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Published byRory Waterfall
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Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr Deposits
Distribution of Magmatic Sulphide DepositsNorilsk Sudbury Bushveld
Magmatic Sulphide Ore (Pyrrhotite and subordinate pentlandite (Fe,Ni)8S9)
Ni Grades and Tonnages
Cu Grades and Tonnages
PGE Grades and Tonnages
Geology of the Sudbury Complex
Evidence of Meteorite ImpactOnaping fallback breccia Shatter cones Granophyre - impact melt
Meteorite Impact Origin of the Sudbury ComplexAirborne debris Onaping Ejecta Breccia Melt Sulphide concentrations Onaping formation Partial melting Sublayer Sudbury Irruptive Impact Stratigraphy Sudbury Stratigraphy
Sudbury Footwall-Type Deposit
Sudbury Ni-Cu Ores Inclusion Ore Massive Ore Pyrrhotite-chalcopyriteand peridotite inclusions Chalcopyrite Pyrrhotite Pentlandite Massive Ore Pyrrhotite Pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8
The Billiard Ball Model of Magmatic Sulphide Textures (Naldrett, 1969)
Fraser and Strathcona Mines Cross-Section
Footwall Ores Chalcopyrite sill with alteration halo cuts off mafic dyke. High PGE into host gneiss Pyrrhotite- and chalcopyrite-dominated veins in footwall gneiss
Oxygen/Sulphur Fugacity and FeO Controls on Sulphur solubility in Silicate MeltsSulphur dissolves H2S at low fO2 and as SO2 at high fO2
Metal partitioning between Sulphide and Silicate MeltsWt.% Metal in Silicate Liquid Wt.% Metal in Sulphide Liquid
The Norilsk Ni-Cu Deposit
A Model for the Norilsk DepositFlood basalts Gabbro sill Coal-bearing sediments Sulphide Limestones Evaporites Magma dissolves high concentration of sulphur Magma saturates in sulphide due to decrease in fO2 Gabbroic magma
Bushveld Igneous Complex
Bushveld StratigraphyMerensky Reef Gabbroic anorthosite Critical Zone Chromitite Anorthosite Lower Zone Pyroxenite Harzburgite
Controls on the Formation of Chromitite LayersMagma mixing Assimilation of silica-rich sediments
Merensky Reef Anorthosite Merensky Reef ChromitePyrrhotite + PGE minerals Chromite
The Role of Convection, Crystal Settling and Repeated Magma Injection in the Bushveld
A Model for the Emplacement of the Bushveld Complex
Formation of Ores.
All igneous rocks are formed from liquid rock known as __________? Magma.
Earth History GEOL 2110 Lecture 11 Origin and Early Evolution of the Earth Part 2: Differentiation of the Earth’s Spheres.
Plate Tectonics and Mineralization Structural features of the Earth Major plates & Plate boundaries Plate tectonic cycle Mineralization.
CHAPTER 5: Igneous Rock.
Igneous Rocks and Classifying Igneous Rocks
Thinking about relationships among the major rock groups
Essential Questions How do igneous rocks form?
3 types of rocks.
Earth Materials Images from Strahler and Strahler, 2005 The Crust and its Composition Igneous Rocks Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks The.
Mrs. Griffin. Granite, very durable. Rhodes Memorial in Cape Town, South Africa…..De Beers? Cecil Rhodes Vietnam Memorial.
Chapter 5 and 6 Rocks.
Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary
MVT Deposits (Mississippi Valley Type Deposits).
Time defined by Geology, Rocks and Minerals. Why rocks? Geology allows us to use rocks to see what the past was like on Earth Geology allows us to use.
Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks “Ignis” means fire
Igneous Rocks. Summary 1. The Rock Cycle 2. Formation of Igneous Rocks 3. Classification of Igneous Rocks.
III. Igneous Rocks Minerals Crystallized from Melts 1. The Rock Cycle 2. Formation of Igneous Rocks 3. Classification of Igneous Rocks 4. Igneous Rocks.
Economic and environmental considerations
Igneous Rocks Fire’s Within. Why Should We Study Rocks? It’s like a good history book – it tells us Earth’s long history.
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