Presentation on theme: "Command terms in IB Biology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Command terms in IB Biology All IB Biology questions and assessment statements are built around these command terms given in page 11 and 12 of the IB Biology subject guide(your syllabus).These terms in questions give you an idea of what is expected of you.Underline the command terms in the exam!
2 Objective 1 Demonstrate an understanding of: Scientific facts and conceptsScientific methods and techniquesScientific terminologyMethods of presenting scientific informationDefine Draw LabelList Measure State
3 Define:Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase or physical quantityExample: Define Species.A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
4 Draw and LabelRepresent by means of clear, dark pencil lines (no coloring needed) and add labelsExample: Draw and label a diagram of the structure of a motor neuron
5 Label Add labels to a diagram Example: Label the parts of a motor neuronlibrary.kiwix.orgADCBHFGE
6 ListGive a sequence of names or other brief answers with no explanationExamples:List three functions of lipidsList two examples of fibrous proteinsList seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa(use mnemonics to remember the order here – King Philip Came Over For a Good Sphagetti)
7 Measure Find a value for a quantity Use a ruler, present your answers in metric, SI unitsExample: Measure the length of the specimenGenerally you will need to calculate from a measurement, rather than measure directly.onearth.org
8 StateGive a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculationExample:State the composition and the function of the plant cell wall.
9 Objective 2 APPLY AND USE: Scientific facts and concepts Scientific methods and techniquesScientific terminology to communicate effectively appropriate method to present scientific informationAnnotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify Outline
10 Annotate Add brief notes to a diagram or graph In addition to labelling, some explanation/causes must be givenExample: Annotate a graph showing hormone levels in menstrual cycleProgesteroneMaintains endometriumInhibits FSH and LHFSH and LH peak causing ovulationOestrogen thickens endometriumFSH and LH stimulate development of oocytePritamaulipas.org.mx
11 ApplyUse an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in a new situationExample: Apply the dichotomous key to identify the flowering plant:1.reproduce by means of seeds go to 2Reproduce by means of spores go to 32. Seeds are made in cones ASeeds are made in fruits B3.Spores are made in capsule CSpores are made under leaves D
12 CalculateFind a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the workingExample: Calculate the magnification of the image of the prokaryoteShow your working!Use the correct SI unit!
13 Give a detailed account DescribeGive a detailed accountExample:Describe the metabolic events of germination in a typical starchy seed.‘Describe’ is not same as ‘explain’Pay attention to the marks available for the questionDescriptions can be of processes or of parts of a data or graph
14 Distinguish Give the differences between two or more different terms Example:Distinguish between antigens and antibodiesNo need to present similaritiesLook for as many differences as there are marks for the questions
15 Estimate Find an appropriate value for an unknown quantity Can be from graphical questions
16 Identify Find an answer from a given number of possibilities Example:“Identify the response time of group 2 on day 31 of the study.”Response time (secs)“Identify the group with the largest difference in response time from day 2 to day 31.”May2009TZ1SLP3Pick one single answer‘Identify’ can be used for part of diagram or graph
17 Outline Give a brief account or summary Example: . Outline the international system used for naming species of living organisms. (4 marks)binomial systemdevised by Linnaeusthe first name is the genus name and the second name is the species namegenus name can be abbreviated, upper case for first letter of genus name and the rest of the binomial is lower caseHomo sapiens is the binomial of humansfirst published name is the correct onelocal / colloquial names can be very confusing / helps international communicationOutline is a step-by-step summary or account without reasons or explanationPresent your answers neatly and clearly to get full marks
18 Objective 3 Construct, analyse and evaluate: Hypotheses, research questions and predictionsScientific methods and techniquesScientific explanations
