Presentation on theme: "Research Methodology Chapter 1. Definition of Research Search for facts – answer to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive and organized."— Presentation transcript:
Research Methodology Chapter 1
Definition of Research Search for facts – answer to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive and organized inquiry.
Business research is defined as the systematic and objective process of generating information for solving a problem or finding solution to a complex issue (aid in making business decisions). Definition of Business Research
Business Research Literally, research (re-search) - search again Business research must be objective Detached and impersonal rather than biased It facilitates the managerial decision process for all aspects of a business.
Objectives of Business Research To extends knowledge To discovered new information Theory building To verify and test existing facts and theory To analysis inter-relationships between variables Aims to find solution to current problems
Types of Research Basic Research –Generating scientific knowledge for future use (Common use). Applied Research –Undertaken to solve existing problem.
Basic Research Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge. Not directly involved in the solution to a practical problem.
Basic Research Example Is executive success correlated with high need for achievement? Coupons versus rebates as demand stimulation tactics Compensation Systems and Labour Productivity Factors determining share prices
Applied Research Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem
Applied Research Examples Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners to its menu? –Business research told McDonalds it should not? Should Procter & Gamble add a high- priced home teeth bleaching kit to its product line? –Research showed Crest White strips would sell well at a retail price of RM44
Basic Differences Between Basic and Applied Research Applied Research –what is the problem is an important step in resolving that problem. –What problems to analysis may be outside the individual researcher domain –Researcher role is examine analytically and a course of action recommended Basic Research –Problem based on the researcher interest to expand understanding of the subject –Selection of the problem is totally the choice of the researcher –Some value judgment may be made,action is not recommended
Research and Business Primary objective is to provide information that improves the decision-making process of an organization. These information reduce managerial uncertainty in each stages of development and implementation of a strategy.
The Decision-making Process Associated with the Development and Implementation of a Strategy Identifying problems and opportunities Diagnosis and assessment Selecting and implementing a course of action Evaluating the course of action
Identifying Problem Research may be used as scanning activity to provide information about what is occurring within the organization or in the business environment. Example: Analysis the Business Environment –Privatization and globalization in the developing countries –Fast economic growth in developing countries –It all leads to demand for Car
Diagnosis and Assessment Managers need to gain insight about the underlying factors causing the situation. They should know what happened, why and how. Example: Diagnosis the Demand –What is the expected growth of demand for car –What is the purchasing power of the people in the developing country –Consumers taste and preference –Competition in the market segment
Selection and Implementation Research helps to obtain specific information that will aid in evaluating the alternatives and in selecting the best course of action. Example: –Cost effective model to satisfy the consumers in the developing country –Place of production or export –Choose a place where potential consumers are more.
Evaluation Research Evaluation research is the formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives. Example: –Performance analysis
Determining When to Conduct Business Research Time constraints Availability of data Nature of the decision Benefits versus costs
Is sufficient time available before a managerial decision must be made? Is the infor- mation already on hand inadequate for making the decision? Is the decision of considerable strategic or tactical importance? Does the value of the research information exceed the cost of conducting research? Conducting Business Research Do Not Conduct Business Research Time Constraints Availability of Data Nature of the Decision Benefits vs. Costs Yes No Determining When to Conduct Business Research
Value versus Costs Potential Value of a Business Research Effort Should Exceed Its Estimated Costs
Value Decreased uncertainty Increased likelihood of a correct decision Improved business performance and resulting higher profits Costs Research expenditures Delay of business decision and possible disclosure of information to rivals Possible erroneous research results Value Should Exceed Estimated Costs
Why should a Manager Know Research? Facilitate good decision making Become discriminating about research findings Issues of inside versus outside researcher To share relevant information with researcher Understand complex issues, variables, calculate risk, probabilities, etc.
Internal Researcher Advantages: –Better acceptance from the staff –Knowledge about the organization –Would be integral part of implementation and evaluation of the research recommendations Limitations: –Less fresh ideas –Power Politics –May not be valued as experts by staff
External Researcher Advantages: –Experience from several situations –Better technical training Limitations: Time to understand the organizational system Cooperation from the staffs is not easy Not available for evaluation after implementation cost