VET – Education for all  New structure of VET reducing the number of specific study from 700 to 270 in 27 sectors  New curricula for VET  Proposals for investments to enlarge VET  Schools sent their proposals to Provincial State Offices which consolidated the provincial plans to be sent to the National Boards  The Boards prepared a national plan for the MoE  MoE prepared development plan for decision of the Government  Followed by detailed decision for each upper-secondary school 4. Planning and Enforcement of Upper- secondary Education and Training Reform 39

40 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  Middle 1990s a new structural reform was started  The main objectives were:  To reduce the number of VET providers  To combine VET schools to many-filed VET consortia  To hand over the State VET Schools to municipal to regional and local ownership  To separate the higher level of VET from upper-secondary VET to institutions of higher education, polytechnics  To delegate decision making on VET to regional and local levels  To harmonize the structure and duration of all VET programs  To reduce the number of vocational qualifications to 52 with 113 VET study programs 5. The Top-down Reform Was Finalized by 1990 and Followed by a More Bottom-up Reform in

41 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03  Government decision in principle  Compulsion to the regions to organize VET according to the principles  After negotiation period, Regions (municipalities) and big cities made a proposal to MoE on new VET institution structure  VET provided mainly by big multi-field regional consortia  Polytechnics established on a regional basis 7. Enforcement of the Reform

42 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 8. Development of VET Institutional Structure Vocational institutionsPolytechnics NumberStudents Average sizeNumberStudents Average size

43 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Parliament (laws)  Main principles and structures  Obligations and tasks  Education Committee and Sub-committee of Education and Science in the Committee of Finance Central Government (decrees and decisions)  Law proposals  Government Program for the term (4 years)  Development Plan for Education and Research (present 2007 – 2012,  Decisions in Principle  Licences for private education providers  Unofficial Ministerial Working Group 9. Present Organization and Methods in Education Policies

44 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Ministry of Education and Culture (Decrees and decisions)  Preparation of Government decisions  Qualification framework  Licences for provision of education  Unit (per student) prices for financing of education accordingly financing of education providers National Board of Education  National core curricula and qualification requirements  Development projects  Evaluation of learning outcomes  Support services  Information services/joint application system Present Organization…

45 Decision Making and Performance Management in Public Finance Kamu Maliyesinde Karar Alma ve Performans Yönetimi TR08IBFI03 Providers of Education (Regional consortia/municipalities/private)  Organization of education in the framework of the national legislation and decisions  Anticipation of needs of education and training  Planning of education  Decisions on school network  Hiring staff to educational institutions  Investments in education Schools and educational institutions  Running schooling  School-based curriculum  Decisions according to the delegation by education provider Present Organization…


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