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Last Updated 2013 Miss Rabatin

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1 Last Updated 2013 Miss Rabatin
Oceanography Last Updated 2013 Miss Rabatin

2 Water World… What % of H20 is in the Ocean?

3 Where is the Water?

4 Salinity of Oceans, What in there???

5 Surface of Salinity


7 As water travels through the water cycle, some water will become part of The Global Conveyer Belt and can take up to 1,000 years to complete this global circuit. It represents in a simple way how ocean currents carry warm surface waters from the equator toward the poles and moderate global climate.

8 Where did the Water Come From?
Volcanism and Outgassing Mantle produced early atmospheric rich gases Earth cooled and water condensed and oceans formed See Pg 30 “Origin of the Oceans” Extraterrestrial in Origin?


10 Boxed Reading: Origin of the Oceans
Age of Earth: approximately 4 billion years Water from interior of Earth Mantle Gas that escape volcanoes is 70% water vapor 4 billion years at current rate  100 times the volume of the oceans Water from outer space 10 million comets enter the atmosphere each year Layer of water mm deep added each year 4 billion years at current rate  2 to 3 times the volume of the oceans


12 World’s Ocean’s

13 Dissolved salts in sea water (atoms):
Introduction: Ocean 70% of Earth is Water 97% of water Moderates Temp. and Weather 1/3 of Petroleum Life in ocean for 3 b.y. before coming to land We are made of water % of salt in our bodies proportional to ocean salt Live in water for 9 months Formed by trapped water vapor Cooled and then condensed Dissolved salts in sea water (atoms): 55.3 % Chlorine 30.8 % Sodium 3.7 % Magnesium 2.6 % Sulfur 1.2 % Calcium 1.1 % Potassium

14 Earth’s Water 2.6 Reservoirs and residence time
Large reservoirs  long residence time Small reservoirs  short residence time Distribution of land and water Northern Hemisphere (land) Southern Hemisphere (water) Oceans Hypsographic curve

15 Biological Oceanography

16 Light Causes the Food Chain

17 Physical Oceanography

18 World’s Water N. Hemisphere S. Hemisphere Ocean’s Deepest Spot?
60.7% Sea 39.3% Land S. Hemisphere 80.9% Sea 19.1% Land Ocean’s Deepest Spot? Mariana Trench 11,022 m Pacific Ocean Google Earth

19 Northern Hemisphere

20 Southern Hemisphere



23 Location of Position on Earth
Latitude- Imaginary gridlines on Earth that run east to west. Known as parallels Equator = 0° Poles = 90°N and 90°S Longitude- Imaginary gridlines on Earth that run north to south. Known as Meridians Prime Meridian = 0° International Date Line = 180° Lines East of PM = + Lines West of PM = -

24 Location Systems 2.4 Latitude and longitude Chart and maps
Latitudes (or parallels) are parallel to the equator Longitudes (or meridians) are formed at right angles to the latitude lines Prime meridian and international date line Great Circle Nautical mile Chart and maps Distorted images of Earth’s curved surface Projection types: cylindric, conic, and tangent

25 2.4 con’t Measuring latitude Longitude and time North Star, Polaris
Use of clocks to record the time the Sun is at its zenith Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time



28 Measuring Latitude Measure the angle between the horizon and polaris (the north star)                                                                                                                                                        


30 Measuring Longitude Difficult!! Needed Chronometer 15° = 1 hour
Clocks didn’t keep accurate time on ships! Why? 15° = 1 hour Reference longitude = Prime meridian Greenwich Mean Time GMT Now called Universal Time UT or Zulu Time for Zero Meridian Time zones 15° of longitude wide



33 Identification of Point on Earth’s Surface
Crossing of Latitude and Longitude 158°W, 21°N = Hawaiian Islands 20°E, 33°S = Cape of Good Hope 41.473°N, °W = Shaker Heights, Ohio 1° Latitude = 60 Nautical Miles 1° of arc = 60’ minutes of arc 1’ of arc = 60” seconds of arc ( °,   ',   "  ) Shaker Heights is at 41° 47’ (minutes) 3” (seconds)

34 The Nautical Mile / Sea Mile
Measurement of Length 1 NM ~ 1.8 km = 1.15 mi 1NM = 1’ of latitude

35 Finding Distances Between Locations
Length of between longitudes at equator = 69.2 mi Length of between longitudes at 80° = mi 0 mi at the poles Length of a degree of longitude = cos (latitude) * 69.2 miles EX 1 degree of longitude at 40° Distance = cos (40) * 69.2 miles = * 69.2



38 Modern National Techniques 2.5
Radar (radio detecting and ranging) Loran (long-range navigation) Satellite navigation system Global Positioning System (GPS) Shipboard computers Electronic atlas Surface charts Bathymetry Continuous tracking of ship’s position

39 Charts and Maps 2.4 Topographic Maps (topography)
Maps that show lines connecting points of similar elevation Bathymetric Maps (bathymetry) Charts of the ocean showing contour lines connecting points of the same depth below the sea surface Physiographic Maps Color, shading, and perspective drawings may be added to simulate topography and produce visual representations or bird’s-eye views

