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Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr Deposits
Distribution of Magmatic Sulphide DepositsNorilsk Sudbury Bushveld
Magmatic Sulphide Ore (Pyrrhotite and subordinate pentlandite (Fe,Ni)8S9)
Ni Grades and Tonnages
Cu Grades and Tonnages
PGE Grades and Tonnages
Geology of the Sudbury Complex
Evidence of Meteorite ImpactOnaping fallback breccia Shatter cones Granophyre - impact melt
Meteorite Impact Origin of the Sudbury ComplexAirborne debris Onaping Ejecta Breccia Melt Sulphide concentrations Onaping formation Partial melting Sublayer Sudbury Irruptive Impact Stratigraphy Sudbury Stratigraphy
Sudbury Footwall-Type Deposit
Sudbury Ni-Cu Ores Inclusion Ore Massive Ore Pyrrhotite-chalcopyriteand peridotite inclusions Chalcopyrite Pyrrhotite Pentlandite Massive Ore Pyrrhotite Pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8
The Billiard Ball Model of Magmatic Sulphide Textures (Naldrett, 1969)
Fraser and Strathcona Mines Cross-Section
Footwall Ores Chalcopyrite sill with alteration halo cuts off mafic dyke. High PGE into host gneiss Pyrrhotite- and chalcopyrite-dominated veins in footwall gneiss
Oxygen/Sulphur Fugacity and FeO Controls on Sulphur solubility in Silicate MeltsSulphur dissolves H2S at low fO2 and as SO2 at high fO2
Metal partitioning between Sulphide and Silicate MeltsWt.% Metal in Silicate Liquid Wt.% Metal in Sulphide Liquid
The Norilsk Ni-Cu Deposit
A Model for the Norilsk DepositFlood basalts Gabbro sill Coal-bearing sediments Sulphide Limestones Evaporites Magma dissolves high concentration of sulphur Magma saturates in sulphide due to decrease in fO2 Gabbroic magma
Bushveld Igneous Complex
Bushveld StratigraphyMerensky Reef Gabbroic anorthosite Critical Zone Chromitite Anorthosite Lower Zone Pyroxenite Harzburgite
Controls on the Formation of Chromitite LayersMagma mixing Assimilation of silica-rich sediments
Merensky Reef Anorthosite Merensky Reef ChromitePyrrhotite + PGE minerals Chromite
The Role of Convection, Crystal Settling and Repeated Magma Injection in the Bushveld
A Model for the Emplacement of the Bushveld Complex
“Coaster” Brook Trout Host rock: Peridotite Minerals: 3.57% Ni 0.28 gpt Au 2.91 % Cu 0.73 gpt Pt 0.10% Co 0.47 gpt Pd Expected yield: 300,000,000.
Metal Deposits The specification states that you should be able to: a) Explain the low crustal abundances of metallic minerals; show an understanding.
Chapter 5 and 6 Rocks.
Komatiites, Omer M. Ahmed, University of Kerala, India.
Chapter 5: Igneous rocks
Magma fertility and ore deposits: lessons from magmatic systems
Layered Igneous Intrusions
Chapter 5. Lava: magma that flows out onto Earth’s surface. Igneous rocks : formed from the crystallization of magma. What are igneous rocks? Magma.
Plate Tectonics and Mineralization Structural features of the Earth Major plates & Plate boundaries Plate tectonic cycle Mineralization.
Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary
Igneous Rock Sedimentary Rock Metamorphic Rock Terms Grab Bag
Economic Minerals – minerals that can be extracted, processed, and marketed at a profit. Factors: -interest in the mineral, -size of the deposit, -mineral.
Ultramafic Rock Bodies
Igneous Rocks Text ref. Ch5 (pg. 98).
MVT Deposits (Mississippi Valley Type Deposits).
CHAPTER 4 IGNEOUS ROCKS.
Earth Materials Images from Strahler and Strahler, 2005 The Crust and its Composition Igneous Rocks Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks The.
Chapter 24 Sulfides and related minerals Hydrothermal processes.
Ch Igneous Rocks.
Igneous rocks Geology 103. Igneous rocks’ origin Ignis (Latin for fire) – these rocks were crystallized from a molten state. They are not formed by sediment.
III. Igneous Rocks Minerals Crystallized from Melts 1. The Rock Cycle 2. Formation of Igneous Rocks 3. Classification of Igneous Rocks 4. Igneous Rocks.
Igneous Rocks Fire’s Within. Why Should We Study Rocks? It’s like a good history book – it tells us Earth’s long history.
Ch. 5 IgneousMagma Characteristics Extrusive Intrusive Misc. Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Final Jeopardy.
Earth’s Buried Treasures
Igneous Rocks Intrusive and extrusive rocks formed from the cooling and crystallization of magma.
Chapter 5-Igneous Rocks
CHAPTER 5: Igneous Rock.
Earth History GEOL 2110 Lecture 11 Origin and Early Evolution of the Earth Part 2: Differentiation of the Earth’s Spheres.
Mrs. Griffin. Granite, very durable. Rhodes Memorial in Cape Town, South Africa…..De Beers? Cecil Rhodes Vietnam Memorial.
An Overview of Cu-Ni Deposits in Minnesota: A Geological Perspective Jim Miller Department of Geological Sciences Precambrian Research Center University.
Rocks 3 Types of Rocks 1. Igneous Means “from fire” Means “from fire” Forms when magma (molten rock) cools and hardens Forms when magma (molten rock) cools.
Geology and Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits of the Duluth Complex, NE Minnesota
Ores Principally we discuss ores as sources of metals However, there are many other resources bound in minerals which we find useful How many can we think.
Classifying Rocks Rocks are classified as either Igneous, Sedimentary, or Metamorphic.
Igneous Rocks. Igneous: “Ignis” Latin for Fire Magma – molten rock inside the earth Intrusive rocks Cool slowly below ground Generally course- grained.
Economic and environmental considerations
Igneous Rocks and Classifying Igneous Rocks
Igneous Rocks. Summary 1. The Rock Cycle 2. Formation of Igneous Rocks 3. Classification of Igneous Rocks.
Volatiles in Silicate Melts Francis, Volatile have an importance beyond that predicted simply by their abundance because: - Volatiles have low molecular.
Rocks Rock makes up the solid part of the earth. Rock is made from minerals or rock can be made of solid organic matter. Three classes of rock: Igneous,
Geology and petrology of enormous volumes of impact melt on the Moon: A case study of the Orientale Basin melt sea William Vaughan (Brown University) James.
The Influence of Magma Ocean Processes on the Present-day Inventory of Deep Earth Carbon Rajdeep Dasgupta CIDER post-AGU workshop December 10, 2011.
Rocks Section 2 Section 2: Igneous Rock Preview Objectives The Formation of Magma Textures of Igneous Rocks Composition of Igneous Rock Intrusive Igneous.
Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks. Introduction Igneous rocks = formed from “fire” Magma = completely or partially molten rock Lava = magma which reaches surface.
Chapter 6 – IGNEOUS ROCKS. How, Why & Where Rocks Melt Begins as solid Molecules warm & begin vibrating = softening Molecules may vibrate violently enough.
Rocks and the Rock Cycle
Magmas Best, Ch. 8. Constitution of Magmas Hot molten rock T = degrees C Composed of ions or complexes Phase –Homogeneous – Separable part.
Guided Notes for Igneous Rocks
Essential Questions How do igneous rocks form?
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