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APUSH REVIEW 1968 Election, Nixon’s Domestic Policy, Supreme Court: Liberalism v. Conservatism, Nixon & Vietnam, Foreign Policy Under Nixon, Watergate.

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Presentation on theme: "APUSH REVIEW 1968 Election, Nixon’s Domestic Policy, Supreme Court: Liberalism v. Conservatism, Nixon & Vietnam, Foreign Policy Under Nixon, Watergate."— Presentation transcript:

1 APUSH REVIEW 1968 Election, Nixon’s Domestic Policy, Supreme Court: Liberalism v. Conservatism, Nixon & Vietnam, Foreign Policy Under Nixon, Watergate As found in Barron’s Study Keys EZ-101 American History 1877 to the Present Published 1992

2 Theme 14: Leadership in Crisis
In response to the social unrest of the early 1960s, the end of the decade was characterized by a call for social order. Public attention turned to inflation, declining productivity, and limited growth. Concern about the economy was coupled with the crisis in authority precipitated by the Watergate Affair. When President Nixon resigned in 1974, public respect for authority had reached a new low

3 Key 76: A turning point - the 1968 election
Overview: Richard Nixon sought the presidency in At that time, the Democratic Party was in disarray after President Lyndon Johnson’s announcement that he would no seek or accept renomination Johnson’s withdrawal (March 31, 1968): Since his showing in the primaries was poor, President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection for president and declared a halt to the bombing of North Vietnam Eugene McCarthy: A Minnesota senator who entered the Democratic presidential primaries as an antiwar candidate He drew support from many young people and mobilized concern about the Vietnam War He became a serious contender for the Democratic presidential primary, but failed to win the nomination Robert F. Kennedy and his assassination (June 5, 1968) As one of the Democratic contenders for the presidential nomination, Kennedy defeated Eugene McCarthy in the California primary A young Palestinian, Sirhan Sirhan, opposed Kennedy’s pro-Israel stand Shortly after Kennedy had given a victory speech, Sirhan shot him in the head as he was leaving the ballroom of a Los Angeles hotel. Kennedy died shortly thereafter. Chicago Riot (August 28, 1968) While the Democratic national convention met, Chicago police fought with antiwar demonstrators. The scene was televised nationwide and showed police using billy clubs, mace, and tear gas The protests were part of a building resentment and distrust of the Johnson administration policies in Vietnam In

4 Key 76: A turning point - the 1968 election
Election of 1968: Voters were offered a choice of three candidates A disunited Democratic party chose Vice President Hubert Humphrey as its candidate. Humphrey disassociated himself from Johnson’s war effort, but identified himself with his domestic policies Seen as a middle of the road candidate Had a strong record on civil rights Richard M. Nixon as the Republican candidate, made a remarkable political comeback from his defeats in the 1960 presidential election and the 1962 California gubernatorial election. He portrayed himself as the representative of the “silent majority” He promised “peace with honor” in Vietnam, law and order at home, and smaller gov’t He received 43% of the popular vote and won the election A third party candidate, George C. Wallace, of Alabama, appealed to some conservative voters. He denounced forced busing of students, black riots, student protests, and antiwar demonstrations His campaign slogan called for law and order He claimed allegiance to the interests of the poor In

5 Key 77: Nixon’s domestic policy
Overview: President Nixon sought to balance the needs of the poor with those of the middle class. Also, he attempted to reduce federal interference in local affairs “New Federalism”: Nixon’s policy to balance the power of the federal gov’t and the interests of local communities. Programs would allow the power and resources of Washington to flow back to the states and their localities Curtailment of federal programs: Funding was reduced or cut off for many social programs, and in 1973 the Office Of Economic Opportunity was abolished. “Stagflation” Term used to denote an economic condition characterized by high prices and low demand, such as prevailed throughout the 1970s Economic Stabilization Act (1970) Imposed a 90 day freeze on all wages and prices Phase II of Nixon’s economic plan mandated guidelines for wage and price increases, administered under a federal agency Phase III made wage and price controls flexible and largely voluntary Moon landing (July, 1969) Fulfilling the promise of John F. Kennedy to place a man on the moon by the end of the decade, the U.S. achieved its goal Astronauts Mike Collins, Neil Armstrong, and Edwin Aldrin, in Apollo 11, landed on the moon Neil Armstrong’s first steps on the lunar surface were televised. Later President Nixon was viewed by millions speaking with the astronauts by telephone Samples of moon rocks were brought back to earth Costs of the space program brought differences of opinion regarding its worth when weighed against domestic problems In

