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Plate Tectonics and Mineralization Structural features of the Earth Major plates & Plate boundaries Plate tectonic cycle Mineralization.

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Presentation on theme: "Plate Tectonics and Mineralization Structural features of the Earth Major plates & Plate boundaries Plate tectonic cycle Mineralization."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Plate Tectonics and Mineralization Structural features of the Earth Major plates & Plate boundaries Plate tectonic cycle Mineralization

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5 Lithosphere vs Asthenosphere

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10 Convergent Conser vative (Transf orm) Divergent 3 Types of Plate Boundaries

11 Divergent Boundaries Conser vative

12 Convergent Boundaries

13 Transform Boundaries

14 Plate Motion

15 Hot spot and origin of island chains

16 Intra-plate Volcanism (Hot Spots)

17 Continental Drift & Sea-floor Spreading

18 Plate Tectonics’ Cycle

19 Plate Tectonics and Rock Cycle

20 Mineralization and Divergent Boundary (Mid-oceanic ridge)

21 Submarine hydrothermal vent or “Black Smoker”

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23 Cyprus type: associated with tholeiitic basalts in ophiolite sequences copper rich withgold. e.g. Troodos Massif (Cyprus). Besshi-type: associated with volcanics and continental turbidites, copper/zinc with gold and silver.e.g. Sanbagwa (Japan). Kuroko-type: associated with felsic volcanics particularly rhyolite domes copper/zinc/lead with gold and silver, e.g. Kuroko deposits (Japan).

24 Ophiolites are pieces of oceanic plate that have been thrusted (obducted) onto the edge of continental plates. They provide models for processes at mid-ocean ridges.

25 Ophiolites are thought to represent slices of oceanic crust that have been thrust or obducted onto a continental margin during collision. They are characterised by a sequence of rock types, consisting of deep sea sediments overlying basaltic pillow lavas, sheeted dykes, gabbros and peridotites.

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27 Ophiolite Complex Peridotites Sheeted dikes (Diabase) Gabbros Pillow Basalts

28 Podiform chromite deposits are irregular but fundamentally lenticular chromite-rich bodies that occur within Alpine peridotite or ophiolite complexes. Thus, they generally occur in orogenic settings.

29 Podiform chromite deposit, Cyprus Chromite: FeCr 2 O 4

30 Mineralization at Convergent Boundaries Calcalkaline Magma Series Volcano-plutonic complexes Subaerial / Submarine volcanism Porhyry / Massive sulphide deposits Plutonism: Granitic batholiths / Stocks Pegmatitic/ Hydrothermal / Skarn / Greisen/ deposits Regional Metamorphism (High P/ Low T and Low P/High T ) Some gemstone deposits e.g. jade and corundum Geological Processes

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35 The ASARCO Mission Mine near Tucson, Arizona

36 Detailed Cross - Section of a Porphyry Copper Deposit

37 Intraplate Mineralization

38 Lopolith Bushveld stratiform chromite deposit Sill

39 Schematic model of a fully grown kimberlite pipe

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41 J - Manto K - Skarn L - Porphyry M - Ultramafic / Mafic N - Carbonatites O - Pegmatite P - Metamorphic-hosted Q - Gems and Semi-precious Stones R - Industrial Rocks S - Other A - Organic B - Residual/Surficial C - Placer D - Continental Sediments and Vocanics E - Sediment-Hosted F - Chemical Sediment G - Marine Volcanic Association H - Epithermal I - Vein, Breccia and Stockwork MASTER LIST OF ALL DEPOSIT GROUPS

42 Genetic Classifications of Mineral Deposits Syngenetic deposits layered mafic intrusion type deposits volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits sedimentary massive sulphide deposits placer deposits Epigenetic porphyry deposits skarn deposits pegmatitic deposits hydrothermal deposits

43 Hydrothermal/Pegmatitic mineral deposits form in association with hot water- or gas-rich fluids Magmatic mineral deposits concentrated in igneous rocks; Metamoprhogenic mineral deposits concentrated by metamorhism / metasomatism Sedimentary mineral deposits are precipitated from a solution, typically sea water; Placer minerals are sorted and distributed by flow of water (or ice); Residual mineral deposits formed by weathering reactions at the earth's Classifications Based on Geological Processes

44 Unconsolidated Deposits Sedimentary Rocks Volcanic Rocks Intrusive Rocks Regionally Metamorphosed Rocks Classifications Based on Host Lithology


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