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An Ontology-based Learning Design Assistant Valéry Psyché 1, 2, Jacqueline Bourdeau 1, Roger Nkambou 2, 1 LICEF Research Center, TELUQ, 100 Sherbrooke.

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Presentation on theme: "An Ontology-based Learning Design Assistant Valéry Psyché 1, 2, Jacqueline Bourdeau 1, Roger Nkambou 2, 1 LICEF Research Center, TELUQ, 100 Sherbrooke."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Ontology-based Learning Design Assistant Valéry Psyché 1, 2, Jacqueline Bourdeau 1, Roger Nkambou 2, 1 LICEF Research Center, TELUQ, 100 Sherbrooke West, Montreal (QC) H2X 3P2, Canada 2 GDAC Research Center, UQAM, P.O.B. 8888, succ. C. V., Montreal (QC) H3C 3P8, Canada {valery.psyche,

2 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Plan  INTRODUCTION  RESEARCH CONTEXT AND ISSUES Research context and state of the art Formulation of the research issues and proposition  RESULTING DELIVERABLES An ontology of LD theories CIAO, the ontology-based LD assistant  EVALUATION Results of the qualitative evaluation conducted  CONCLUSION Main contributions are summarized, and the further work is outlined

3 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Introduction  Research goal  To describe the contribution of Ontological Engineering (OE) in the engineering of ITS/ TEL  In order to illustrate this evidence:  We have chosen the assistance to learning designers as an example of a situation where the OE is useful  The challenges addressed are the following:  “How is it possible to assist learning designers during their frequently complex tasks when authoring systems offer neither any of the assistance required to design semantically valid learning scenarios in an educational theories viewpoint nor the means to make such a semantic validation?”  Authoring systems fail to offer access to learning design theories and to offer services related to them

4 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Plan  INTRODUCTION  RESEARCH CONTEXT AND ISSUES Research context and state of the art Formulation of the research issues and proposition  RESULTING DELIVERABLES An ontology of LD theories CIAO, the ontology-based LD assistant  EVALUATION Results of the qualitative evaluation conducted  CONCLUSION Main contributions are summarized, and the further work is outlined

5 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Research Context and State of the Art  Murray’s classification of authoring systems (Murray T., ) Murray’s classification  Authoring systems can be organized according to the type of learning systems or intelligent tutors they produce, and they focus either on pedagogy or performance  Pedagogy-oriented systems are actually based on pedagogical modeling, while  Performance-oriented systems are based on the creation of a learning environment to materialize pedagogical models  According to our research subject, our focus is on pedagogy-oriented authoring systems

6 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Research Context and State of the Art  In pedagogy-oriented authoring systems  Most instructional strategies, on which rely the pedagogical model, are based on behaviorist / empiricist paradigm (Jonassen D.H. & Reeves T.C, 1996)  Numerous representation methods are used to model the pedagogical expertise, but at the end, the resulting models cannot be modified  There is usually no representation method based on declarative knowledge as in ontologies.  The more flexible systems are “intelligent and adaptive hypermedia”

7 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Research Context and State of the Art  Particularities of “intelligent/adaptive hypermedia” pedagogy-oriented authoring systems  They used hyperlinks in order to facilitate the presentation/ sequencing of the content presented to the learner Hyperlinks can be intelligently filtered, sorted and annotated with respect to a learner’s model (Brusilovsky, 1998) Hyperlinks can be based on curriculum sequencing, multiple knowledge or instructional strategies  Their strategies are mostly based on the cognitivist/rationalist paradigm  And, they are increasingly based on eLearning/LD standards and semantic web technologies  But They fail to provide designers with a pedagogical model based on a multi-paradigms/theories representation

8 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Research Issues and proposition  Main hypothesis  The primary cause of this lack in authoring systems is a non-explicit representation of the learning design (LD) theories/paradigms in their pedagogical model  In order to test this hypothesis, we designed:  An ontology of Learning Design Theories  An Ontology-based Learning Design Assistant which provide designers with the assistance they need when using authoring systems This agent is called CIAO  We favor an OE approach based on the Semantic Web approach  To take advantage of its well-established and standardized technologies

9 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Plan  INTRODUCTION  RESEARCH CONTEXT AND ISSUES Research context and state of the art Formulation of the research issues and proposition  RESULTING DELIVERABLES An ontology of LD theories CIAO, the ontology-based LD assistant  EVALUATION Results of the qualitative evaluation conducted  CONCLUSION Main contributions are summarized, and the further work is outlined

10 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Conceptualization of the LD Theories Ontology Main steps of OE method Step 3. Conceptualization Step 6. Formalization Step 9. Operationnalization Deliverables Conceptual ontology Formal ontology Operational ontology through the ontology-based LD assistant