6 Key 77: Nixon’s domestic policy
Environmental awareness: Related to the energy crisis was a growing public concern for environmental protection The pesticide DDT was banned in 1969 by the Agriculture Department The Clean Air Act was passed in 1970 The Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) were created in 1970 The Resource Recovery Act approved in 1970, provided money for states and cities to build solid-waste disposal systems and to recycle salvageable materials Development of supersonic air transport was dropped by Congress in 1971 The Clean Water Act was approved in 1972 Spiro T. Agnew’s resignation: On October 11, 1973, Agnew resigned as vice president of the United States While governor of Maryland, he had taken bribes from contractors and had even received “kickbacks” as vice president Charged with income tax evasion and extortion, he pleaded no contest In addition to resigning as vice president, he was fined $10,000, disbarred as a lawyer, and place on 3 years’ probation Under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, which provided for presidential succession, Nixon nominated Gerald R. Ford, a Republican congressman from Michigan, as vice president Key Quotation “One small step for man, one giant step for mankind” Astronaut Neil Armstrong Apollo 11 mission, moon landing, July 1969 In

7 Key 78: The Supreme Court: Liberalism v. Conservatism
Overview: The Nixon administration sought to curb the civil liberties trend of the Supreme Court established during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Warren Court decisions: The Warren Court advocated civil liberties and alienated many Americans by its decisions Engel v. Vitale (1962): Prayers in public school were ruled unconstitutional, based on the separation of church and state in the First Amendment Baker v. Carr (1962): State legislatures must apportion representation so that votes of all citizens carry equal weight. This decision established the “one person, one vote” rule Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): The precedent that, regardless of ability to pay, every felony defendant is entitled to the Sixth Amendment right to a lawyer is established Escobedo v. Illinois (1964): A defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before being questioned by police Miranda v. Arizona (1966): Authorities must inform criminal suspects of their Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights “Burger” or “Nixon” Court decisions: After the resignation of Chief Justice Earl Warren, Nixon appointed conservative-minded Warren Burger to lead the Court Under Burger, the Supreme Court actually extended social reform Swann v. Charlotte-Meckenburg Board of Education (1971): Supported forced busing to achieve racial balance in schools Furman v. George (1972) created guidelines for Eight Amendment capital punishment laws Roe v. Wade (1973) legalized abortion during the first trimester Milliken v. Bradley (1974) Ruled that busing would not take place across district lines The concept that suburban and city schools had to be combined to achieve racial balance was rejected Violence occurred in Boston between 1974 and 1976 over court-ordered busing Bakke v. University of California (1978) Absolute quotas were declared illegal The Court ordered that Allen Bakke be admitted to the University of California at Davis Medical School It upheld the principal of affirmative action, however, by ruling that racial factors could be considered in hiring or admission decisions In

