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Varsha Varde1 Business Research Methods Introduction to Research.

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1 Varsha Varde1 Business Research Methods Introduction to Research

2 A Corporate Problem  Newly appointed VP (Finance) strongly believes that staffing her accounts dept only with CAs (instead of commerce or management graduates) will grossly improve its performance.  On what basis can the Company accept or reject her idea? Varsha Varde

3 A Corporate Problem  An expensive Ad campaign is running on TV for 3 weeks.  Not produced expected jump in sales in major sales territories  Marketing manager has to decide whether to discontinue campaign, change it or reconfirm that it is good  If Ad campaign is good it is some other marketing variable such as price, or distribution or strong competitive promotion are reasons for low sales  On what basis can the manager take this decision ? Varsha Varde

4 A Corporate Problem  A company wants to launch a new brand of deodorant in the market  It desires to know how to position the brand in the market  It needs estimate of market size in the chosen segment  How to fulfil the information need of the company? Varsha Varde

5 A Corporate Problem  A company has launched a new brand of frost free refrigerator  After six months it wants to determine customer satisfaction with the new brand  How to determine the customer satisfaction in an authentic manner? Varsha Varde

6 A TV Channel Problem  A popular music channel on TV desire information on  Who is the most popular video jockey?  Which show is most watched?  How to fulfil this requirement? Varsha Varde

7 A Public Utility Problem  BEST wants to increase occupancy  Should it drop fares by 5%, 7.5%, or 10%?  On all days, only weekends, or weekdays?  For AC buses, express, or ordinary buses?  In city, west suburbs, or east suburbs? Varsha Varde

8 A Union Budget Problem  Would a 10% reduction in excise duty lead to more than 10% increase in demand & production of manufactured goods?  For which product categories?  For large companies, or SMEs, or both? Varsha Varde

9 9 Traditional Real Life Riddle Are bullion, real estate and commodities supplementary or complementary to Indian private equity (PE) market in short term? In medium term? In long term?

10 Real Life Problems  All these problems are too important to be tackled in a naïve manner.  They need a systematic research study. Varsha Varde

11 11 Definition Business research is defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering,recording and analysing data that generates information to guide business decisions.

12 Varsha Varde12 USE OF BUSINESS REASEARCH BR is used to help solving operational and planning problems in various functional areas in a business organisation Marketing: To understand market trends To Gain Competitive advantage Finance: To find the best investment option HR : To devise effective HR policies Manufacturing : To find optimal product mix

13 Basic research Applied research Business Research Types

14 Basic Research Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge. Not directly involved in the solution to a specific problem. Concerned with generalizations and formulation of theory

15 Basic Research Example Is executive success correlated with high need for achievement? Are members of highly cohesive work groups more satisfied than members of less cohesive work groups? Understanding consumer buying process Research conducted at universities by academic researchers

16 Applied Research Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem

17 Applied Research Examples Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners to its menu? Business research told McDonald’s it should not? Should Procter & Gamble add a high- priced home teeth bleaching kit to its product line? Evaluating impact of a training programme on employee performance

18 Varsha Varde18 Techniques for research Both the research forms use scientific methods in various stages of research process

19 Scientific Method Scientific method is method of all logically trained minds It involves the analysis and interpretation of empirical evidence (facts from observation or experimentation) to confirm or disprove prior conceptions.

20 Varsha Varde20 Use Of Scientific Method Basic Research :testing prior conception making inferences establishing general laws Applied Research : assures objectivity in gathering facts and testing creative ideas for alternative business strategy

21 Varsha Varde21 Role of Business Research in decision Making It provides accurate,timely and relevant information to the Top Management in various stages of decision making process

22 Stages in Decision Making Identifying problems and opportunities Diagnosis and assessment Selecting a course of action Implementing a course of action Evaluating the course of action

23 Varsha Varde23 Identifying problems and opportunities BR helps in identifying problems and opportunities through scanning internal & external business environment Problems: Loss of market share : Decline in profits : IR problems : Ad campaign not effective Opportunities: To tap a new market : To introduce a new product :To seek a new investment opportunity : To take over a new unit

24 Varsha Varde24 Diagnosis and assessment After identifying problem/opportunity BR helps in provision of diagnostic information For problems specify what happened & why For opportunities explore,clarify & refine the nature of opportunity For multiple opportunities set priorities For prioritization of problems study its influence on business operations & time factor Quantitative and qualitative investigations are carried out to identify alternative courses of action

25 Varsha Varde25 Assessment of problems and opportunities Indian apparel company that wants to enter US market can undertake BR in -Identifying fashion trends in the market -Determining brand awareness about the company among customers -Perception about the company among the potential employees -Examining competitors and their characteristics -Understanding American consumer behaviour

26 Varsha Varde26 Selecting a course of action After identifying alternative courses of action BR is conducted to obtain specific information that will aid in evaluating alternatives & selecting the best course of action -Selection of a marketing strategy using results of consumer-jury test -Selection of investment option using results of forecasts of revenue potential

27 Varsha Varde27 Implementing & Evaluating a course of action After selecting the best course of action it has to be effectively implemented.At this stage BR is mainly used to evaluate, monitor and control the programmes that are being implemented. BR serves as a tool to find out -Whether planned activities were properly executed -Whether they accomplished what they were expected to accomplish Tools used :Performance Monitoring Research : Evaluation Research

28 Evaluation Research Evaluation research is the formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives. -Evaluation of discount coupon scheme is carried out by comparing coupon redemption rate with the objectives set for the scheme

29 Performance-monitoring Research Research that regularly provides feedback for evaluation and control Indicates things are or are not going as planned Research may be required to explain why something “went wrong” -Continuously tracking sales at retail stores to identify products with high sales,buying behaviour of consumers and consumer preferences towards its products

30 Determining When to Conduct Business Research Time constraints Availability of data Nature of the decision Benefits versus costs

31 Is sufficient time available before a managerial decision must be made? Is the infor- mation already on hand inadequate for making the decision? Is the decision of considerable strategic or tactical importance? Does the value of the research information exceed the cost of conducting research? Conducting Business Research Do Not Conduct Business Research Time Constraints Availability of Data Nature of the Decision Benefits vs. Costs Yes No Determining When to Conduct Business Research

32 Varsha Varde32 Value versus Costs Potential Value of a Business Research Effort Should Exceed Its Estimated Costs

33 Value Decreased uncertainty Increased likelihood of a correct decision Improved business performance and resulting higher profits Costs Research expenditures Delay of business decision and possible disclosure of information to rivals Possible erroneous research results Value Should Exceed Estimated Costs

34 Major Topics for Research in Business General Business Conditions and Corporate Research Financial and Accounting Research Management and Organizational Behavior Research Sales and Marketing Research Information Systems Research Corporate Responsibility Research

35 Cross-functional Teams Cross-functional teams are composed of individuals from various organizational departments such as engineering, production, finance, and marketing who share a common purpose.

36 Varsha Varde36 Business Research in the 21st Century Increased globalization Growth of the Internet and other information technologies

37 Global Research Business Research is increasingly global Market knowledge is essential A.C. Nielsen - more that 67% international business Indian Companies- ORG_MARG IMRB

38 Varsha Varde38 Global Business Research General information about country - economic conditions and political climate Cultural and consumer factors Market and competitive conditions - demand estimation

39 Varsha Varde39 The Internet Is Transforming Society Time is collapsing. Distance is no longer an obstacle. Crossing oceans is only a mouse click away. People are connected 24 hours a day, seven days a week. "Instantaneous" has a new meaning.

40 Varsha Varde40 Internet Research Seeking facts and figures about an issue Surveys on Web sites

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