11 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Conceptualization of the LD TheoriesOntology  The conceptual ontology is built from:conceptual ontology  A requirements document which contains: –Usage context –Information sourcesInformation sources –Ontology users and usage scenariosusers and usage scenarios –…  A « core ontology » also called « baseline ontology » (Staab S. et al., 01) which contains: –little but important candidates terms  The reuse and integration of ontologies or knowledge models –EML/IMLSLDEMLIMLSLD

12 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology Deliverables Conceptual ontology Formal ontology Operational ontology through the ontology-based LD assistant Main steps of OE method Step 3. Conceptualization Step 6. Formalization Step 9. Operationnalization

13 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  The formal ontology is translated in:  RDF(S)/OWL format as shown in examples: Classes : –Theory; learning_designTheorylearning_design Sub-classes : –empiricist_paradigm; learning_activityempiricist_paradigmlearning_activity Properties: –has_paradigm; part_of_learning-designhas_paradigmpart_of_learning-design Instance: –Gagné; Gagné_principle1GagnéGagné_principle1

14 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD Assistant: towards an Operationalization of the LD Theories Ontology Deliverables Conceptual ontology Formal ontology Operational ontology through the ontology-based LD assistant Main steps of OE method Step 3. Conceptualization Step 6. Formalization Step 9. Operationnalization

15 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Operationalization of the LD Theories Ontology  An operational ontology was needed in order to exploit CIAO’s services  Initially stored in a repository in an OWL file,  The ontology was then partitioned and converted into two RDF/RDFS files: 1.an RDFS file for the ontology class scheme (or T-box) 2.an RDF file for the ontology instances (or A-box).  The T-box contains the axioms that describe the ontology classes and properties (i.e. terminological declaration) while  The A-box holds statements pertaining to individuals in the field (i.e. assertion data).  The repository that includes the ontology is composed of a stack of Storage And Inference Layers (SAIL)

16 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD Assistant: towards an Operationalization of the LD Theories Ontology Hozo/ Protégé Operationalization through the Implementation of Ontology-based LD assistant CIAO

17 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD Assistant: towards an Operationalization of the LD Theories Ontology  CIAO  Interacts with the operational ontology and with Sesame in order to Gives access to the assistance services: –Exploration, Search by query, Export, Validation of LD scenario Accessible at :http://www.licef.ca/CIAOhttp://www.licef.ca/CIAO

18 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD assistant Ontology Documentation Class Hierarchy Class Description Ontology Repository The exploration service

19 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD assistant  The Search service:  Users can query the ontology using 3 modes  SeRQL is an SQL- based language that works with ontologies in RDF(S) Parameter- based request Predefined request Free request in SeRQL

20 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD assistant  The validation service  Two types of analysis can be performed on a LD scenario The syntactic analysis –Allow users to check whether their scenarios are compliant with the IMS-LD standard »Ex. Rule Rsy#0 : For each LD, there must have at least one « method »Rule Rsy#0 The semantic analysis –A partial semantic validation on a non annotated LD scenario, according to the educational paradigms. » Ex. Rule RseP#2: Detection of sequential activity (learning ou support activity) in an « act »Rule RseP#2 –A complete semantic validation on an annotated LD scenario based on educational theories: »Ex. Gagné-Briggs’s Theory of Instruction caseGagné-Briggs’s Theory of Instruction case

21 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD assistant Associated use case MOT+LD CIAO

22 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables CIAO, the Ontology-based LD assistant Associated use case Constructing an LD scenario with Syntactic and semantic analysis of a IMS-LD LD scenario using CIAO MOT+LD CIAO

23 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Plan  INTRODUCTION  RESEARCH CONTEXT AND ISSUES Research context and state of the art Formulation of the research issues and proposition  RESULTING DELIVERABLES An ontology of LD theories CIAO, the ontology-based LD assistant  EVALUATION Results of the qualitative evaluation conducted  CONCLUSION Main contributions are summarized, and the further work is outlined

24 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Evaluation of deliverables Evaluation Process of CIAO and the LD theories ontology  An evaluation by expert inspection was conducted  5 experts in the field of Learning Design participated in the evaluation  The experimental laboratory called LORIT at the TELUQ enabled the observation and collection of multimedia data from multiple sources  The protocol which led to the collection of expert advices involved the following 3 stages:  (1) Learning about the subject of the evaluation,  (2) Talking while discovering CIAO and the ontology and  (3) Answering interview questions  The last 2 steps were recorded in order to collect audio and video data with screenshots to match the experts’ actions.  The instruments provided to the experts were: An assessment guide, a graphical view of the ontology, IMS-LD scenarios for the syntactic and the semantic analysis

