About WHIN What is Environmental Justice? Women and Environmental Justice Aspects of Environmental Justice
About WHIN Regional women’s health service for NMR and one of 11 specialist services in Victoria. Covering Banyule, Darebin, Hume, Moreland, Nillumbik, Whittlesea and Yarra. 20 years experience in providing services
Women’s Health Promotion Women’s Health In the North (WHIN) aims to strengthen women’s health and wellbeing, with a strategic focus on preventing violence against women, sexual and reproductive rights, economic participation and environmental sustainability.
‘…the fair treatment for people of all races, cultures and incomes regarding the development of environmental laws, regulations and policies’ (Environmental Protection Agency, USA) What is Environmental Justice (EJ)?
Women and EJ Why should a gendered perspective be included in EJ analysis? 1.Women are generally poorer than men. 2.The social construction of womanhood restricts women’s behaviour. 3.Women live longer than men.
Worldwide, women earn just over 50c to every dollar earned by a men. In Australia, women earn about 18% less than men. 55% of women in their 60s have no superannuation. 1. Women are generally poorer than men
Why? Women do more unpaid work and have more caring responsibilities. –Women are much more likely to be lone parents. Segregation of women into low- paying work. Steven Pressman, 2003: Feminist Explanations for the Feminization of Poverty
2. The Social Construction of Womanhood More women died in floods in Bangladesh because they are not taught to swim and because culturally-specific clothing (e.g. saris) restrict movement. In Australia, women in male-headed households are less likely to be familiar with bushfire protection procedures. Women are less likely to use cars than men, resulting in a greater reliance on public transport. Women are more vulnerable to domestic violence and rape after natural disasters.
Life expectancy for Australians: Men: 79.4 Women: 84.35 3. Women live longer than men
Intersections of discrimination ‘Gendered vulnerability does not derive from a single factor… but reflects historically and culturally specific patterns of relations in social institutions, culture and personal lives. Intersecting with economic, racial and other inequalities, these relationships create hazardous social conditions placing different groups of women differently at risk.’ (Enarson 1998)
Women and Mental Health Women are more vulnerable to ‘internalising disorders’ such as depression and anxiety. Men are more vulnerable to ‘externalising disorders’, e.g. aggression. Why? Impoverished groups are at a greater risk of mental health problems.
Climate Change and Mental Health Increase in number and severity of natural disasters. Increased risk of injury and physical health problems. Endangerment of natural and social environments. Corollary effects Effects of adaptation
Climate change, mental health and women Very little research Expectation that existing risks would be magnified
Rural Women Australian agriculture is highly male-dominated. Women’s work is often ignored and specific needs are not considered. Women have little presence in decision-making.
Rural Women and Drought Women forced to seek off-farm work to supplement family income. Personal relationships put under stress. Instability within family. Women became farm financial managers. Women usually excluded from decision-making. Children.
Equal representation Women constitute 13% of government officials worldwide Women in environmental movements Critical mass Women and Leadership
Conclusion How are these issues relevant to women living in Melbourne?
Contact Details Cathy Weiss Research Assistant – EJ priority area Women’s Health In the North 680 High Street Thornbury 3071 9484 1666 email@example.com http://www.facebook.com/whinmelbourne http://twitter.com/#!/whinwomen