40 Topographic Map

41 Bathymetric Map

42 Physiographic Map


44 The Water Planet Distance from the Sun = 93 million miles
Earth’s mean surface temperature = 16° C (61 °F) What protects Earth from temperature extremes Moderated by rotation of Earth on axis Atmospheric Gases act like blanket Orbit of Earth around Sun All of the above allow earth to have liquid water! Ocean’s cover 362 million km2 (140 million mi2) 71% water Volume of Ocean’s are 1.35 billion km3


46 Where’s the Water Ocean River Lakes Ground water Glaciers
Vapor in atmosphere Reservoir - place where water resides Movement though the water reservoirs = hydrologic cycle

47 Hydrologic Cycle


49 Residence Time Average Length of time that a water molecule spends in any one reservoir Water is replaced in the atmosphere about 29 times every year 13,000 km3 of water in atmosphere at any one time Evaporation from ocean/land Ocean = 320,000 km3 Land = 60,000 km3 Precipitation returned from ocean/land Ocean = 284,000 km3 Land = 96,000 km3 Excess runs off to rivers, streams, ocean and ground water


51 Hypsographic Curve

52 Seasons


54 Equinox’s


56 Scientific Method Using logical, systematic methods to investigate the world Examples: Einstein's Theory of General Relativity Plate Tectonics Evolution Newton’s Law’s

57 Hypothesis Proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
Tentative explanation Testable Speculation about the world Question

58 Theory Well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world Examples: Einstein's Theory of General Relativity Plate Tectonics Evolution

59 Law Set of observed regularities expressed in a concise verbal or mathematical statement Examples Newton’s Laws Law of reflection Archimedes Principle Archie’s Law


61 Origins 13 b.y.a big bang 5 b.y.a 4.6 b.y.a. 3.5 b.y.a 3.4 – 3.5 b.y.a
Mass and energy of the universe is thought to have been concentrated at a geometric point at the beginning of time Moment of expansion Origin of galaxies 5 b.y.a Formation of our Solar System 4.6 b.y.a. Formation of Earth 3.5 b.y.a Formation of water vapor, atmosphere 3.4 – 3.5 b.y.a Complex bacteria fossils

62 Origins 2.1 Origin of the universe Origin of our solar system
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Big Bang model Stars, galaxies, and clusters Origin of our solar system Collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud Accretion to form planets

63 2.1 con’t. Extraterrestrial oceans Early planet Earth
Liquid oceans on Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Callisto Early planet Earth Separation of dense and lighter compounds through repeated melting and solidifying  layered system, ocean, and atmosphere No free oxygen until photosynthetic organisms evolved




67 Elements in Universe


69 Age and Time 2.2 Age of Earth Geologic time Natural time periods
History of estimates Bible, cooling time, rate of addition of salt in oceans by rivers, radiometric dating Radiometric dating  billion years Geologic time Eons, eras, periods, epochs Important events Natural time periods Time required for Earth to complete one orbit around the Sun Length of day and seasons Lunar month Solar day Sidereal day



72 Shape of Earth 2.3 Gravity Spin Distribution of continents
Earth is nearly spherical Spin Earth bulges at equator Distribution of continents Slightly pear shaped Topographic relief Minor compared to planet’s size

73 Biosynthesis Evolution of early life 1950’s
Evaporation of water lead to concentration of amino acids in coastal tidal pools Sunlight = energy for rxns Now this theory is put aside researchers don’t think the sun was bright enough for rxns to take place Isotopes- Atoms of the same element having different # of neutrons. Although this theory was debunked, Oceans are where scientist think life started on Earth

74 Summary of Chapter 2 Expansion of universe
First stars produced the elements and galaxies Radiometric dating Latitude and longitude Grid system Clocks Modern navigational techniques Radar, radio signals, computers, satellites Hydrological cycle Reservoirs and residence time

75 Vocab Terms Ocean- Single entity, subtly different characteristics at different locations. Marine Science/Oceanography- Applying the scientific method to study the ocean, its surroundings, and the life forms within it. Science- Systematic process of asking questions about the observable world and then testing the answers to those questions.

76 Hypothesis- Speculation of the natural world that can be tested and verified or disproved by further observations and controlled experiments. Theory- Statement of relationship accepted by most scientist. Laws- Principles explaining events in nature that have been observed to occur with unvarying uniformity under the same conditions. Outgassing- Volcanic venting of volatile substances including water vapor. Biosynthesis- Popularized in the 50’s, life may have originated in shallow tidal pools at the ocean’s edge.

77 Electromagnetic Spectrum- Waves of energy formed by simultaneous electrical and magnetic oscillations; the spectrum is all the radiation from low to high energy. Big Bang- A widely accepted view of how the universe was created. Accepted age of universe 13.7 billion years old. Galaxy- Huge aggregate of stars held together by mutual gravitation. Light year- Distance light travels in 1 year = 9.46 E12 km or 5.87 E12 mi. Nebula- Large dense cloud of gas and dust in space Isotope- Atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons Half-Life- Time required for half o an initial quantity of a radioactive isotope to decay.

