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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 24 WAR IN VIETNAM Section 1: Background to Conflict Section 2: The War.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 24 WAR IN VIETNAM Section 1: Background to Conflict Section 2: The War."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 1 Chapter 24 WAR IN VIETNAM Section 1: Background to Conflict Section 2: The War Escalates Section 3: A Turning Point Section 4: The War Ends

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 2 Objectives: Why did China and France want to control Vietnam? Why did China and France want to control Vietnam? Why did the United States refuse to support Vietnamese independence in the 1940s and 1950s? Why did the United States refuse to support Vietnamese independence in the 1940s and 1950s? Why did President Kennedy increase U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Why did President Kennedy increase U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Section 1: Background to Conflict

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 3 Reasons for wanting control of Vietnam China wanted Vietnam’s agricultural resources. China wanted Vietnam’s agricultural resources. France was imperialistic and wanted colonial possessions. France was imperialistic and wanted colonial possessions. Section 1: Background to Conflict

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 4 Lack of American support for Vietnamese independence valued France as an ally against communism valued France as an ally against communism disliked Ho Chi Minh’s affiliation with Communist Party disliked Ho Chi Minh’s affiliation with Communist Party feared the domino effect in Southeast Asia feared the domino effect in Southeast Asia Section 1: Background to Conflict

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 5 Reasons for increasing American involvement Kennedy believed in the domino theory. Kennedy believed in the domino theory. Kennedy wanted to improve U.S. image in the world. Kennedy wanted to improve U.S. image in the world. Section 1: Background to Conflict

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 6 Objectives: What constitutional issue did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution raise? What constitutional issue did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution raise? What strategies did U.S. forces use in the Vietnam War? What strategies did U.S. forces use in the Vietnam War? What role did the media play in the Vietnam War? What role did the media play in the Vietnam War? Why did some Americans oppose the war, and how did the government respond? Why did some Americans oppose the war, and how did the government respond? Section 2: The War Escalates

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 7 The Tonkin Gulf Resolution and the Constitution The Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave the President the power to respond to aggression without Congressional approval, which meant Congress gave up its constitutional power to declare war. Section 2: The War Escalates

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 8 U.S. strategies escalation escalation bombing of targets in the North, then areas of Laos and much of South Vietnam bombing of targets in the North, then areas of Laos and much of South Vietnam use of defoliants and napalm use of defoliants and napalm search-and-destroy missions search-and-destroy missions pacification pacification Section 2: The War Escalates

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 9 Role of the media fewer press restrictions than ever before fewer press restrictions than ever before showed graphic images of the horror of war showed graphic images of the horror of war gave information concerning corruption in Diem regime and ineptitude of South Vietnamese troops gave information concerning corruption in Diem regime and ineptitude of South Vietnamese troops caused Americans to doubt whether the war was right caused Americans to doubt whether the war was right caused Americans to doubt if the war could be won caused Americans to doubt if the war could be won Section 2: The War Escalates

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 10 American opposition to the war opposed all wars opposed all wars thought Vietnam War took money from social programs thought Vietnam War took money from social programs believed Vietnam was not crucial to U.S. security believed Vietnam was not crucial to U.S. security feared that nuclear weapons would be used feared that nuclear weapons would be used Section 2: The War Escalates Government response The government insisted that the U.S. was defending an ally against aggression.

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 11 Objectives: Why did the Tet Offensive weaken many Americans’ confidence in their government? Why did the Tet Offensive weaken many Americans’ confidence in their government? What were the key events of the 1968 presidential campaign? What were the key events of the 1968 presidential campaign? How did President Nixon attempt to end the war? How did President Nixon attempt to end the war? How did Americans react to President Nixon’s plan to end the war? How did Americans react to President Nixon’s plan to end the war? Section 3: A Turning Point

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 12 The Tet Offensive revealed that no part of South Vietnam was secure revealed that no part of South Vietnam was secure exposed how few South Vietnamese supported their own government exposed how few South Vietnamese supported their own government revealed how determined the North Vietnamese were revealed how determined the North Vietnamese were Section 3: A Turning Point

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 13 Key events in 1968 campaign March: McCarthy nearly ties Johnson in the New Hampshire primary. March: McCarthy nearly ties Johnson in the New Hampshire primary. March 31: Johnson withdraws. March 31: Johnson withdraws. June: Robert Kennedy wins California primary and is assassinated. June: Robert Kennedy wins California primary and is assassinated. August: Police attack antiwar protesters at Democratic convention in Chicago. August: Police attack antiwar protesters at Democratic convention in Chicago. November: Nixon wins. November: Nixon wins. Section 3: A Turning Point

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 14 Nixon’s attempts to end the war begins Vietnamization and gradual withdrawal of American troops begins Vietnamization and gradual withdrawal of American troops orders widespread bombing in Cambodia orders widespread bombing in Cambodia Section 3: A Turning Point

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 15 American reaction Bombing and invasion of Cambodia caused outrage. Bombing and invasion of Cambodia caused outrage. Campus unrest escalated, including the Kent State shootings. Campus unrest escalated, including the Kent State shootings. Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Section 3: A Turning Point

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 16 Objectives: Why did the United States agree to a cease-fire in January 1973? Why did the United States agree to a cease-fire in January 1973? What long-term effects did the war have on Vietnam and the Vietnamese people? What long-term effects did the war have on Vietnam and the Vietnamese people? What long-term effects did the war have on Americans? What long-term effects did the war have on Americans? Section 4: The War Ends

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 17 The cease-fire of 1973 In October of 1972, North Vietnam and the U.S. agreed on a peace plan. In October of 1972, North Vietnam and the U.S. agreed on a peace plan. South Vietnam’s president, afraid of losing power, rejected the agreement. South Vietnam’s president, afraid of losing power, rejected the agreement. North Vietnam demanded the agreement be reinstated, but Nixon ordered round-the-clock bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong instead. North Vietnam demanded the agreement be reinstated, but Nixon ordered round-the-clock bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong instead. Intensive bombing did not sway the North Vietnamese. Intensive bombing did not sway the North Vietnamese. A new agreement, not very different from the first, was reached in January, A new agreement, not very different from the first, was reached in January, Section 4: The War Ends

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 18 Long-term effects on Vietnam and its people Estimates of dead, orphaned, and disabled ran into millions. Estimates of dead, orphaned, and disabled ran into millions. Economy devastated. Economy devastated. North Vietnam united with South Vietnam in North Vietnam united with South Vietnam in Section 4: The War Ends

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT IN THE MODERN ERA 19 Long-term effects on Americans More than 60,000 killed and missing, more than 300,000 wounded. More than 60,000 killed and missing, more than 300,000 wounded. Veterans badly treated for years. Veterans badly treated for years. Americans lost faith in their government. Americans lost faith in their government. Congress passed the War Powers Act. Congress passed the War Powers Act. National debt grew and inflation was fueled. National debt grew and inflation was fueled. Section 4: The War Ends


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