19 Analyse Interpret data to reach conclusions Read the data thoroughly and underline the important wordsUse the data to reach the conclusionPay attention to marks availableExample:“Analyse the results of this experiment.”QuestionBank CD Rom
20 CommentGive a judgment based on a given statement or result of a calculation
21 CompareGive an account of similarities and differences between two or more items referring to both (all) of them throughout.Example: Compare the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 5 marksDNA: P: naked/loop of DNA; E: associated with protein/histones/nucleosomes/DNA in chromosomeslocation of DNA: P:no nucleus; E: within a nucleus/nuclear membranemembrane bound organelles: P: none; E: presentribosomes: P: 70S ; E: 80Splasma membrane: P & E: same structure within both groupsrespiratory structures: P: no mitochondria; E: mitochondriapili: P: pili present E: pili absent;plasmids: P: plasmids (sometimes) present E:plasmids absent;flagella: P: flagella solid E: flagella flexible/membrane-bound
22 CONSTRUCT Represent or develop in graphical form Construct a pyramid of energy for this grassland:The total solar energy received by a grassland is 4 × l05 kJ m–2 y–1. The net production of the grassland is 4.5 × 102 kJ m–2 y–1 and its grossproduction is 5 × l02 kJ m–2 y–1. The total energy passed on to primary consumers is 50 kJ m–2 y–1. Only 10 % of this energy is passed on to the secondary consumers.”
23 Deduce Reach a conclusion from the information given Example: Deduce the trophic level of Tuna in the given food webSharkMarlinPlanktonTunaShrimpHerring
24 DeriveManipulate a mathematical relationship to give a new equation or relationship
26 Determine Find the only possible answer In a species of plant, tall is dominant to short and the production of round seeds is dominant to that of wrinkled seeds. The alleles are unlinked.A plant heterozygous for both characteristics is crossed with a plant homozygous for tall with wrinkled seeds.Determine the phenotypes and genotypes of the offspring of this cross.
27 DiscussGive an account including, where possible, a range of arguments for and against the relative importance of various factors, or comparisons of alternative hypothesesExample: Discuss the ethical implications of IVFchance for infertile couples to have children;genetic screening of embryos could decrease suffering from genetic diseases;spare embryos can safely be stored for future pregnancies/used for stem cell research;IVF is expensive and might not be equally accessible;success rate is low therefore it is stressful for the couple;it is not natural/cultural/religious objections;could lead to eugenics/gender choice;could lead to (unwanted) multiple pregnancies with associated risks.
28 Evaluate Assess the implications and limitations Example:“Evaluate the evidence for global warming, using figures A and B (2).”Biology Specimen Paper, 2009Do not just describe, use evaluative language. Think of the reliability and limitations the given data have to arrive at a conclusion.
29 Explain Give a detailed account of the causes, reasons or mechanisms Using an example you have studied, explain a cross between two linked genes, including the way in which recombinants are produced.
30 Predict Give an expected result A farmer has rabbits with two particular traits, each controlled by a separate gene. Coat colour brown is completely dominant to white. Tailed is completely dominant to tail-less. A brown, tailed male rabbit that is heterozygous at both loci is crossed with a white, tail-less female rabbit. A large number of offspring is produced with only two phenotypes: brown and tailed, white and tail-less, and the two types are in equal numbers.Predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the F2 generation. Show your working.
31 Show Give the steps in a calculation or derivation Example:“A male and female with normal colour vision each have a father who is colour blind. They are planning to have children. Predict, showing your working, the possible phenotypes and genotypes of male and female children.”QuestionBank CD RomAlways show your working in ‘calculate’ and ‘determine’ questions!
32 SketchRepresent by means of a graph showing a line and labelled but unscaled axes with important features clearly indicated.Example:“Sketch a graph to predict the effect of manipulating pH on the activity of an enzyme which has an optimal pH of 7.”Optimum pHEnzyme activitydenaturedpH
33 Suggest Propose a hypothesis or other possible answer Example:“Suggest one reason in each case for the change in quantity of fish captured in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from 1980 to 1990.”QuestionBank CD Rom