78 Vertebrates- Animals with backbones or spinal columns.
Tropic of Cancer/Capricorn- Latitudes 23 ½ º N and 23 ½ º S respectively, marking the max angular distance of the Sun from the equator during the summer and winter solstice. Summer Solstice- Time of the year when the Sun stands directly above 23 ½ º N and 23 ½ º S latitude. Around June 22. Artic/Antarctic Circle- Latitudes 66 ½ º N and 66 ½ º S, marking the boundaries of light and darkness during the summer and winter solstices. Autumnal Equinox- Days of the year when the Sun stands directly above the equator, so that the day and night are equal length around the world. This occurs about march 21st, and September 23rd.

79 Lunar Month- Time required for the Moon to pass from one new Moon to another new Moon (approx. 29 days). Solar Day- Time period determined by one rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun; the mean solar day is 24 hours. Sidereal Day- Time period determined by one rotation of the Earth relative to a far-distant star, about four minutes shorter than the mean solar day. Latitude- Distance north or south of the equator. Latitude is the angle between the equatorial plane and a line drawn outward from the center of Earth to a point on the surface. Latitude varies from 0° to +90 ° north of the equator and ° south of the equator. Longitude- Distance east or west of the prime meridian. Longitude is the angle in the equatorial plane between the prime meridian and a second meridian that passes through a point on the surface of Earth whose location is being specified.

80 Parallels- Circle on the surface of the Earth parallel to the plane of the equator and connecting al points of equal latitude; a line of latitude. Equator- 0º latitude, determined by a plane that is perpendicular to Earth’s axis and is everywhere equidistant from the North and South Poles. Meridians- Circle of longitude passing through the poles and any given point on Earth’s surface. Prime Meridian- Meridian of 0 º longitude, us3ed as the origin for measurements of longitude; internationally accepted as the meridian of the Royal Naval Observatory, Greenwich, England

81 International Date Line- An imaginary line through the Pacific Ocean roughly corresponding to 180 º longitude, to the east of which by international agreement, the calendar date is one day earlier than the west. Great Circle- The intersection of a plane passing through the center of Earth with the surface of Earth. Great circles are formed by the equator and any two meridians of longitude 180 º apart. Nautical Mile- Unit of length equal to 1852 m, or 1.15 and miles or 1 minute of latitude. Contours- line on a chart or graph connecting points of equal elevation, temperature, salinity, or other property.

82 Topography- General elevation pattern of the land surface.
Bathymetry- Study and mapping of seafloor elevations and the variations of water depth; topography of the sea floor. Polaris- also known as the North Star, is located less than 1 º from the celestial pole, a line corresponding to the extension of Earth’s axis of rotation into the sky from the north geographic pole. The angular elevation of Polaris above the horizon corresponds to the latitude of an observer in the northern hemisphere. Zenith- Point in the sky that is immediately overhead. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)/Universal Time/Zulu time- solar time along the prime meridian passing through Greenwich, England.

83 Reservoir- A source or place of temporary residence for water; such as the oceans or atmosphere.
Hydrologic Cycle- Movement of water among the land, oceans, and atmosphere due to vertical and horizontal transport, evaporation, and precipitation. Transpiration- Process by which plants return moisture to air. Plants take up water through roots and lose water through pores in their leaves. An actively growing plant daily transpires five to ten times as much water as it holds at one time. Sublimation- Transition of a substance from its solid state to its gaseous state without becoming a liquid.

84 Residence Time- Mean time that a substance remains in a given area before being replaced, calculated by diving the amount of a substance by its rate of addition or subtraction. Hypsographic Curve- Graph of land elevation and ocean depth versus area. Mean Earth Sphere Depth- Depth below sea level of the surface of the solid Earth if it was perfectly smooth with no variation in elevation. This is 2403 m (7884 ft) below present sea level. Mean Ocean Sphere Depth- Depth of the ocean if the solid Earth was perfectly smooth with no variation in elevation. This is 2646 m (8682 ft).

85 Global Position System- a worldwide radio-navigation system consisting of twenty-four navigational satellites and five ground-based monitoring stations. GPS uses this system of satellites as reference points for calculating accurate positions on the surface of Earth with readily available GPS receivers. Universal Time- Solar time along the prime meridian passing through Greenwich, England; aka Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Zulu Time.

86 Homework Within Chapter 2 - Book
Read chapter2 Write out Vocab Terms 10 times Rewrite PPT notes 10 times

87 Review Questions Which hemisphere contains the greatest percentage of ocean? Is most of Earth’s water in the ocean? Can the scientific method be applied to speculations about the natural world that are not subject to test or observation. What element makes up most of the detectable mass in the universe.

88 What is biosynthesis? Where do researcher think it might have occurred on our planet? Could it happen again today?

89 Critical Thinking Questions
Marine biologists sometimes say that all life forms on Earth, even desert lizards and alpine plants, are marine. Why? Where did Earth’s surface water come from? How do we know what happened so long ago?

90 Citations Armbrust,V., Sverdrup,K. An Introduction to the World’s Oceans McGraw-Hill. Chapter 2.

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