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Engaging with ‘the self’ : a workshop Mantz Yorke Lancaster University 9 th Pacific Rim Conference on the First Year in.

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Presentation on theme: "Engaging with ‘the self’ : a workshop Mantz Yorke Lancaster University 9 th Pacific Rim Conference on the First Year in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Engaging with ‘the self’ : a workshop Mantz Yorke Lancaster University 9 th Pacific Rim Conference on the First Year in Higher Education Griffith University, 12 July 2006

2 Employers say they want … Self-confidence Self-awareness Effective learning skills Self-promotion Career management Action planning Networking Negotiation Political awareness Creating opportunities … Hawkins & Winter (1995) Knowledge Intellect Willingness to learn Self-management Communication Team-working Interpersonal skills … Harvey et al (1997) Working under pressure Oral communication Accuracy Attention to detail Team-working Time management Adaptability Initiative Working independently Taking responsibility Planning etc Brennan et al (2001)

3 Smaller employers say they want … Commitment Dependability Working under pressure Handle own workload Oral communication … Yorke (1999) Attitude / Character Experience Industry-related courses Educational qualifications Based on responses from c15,000 small businesses Federation of Small Businesses, UK

4 Sternberg’s ‘Triarchy’ of abilities Creative abilityAnalytical ability Practical ability

5 Child……Young adult………………………………….Senior IQ

6 Child……Young adult………………………………….Senior IQ Practical intelligence

7 Information literacy Ethical, social & professional understanding Research & inquiry Personal & intellectual autonomy Communication Scholarship Global citizenship Lifelong learning Barrie’s view

8 The view of Bennett et al Disciplinary content Workplace awareness Workplace experience Disciplinary skills Generic skills Management of - self - information - task - others

9 U Understanding of subject and broader situations S Skilful practices in subject, employment and life E Efficacy beliefs and personal qualities M Metacognition ESECT’s USEM perspective

10 Employability; broader personal effectiveness Subject under- standing Meta- cognition Skilful practices in context Personal qualities, including self-theories and efficacy beliefs E S U M USEM

11 Employability; broader personal effectiveness Subject under- standing Meta- cognition Skilful practices in context Personal qualities, including self-theories and efficacy beliefs E S U M USEM

12 Evidence for E and M: effect sizes Meta-analyses Size N studies Self-system (E of USEM) Metacognition (M) Marzano (1998)

13 Underemphasis on general personal development Risk marginalising ‘process variables’ Narrow the focus of learning May not optimise the development of autonomy Extrinsic > intrinsic motivation ‘The grade’s the thing’ Problems with outcomes-based curricula (though these depend on how outcomes are couched)

14 The ‘personal’ Motivation Malleable v. fixed self-theory Learning > performance goals Emotional state Locus of control Self-efficacy Learned optimism Practical intelligence Emotional intelligence

15 The ‘personal’ Motivation Pintrich & Schunk (2002) Malleable v. fixed self-theory Dweck (1999) Learning v. performance goals Dweck (1999); Pintrich (2000) Emotional state Boekaerts (2003) Locus of control Rotter (1966) Self-efficacy Bandura (1997) Learned optimism Seligman (1998) Practical intelligence Sternberg (1997) Emotional intelligence Goleman (1996)

16 Acquiescence Autonomy Kohlberg 1964 Perry 1970 (reprinted 1998) King and Kitchener 1994 A desired trajectory?

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18 Five challenges How best to encourage: 1.Self-awareness 2.Self-belief 3.Intrinsic motivation 4.Development of the capacity to work well with others 5.Development of personal autonomy What do you do, could you do, or could you get others to do, in teaching in order to encourage these?

19 Concrete Experience Active Experimentation Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualisation Accommodator Feel/do Diverger Feel/watch Assimilator Think/watch Converger Think/do Kolb

20 Concrete Experience Active Experimentation Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualisation Accommodator Feel/do Diverger Feel/watch Assimilator Think/watch Converger Think/do

21 Some references (main starting-points signalled) Barrie SC (2004) A research-based approach to generic graduate attributes policy. Higher Education Research and Development 23 (3), pp Bennett N, Dunne E and Carré C (2000) Skills development in higher education and employment. Buckingham: SRHE & Open University Press. Brennan J et al (2001) The employment of UK graduates: comparisons with Europe and Japan. Bristol: HEFCE. Coffield F et al (2004) Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematic and critical review. London: Learning and Skills Research Centre. At Harvey L et al (1997) Graduates’ work: organisation change and students’ attributes. Birmingham: Centre for Research into Quality and Association of Graduate Recruiters. Hawkins P & Winter J (1995) Skills for graduates in the 21 st century. London: Association of Graduate Recruiters. Knight PT & Yorke M (2004) Learning, curriculum and employability in higher education. London: RoutledgeFalmer. See also the Learning and Employability Series, accessible via


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