8 Key 79: Nixon and the war in Vietnam
Overview: President Nixon pursued a foreign policy that sought a more stable world. He ended the war in Vietnam Henry Kissinger: As Nixon’s National Security Council chief and later as secretary of state, he was instrumental in shaping and implementing Nixon’s foreign policy initiatives Vietnamization: Nixon’s policy for winding down the war It consisted of training and equipping the South Vietnamese military to replace U.S. forces In 1969, 60,000 U.S. ground troops were withdrawn from Vietnam By 1972, only 24,200 U.S. troops remained in Vietnam This strategy undermined opposition to the war Widening War: While troops strength was being reduced in Vietnam, bombing raids over North Vietnam and neighboring countries increased In 1969, Nixon ordered secret bombing raids of neutral Cambodia During the spring of 1970, U.S. ground forces invaded Cambodia to destroy enemy troop sanctuaries. This action, announced by Nixon on television, sparked widespread antiwar protests. In December 1970, Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Nixon ordered the air force into Laos to assist the South Vietnamese forces in 1971 The South Vietnamese army retreated within a few weeks reeling from their defeat in Laos Bombing of Vietnam and Cambodia continued, and by 1972 it was escalated again in response to a North Vietnamese offensive In addition, seven North Vietnamese harbors were mined. Pentegon Papers Leaked to the press by former Dept of Defense official Daniel Ellsberg, they revealed that the gov’t had been dishonest in reporting the military progress of the war and in detailing its motives for U.S. involvement Excerpts appeared in The New York Times and in other papers in 1971 The Supreme Court upheld the publication of the papers In

9 Key 79: Nixon and the war in Vietnam
Lt. William Calley: Tried and convicted, in 1971, of overseeing the massacre of over 100 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians. The case exemplified the dehumanizing impact of the war Twenty-sixth Amendment 1971: Gave 18 year olds the right to vote. This amendment was widely supported because the average age of U.S. personnel dying in Vietnam was 19, younger than those in Korea “Peace with Honor” During the summer and fall of 1972, Kissinger had been meeting with the North Vietnamese foreign secretary, Le Duc Tuo, in Paris, to arrange a cease-fire When talks broke off in Dec, 12 days of bombing North Vietnamese cities resulted Talks resumed, and on January 27, 1973, an agreement ending the war was signed by the U.S., North Vietnam, South Vietnam,a nd the “Provisional Republican Gov’t” of the South Paris Accords: The peace agreement that ended the Vietnam War Provisions included a cease-fire and release of several hundred American prisoners of war by the North Vietnamese Provisions did not include a stipulation for withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops from the South or the abandonment of the Communist commitment to a reunified Vietnam Aftermath of the Accords: The situation in Southeast Asia was as follows: Communist forces controlled most of Laos The bombing of Communist havens in Cambodia ceased in August 1973 By 1975, Communist forces overran the South, occupied Saigon, and renamed if Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam had been reunited under communism Cambodia fell to communism as well U.S. involvement in Vietnam resulted in the deaths of 1.2 million Vietnamese soldiers and over 57,000 Americans The War Powers Act 1973:Required the president to report use of military force to Congress within 48 hours and directed the end of involvement within 60 days unless Congress declares war In

10 Key 80: Foreign Policy Under Nixon
Overview: With Kissinger, Richard Nixon reconceptualized older foreign policy assumptions. Both recognized that the world was now dominated by 3 power centers - America, Europe, and Japan. The administration sought accommodation with the Soviet Union and the recognition of China as a significant world power Detente: Under Nixon, a relaxation of tensions between Communist nations and the U.S. took place Nixon Doctrine 1969: This policy statement was designed to avoid involvement in another Vietnam The U.S. would honor its treaty commitments, including economic and military aid Nations threatened by internal subversion or nonnuclear aggression should provide for their own defense This provision meant troop reduction in Korea and an agreement to return Okinawa to the Japanese Relations with China: Henry Kissinger was sent on a secret mission to Beijing in July 1971 By October 1971, China had been admitted to the United Nations and Taiwan expelled In February, 1972, Nixon made a week long visit to China. In 1973, the two nations established “liaison offices” in Washington and Beijing that were, in effect, embassies This new relationship was designed to use China as a wedge against the U.S.S R. SALT talks: These discussions took place in Helsinki, beginning in 1969 and resulted in SALT I, a Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. This accord limited the construction of antiballistic missile systems (ABMs) Each nation agreed to limit itself to its existing number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) After Nixon’s visit to Moscow to sign the agreement, a Soviet American wheat deal and other trade agreements were made Latin America : The U.S. poured money into Chile to undermine its elected Marxist president, Salvador Allende He was murdered shortly after he lost power in 1973 The new repressive go’vt received military and economic support from the U.S. Middle East: During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israeli forces defeated Arab armies and seized territory form Egypt, Jordan, and Syria Thereafter, Palestinian Arab refugees fomented instability in Jordan and Lebanon Egyptian and Syrian forces attacked Israel in Oct 1973 After 10 days of fighting, the U.S. pressed for a cease fire to what was become known as the Yom Kippur War U.S. dependence on Arab oil forced a consideration of Arab interests in the region In

