Presentation on theme: "The American Nation In the Modern Era"— Presentation transcript:
1The American Nation In the Modern Era 4/6/2017Chapter 24 WAR IN VIETNAMSection 1: Background to ConflictSection 2: The War EscalatesSection 3: A Turning PointSection 4: The War EndsCHAPTER 24--WAR IN VIETNAM
2Objectives: Section 1: Background to Conflict Why did China and France want to control Vietnam?Why did the United States refuse to support Vietnamese independence in the 1940s and 1950s?Why did President Kennedy increase U.S. involvement in Vietnam?
3Reasons for wanting control of Vietnam Section 1: Background to ConflictReasons for wanting control of VietnamChina wanted Vietnam’s agricultural resources.France was imperialistic and wanted colonial possessions.
4Lack of American support for Vietnamese independence Section 1: Background to ConflictLack of American support for Vietnamese independencevalued France as an ally against communismdisliked Ho Chi Minh’s affiliation with Communist Partyfeared the domino effect in Southeast Asia
5Reasons for increasing American involvement Section 1: Background to ConflictReasons for increasing American involvementKennedy believed in the domino theory.Kennedy wanted to improve U.S. image in the world.
6Objectives: Section 2: The War Escalates What constitutional issue did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution raise?What strategies did U.S. forces use in the Vietnam War?What role did the media play in the Vietnam War?Why did some Americans oppose the war, and how did the government respond?
7The Tonkin Gulf Resolution and the Constitution Section 2: The War EscalatesThe Tonkin Gulf Resolution and the ConstitutionThe Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave the President the power to respond to aggression without Congressional approval, which meant Congress gave up its constitutional power to declare war.
8U.S. strategies Section 2: The War Escalates escalation bombing of targets in the North, then areas of Laos and much of South Vietnamuse of defoliants and napalmsearch-and-destroy missionspacification
9Role of the media Section 2: The War Escalates fewer press restrictions than ever beforeshowed graphic images of the horror of wargave information concerning corruption in Diem regime and ineptitude of South Vietnamese troopscaused Americans to doubt whether the war was rightcaused Americans to doubt if the war could be won
10American opposition to the war Section 2: The War EscalatesAmerican opposition to the waropposed all warsthought Vietnam War took money from social programsbelieved Vietnam was not crucial to U.S. securityfeared that nuclear weapons would be usedGovernment responseThe government insisted that the U.S. was defending an ally against aggression.
11Objectives: Section 3: A Turning Point Why did the Tet Offensive weaken many Americans’ confidence in their government?What were the key events of the 1968 presidential campaign?How did President Nixon attempt to end the war?How did Americans react to President Nixon’s plan to end the war?
12The Tet Offensive Section 3: A Turning Point revealed that no part of South Vietnam was secureexposed how few South Vietnamese supported their own governmentrevealed how determined the North Vietnamese were
13Key events in 1968 campaign Section 3: A Turning Point March: McCarthy nearly ties Johnson in the New Hampshire primary.March 31: Johnson withdraws.June: Robert Kennedy wins California primary and is assassinated.August: Police attack antiwar protesters at Democratic convention in Chicago.November: Nixon wins.
14Nixon’s attempts to end the war Section 3: A Turning PointNixon’s attempts to end the warbegins Vietnamization and gradual withdrawal of American troopsorders widespread bombing in Cambodia
15American reaction Section 3: A Turning Point Bombing and invasion of Cambodia caused outrage.Campus unrest escalated, including the Kent State shootings.Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
16Objectives: Section 4: The War Ends Why did the United States agree to a cease-fire in January 1973?What long-term effects did the war have on Vietnam and the Vietnamese people?What long-term effects did the war have on Americans?
17The cease-fire of 1973 Section 4: The War Ends In October of 1972, North Vietnam and the U.S. agreed on a peace plan.South Vietnam’s president, afraid of losing power, rejected the agreement.North Vietnam demanded the agreement be reinstated, but Nixon ordered round-the-clock bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong instead.Intensive bombing did not sway the North Vietnamese.A new agreement, not very different from the first, was reached in January, 1973.
18Long-term effects on Vietnam and its people Section 4: The War EndsLong-term effects on Vietnam and its peopleEstimates of dead, orphaned, and disabled ran into millions.Economy devastated.North Vietnam united with South Vietnam in 1975.
19Long-term effects on Americans Section 4: The War EndsLong-term effects on AmericansMore than 60,000 killed and missing, more than 300,000 wounded.Veterans badly treated for years.Americans lost faith in their government.Congress passed the War Powers Act.National debt grew and inflation was fueled.