Presentation on theme: "How is religion seen in the cultural landscape?"— Presentation transcript:
1How is religion seen in the cultural landscape? Religion marks cultural landscapes with houses of worship such as churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples.
2BACKGROUND INFORMARION Religion marks cultural landscapes in variety of waysex.Cemeteries dotted with religious symbols and iconsStores designated to sales of religious goodsServices provided to religious adherents who travel to sacred sites
3Cont.Pilgrimage- when adherents voluntarily travel to religious site to pay respects or participate in ritual at the siteScared site- places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning* if sacred site is held with reverence, adherents may be encouraged to make a pilgrimage to the sacred site for rejuvenation, reflection, healing, or fullfillment of a religious commitment
5Jerusalem, IsraelThe Church of the Holy Sepulchre is sacred to Christians who believe it is the site where Jesus Chirst was crucified. Inside the church, Christian worshippers can be seen lighting candles at Jesus Christ’s tomb.
6Sacred sites of jerusalem- Background INFO Ancient city of Jerusalem is sacred to Jews, Christians, and MuslimsJews saw Jerusalem as sacred before birth of Jesus, but most Jews fled from the city and surrounding area during diasporaJerusalem remained sacred for Jews although it was not under their controlWestern Wall is most important sacred site for Jews (located at edge of Temple Mount in Jerusalem)Torah- sacred book of Judaism
7Sacred sites of jerusalem cont. Jerusalem is sacred to Christians for two reasons :1. sacrifice Abraham was willing to make of his son at the Temple Mount2. Jesus’ crucifixion took place outside the city’s wallsChristians believe that from the tomb Jesus rose from the dead on Easter
8Sacred sites of jerusalem cont. 17th century- Muslim armies took control over the city form the Byzantine EmpireConstructed mosque called the Dome of the Rock adjacent to the Western WallMarked site where Muhammad is believed to have arrived form Mecca and then ascended into heavenSite Jews call Temple Mount is called al- Haram al-Sharif (the Noble Sanctuary)
9Sacred sites of jerusalem cont. Control over Jerusalem has been fought over for much of historyMuslims ultimately retook the land in 1187, and later Christian crusaders were unable to conquer it againThe Crusades helped cement a commitment by Christians to protect the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Similarly, the Crusades and then Zionism cemented a commitment by Muslims to protect the Dome of the Rock and by Jews to protect the Western Wall********** commitment by three major religions to protect and control their sacred sites has led to political turmoil*************
10Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism Varanasi, India: Hindus perform morning rituals in the Ganges River at one of Hinduism’s most sacred places, the city of Varanasi, known as the city of Lord Shiva
11Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism Traditional Hinduism is more a way of life than a faithPilgrimages follow prescribed routesRituals are attended by million of peopleHindus believe that the erection of a temple bestows merit on the builder and will be rewardedAs a result, the Hindu cultural landscape is dotted with countless shrines, ranging from small village temple to structures so large and elaborate that they are virtually holy cities
12Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism Cont. The location of shrines is important because Hindus prescribe that such holy places should minimally disrupt the natural landscapeHindu temple is located in a “comforatble” positionEx. Temples or shrines located under large, shady treesHindus want their temples to be near water because many gods will not venture fat form waterAlso, water has a holy function, ritual bathing, in Hinduism
13Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism Cont. The cultural landscape of Hinduism is the cultural landscape of India, its main culture regionTemples, shrines, holy animals, holy men, sights and sounds of long processions and rituals all contribute to unique atmosphere
14Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism CONt. When Buddha received enlightenment, he sat under a large tree, the Bodhi (Enlightenment) tree at Bodh Gaya in IndiaIs tree is currently revered and protectedBuddhists make pilgrimages to Bodh Gaya and other places where Buddha may have taught beneath Bodhi branchesBuddhist shrines include stupas, bell-shaped structures that protect burial moundsAlso constucts temples that enshrine an image of Buddha in his familiar cross-legged pose, as well as large monasteries that tower over the local landscape
15Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism cont. The pogoda is perhaps Buddhism’s most familiar structureShape is derived form the relic mounds of oldEvery fragment of it construction is meaningful representation of Buddhist philosophy
16Landscapes of hinduism and buddhism cont. Along with religious structures such as temples, we can see evidence of religion in the cultural landscapes of the deadCremate their deadWherever large pocket of Hindus, Buddhists, or Shintoists live, a crematorium will be nearby
17Landscapes of Christianity St. Michael’s Tower rises over Bordeaux, France, marking the importance of the Catholic Church in Bordeaux’s history and culture.
18Landscapes of Christianity Cont. Cultural landscapes of Christianity’s branches reflect the changes the faith has undergone over the centuriesIn medieval Europe, the cathedral, church, and monastery was the focus of lifeAs a result of mercantilism and colonialism, Europeans exported the ornate architecture of European Christian churches wherever they settled
19Landscapes of Christianity Cont. Reformation, the rise of secularism, and decline of organized religion are reflected tooOrnate churches function as museums rather than serving active congregationFamous cathedrals continue to hold services while tourist peruse the interior of the vast churchesChurches with specific saints, places where significant events occurred, and Vatican City in Rome, are still major pilgrimage sites in Europe
21Landscapes of islamFives time every day, form the towering minarets, the faithful are called to prayerAt the height of Islam’s expansion into eastern North Africa and southern Europe, Muslim architects incorporated earlier Roman models into their designsResult included Alhambra Palace in Granada and the Great Mosque of Cordoba in SpainIslam’s prohibition against depicting the human form led to the wide use of geometric designs and calligraph
22Landscapes of islam cont. Muslim architecture represents the unifying concept of Islamic monotheism: the perfection and vastness of the spirit of AllahThe mosque symbolizes the power of the faith and its role in the communityIts primacy in the cultural landscape confirms the degree to which, in much of the Muslim world, religion and culture are oneHajj- one of the most well-known pilgrimages in the modern world of the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
23Landscapes of islam Cont. One of the five pillars of Islam, the hajj requires all Muslims to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during their lifetimeOver 1.3 million Muslims from outside of Saudia Arabia and over 1 million from inside the country make the hajjSaudi government now restricts number of visas granted each year to Muslims from outside the country because in 2004, over 259 pilgrims were trampled to death as hordes of people followed steps of pilgrimageIncreasing number of apartment buildings and hotels reflect growing number of pilgrims however
24Isfahan, Iran The dome of this mosque demonstrates the geometric art evident in Muslim architecture
25Mecca, Saudi Arabia Pilgrims circle the holy Kaaba in the grand Mosque in Mecca during the hajj.