11 Key 81: The Watergate Crisis
Overview: by 1973, a crisis in authority was precipitated by an attempted cover up of a break-in of Democratic headquarters at the Watergate Hotel. When President Nixon resigned in 1974, the public respect for authority had reached a new low Election of 1972: Incumbent President Richard M. Nixon defeated his Democratic opponent, South Dakota Senator George S. McGovern, by receiving 61% of the popular vote. The people found Nixon’s proposals appealing: advancing traditional values, restraining social reform, decentralizing political power, balancing international relations George Wallace: he received strong support in some early Democratic primaries, but in May 1972 was shot and seriously wounded at a rally in Md. Senator George S. McGovern: Charging that the Nixon administration had corruptly abused its power, the Democratic presidential nominee was an outspoken critic of the Vietnam War He also took a liberal stance on most social and economic issues He lost support by changing running mates Senator Thomas F. Eagleton, from Missouri, was asked to leave the ticket after it was revealed he had undergone electroshock therapy for nervous depression Eagleton was replaced by Sargent Shriver White House paranoia: Nixon’s first administration had been marked by secrecy and mistrust Cambodia bombing: in early 1969 The New York Times published an expose of America’s secret bombing raids in Cambodia. Fearing further leaks of information, the White House se up illegal wiretaps of newspeople and the National Security Council Pentagon Papers: In an attempt to find damaging evidence ot discredit Daniel Ellsberg, the Defense Dept analyst who helped to publicize American blunders during the Tet Offensive of 1968, the White House approved the burglarizing of his psychiatrist’s office The “plumbers” G. Gordon Liddy and Howard Hunt were hired by the White House to plug leaks of gov’t material In

12 Key 81: The Watergate Crisis
Watergate break-in: On June 17, 1972, five men were arrested at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. The five burglars who were arrested had several accomplices, including security consultants in the White House and a member of the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) Washington Post reporters Robert Woodward and Carl Bernstein help uncover much of the incident. Their secret source Deep Throat was revealed in 2005 to be Dep. Dir of FBI William Felt Cover Up: Nixon’s top assistant, H,.R. Haldeman, was ordered to have the CIA stop FBI probes that connected the burglars with the White House Nixon’s resignation: In May 1973, former Nixon aide John Dean implicated President Nixon in the cover up before a Senate committee, chaired by Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina Tape recordings of White House conversations could implicate Nixon. Invoking his executive privilege, he refused to release them On July 30, 1974, the House of Representatives voted three articles of impeachment: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and subverting the Constitution On August 5, 1974, Nixon released the tapes upon orders of the Supreme Court. They revealed his part in a cover-up attempt beginning 6 days after the break in On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned the presidency. One month later, President Gerald R. Ford pardoned his predecessor Impact of Watergate: Congress passed two acts: Fair Campaign Practices Act of 1974: demanded stricter accounting of campaign expenditures and limited campaign contributions Freedom of Information Act of 1974 strengthened the act of 1966, providing citizens with greater access to any file the gov’t may have collected on them and permitted photocopying of the contents by interested persons Privacy Act of 1974 allowed citizens the right to examine gov’t agency files collected on them In

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