Presentation on theme: "Earth-Sun Relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons
2Solar RadiationThe earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun.However, the radiation is sufficient to provide 99.9% of the energy that heats the earth / drives our climate.
3Radiation ReceiptSolar radiation is received as parallel rays of energy (“line of sight, speed of light”)Earth’s diameter is 12,765 kmSun’s diameter is 1,390,000 km(over 100 times that of the Earth)So is the receipt of radiation the same everywhere on Earth?
4Why is it hot in the tropics and cold at the poles?
5The Earth is curved and this cause differing angles of incidence.
6Intensity of incoming solar radiation (insolation) is related to angle of incidence. Higher angles = higher intensity.
7Why is it hot in the tropics and cold at the poles? The Earth’s surface is curved relative to the incoming solar radiation.Direct rays (most intense) are always in the tropical latitudes (23.5 º S to 23.5º N)As a result, solar radiation is diffuse in the polar regions.
8What causes the seasons? rotation of the earth on its axis?revolution of the earth around the sun23.5 O tilt of the earth axis from perpendicular to the plane of the eclipticpolarity (axial parallelism)
9Rotation of the EarthRotate west to east or ‘counter-clockwise’ (when viewed from the North Pole)sunset and sunriseRotation period is 24 hours per solar day (23 hours 56 minutes with respect to other stars)
10Revolution of the earth Period of revolution is solar daysElliptical orbit (plane of the ecliptic)Perihelion million miles(Jan. 4)Aphelion million miles(July 5)93 million miles average distance
11Tilt of the earth on its axis. The earth is tilted 23.5º from perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic.Tilt is currently constantly toward Polaris
12SOLSTICES SUMMER, JUNE 21 WINTER, DECEMBER 21 Where are the overhead rays of the sun on these days?Which parts of the earth are in darkness and light? For how long?
13Notice these four important parallels. Where do they occur? Why? Tropic of Cancer at 23.5º NTropic of Capricorn at 23.5º SArctic Circle (66.5 º N)Antarctic Circle (66.5º S)
15Effects of the Seasons Changes in solar intensity Changes in solar altitudeChanges in day lengthChanges in temperatureAll of these changes are most extreme at high latitudes and minimized at the equator.
18Annual Change in Noontime Solar Altitude 1 of 2Annual Change in Noontime Solar AltitudeWhat is the change in height from the solstice to the equinox?The total annual change?Summer SolsticeEquinoxWinter SolsticeNESSWN
19Annual Change in Noontime Solar Altitude 2 of 2Annual Change in Noontime Solar AltitudeTotal annual change: 47OSummer Solstice23.5OEquinox23.5OWinter SolsticeNESSWN
20Key Points Size and Shape of Earth. Latitude and Longitude Explain the basic earth-sun relationships.Equinoxes, solstices and the relationship amongseasonsthe latitude of the sun’s direct rays, andthe intensity of solar radiation receivedchanges in Daylight and Darkness23.5º N
21Time Standard Time The International Date Line Daylight Savings Time Year = 365 1/4 days or 365 days 5 hrs. 48 min secondsSolar Day = 24 hours on average. Changes slightly with the elliptical orbit around the sun. Use analemma to calculate.
22Standard Time360o / 24 hr. = 15o standard zones (7.5o E and W from standard meridian)
23International Date Line Cross W to E - gain day; E to W - lose day
24International Date Line A day is 24 hours, but a date lasts for 48 hours!At any given time on earth, except Greenwich noon, there are two dates on the planet.The new date starts at the IDL when midnight crosses the IDL and moves westward around the planet for 24 hrs. displacing the old date. Then it fades out as the “old” date for 24 hrs. For more help on this see:
25Daylight Savings Time Day starts earlier April 1 - October 31 Started during war time to save energy (maximize morning sun and increase work day).Arizona and Hawaii don’t use it.Navajo and Hopi do - causes great confusion.