25 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Evaluation of deliverables Evaluation Results of CIAO and the LD theories ontology  Experts agreed that the services provided by CIAO and the LD theories ontology were useful, flexible and interoperable  In particular, the results indicate a complete convergence of views about the usefulness of the following services: Exploration, Research by predefined queries Syntactic and semantic analysis of LD scenario  Finally, experts found that CIAO lacked usability in its graphical interface.  The experts’ assessment led to the following recommendations:  To improve the CIAO’s usability as it is an obstacle to mastering and using the system services  To make LD scenarios repositories available to learning designers

26 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Plan  INTRODUCTION  RESEARCH CONTEXT AND ISSUES Research context and state of the art Formulation of the research issues and proposition  RESULTING DELIVERABLES An ontology of LD theories CIAO, the ontology-based LD assistant  EVALUATION Results of the qualitative evaluation conducted  CONCLUSION Main contributions are summarized, and the further work is outlined

27 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Conclusion  This research introduced  The limitations for learning designers when performing their task  The lack of representation of pedagogical and declarative knowledge in authoring systems  The designers’ need for assistance to design learning scenarios.  Our solution contains  The engineering of an ontology of LD theories  The design and implementation of an ontology-based LD assistant named CIAO which provide a set of services to the learning designers  Concerning the evaluation, results show that:  CIAO lacked usability  The LD theories ontology and CIAO’s services were useful, relevant, and flexible

28 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Conclusion  Future work planned concerning the ontology  To extend the scope of the ontology from three to a greater number of theories (including eclectic theories).  In order to refine the CIAO’s analysis service by adding new semantic validation rules in accordance with LD theories.  Future developments planned concerning CIAO  To complete CIAO’s implementation in order to make it a proactive system (coaching in pedagogical situations)  To perform CIAO’s integration into the TELOS system

29 An Ontology-based Learning Design Assistant Valéry Psyché 1, 2, Jacqueline Bourdeau 1, Roger Nkambou 2, 1 LICEF Research Center, TELUQ, 100 Sherbrooke West, Montreal (QC) H2X 3P2, Canada 2 GDAC Research Center, UQAM, P.O.B. 8888, succ. C. V., Montreal (QC) H3C 3P8, Canada {valery.psyche,

30 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Research Context and State of the Art  Performance-Oriented Authoring Systems (Murray, )  Device Simulation and Equipment Training Systems E.g. DIAG, RIDES, MITT-Writer, ICAT, SIMQUEST, XAIDA  Domain Expert Systems E.g. Demontr8, D3 Trainer, Training Express  Special Purpose Systems E.g. IDLE-Tools/IMap, LAT  Pedagogy-Oriented Authoring Systems  Curriculum Sequencing and Planning Systems E.g. DOCENT, IDE, ISD Expert, Expert CML, CREAM-Tools  Tutoring Strategies Systems E.g. Eon, GTE, REDEEM, SmartTrainer AT  Multiple Knowledge Types Systems E.g. CREAM-Tools, DNA, ID-Expert, IRIS, XAIDA  Intelligent/Adaptive Hypermedia Systems E.g. CALAT, GETMAS, Interbook, MetaLinks

31 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Usage context  In Ontology-based Authoring Environment authors could benefit from accessing theories to: 1)1) make design decisions (macro, micro) after reflection and reasoning, 2)2) communicate about or explain their design decisions, 3)3) check consistency among design decisions, intra- theory and inter-theories, 4)4) produce scrutable learning environments, 5)5) use heuristical knowledge grounded in theoretical knowledge.  Useful functionalities could include: 1)1) asking the system what theories apply best to this or that learning situation/goal, 2)2) asking the system to show examples, 3)3) asking the system for advice on whether this element of a theory can be combined to an element from another theory, the risk in doing so, other preferable solutions, etc.

32 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Information sources  Domain definition and documentation  « Instructional Theories in Action: lessons illustrating, selected theories and models » (Reigeluth, 93)  « Instructional-Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status » (Reigeluth, 83)  « Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory » (Reigeluth, 99)  « Cognition and Learning » (Greeno et al., 96)  « Theories Into Practice (TIP) » (Kearsley, 94-04)  Integration and reuse of ontologies/knowledge models:  EML (Koper, 01; Koper, 03)  IMS-LD (IMS Global Learning Consortium, 02)

33 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables: Usage scenarios scenario based on the following objective: « Learners will be able to define focal lenght » Usage scenario # 2 Scenario # 2.1 – Theory of Instruction (Gagné-Briggs) Scenario # 2.2 – Component display Theory (Merrill) Scenario # 2.3 – Inquiry Teaching Theory (Collins) PreriquisiteIdentify focal point Remember – Instance – Fact, Use - Concept Terminology about lens Instructional strategyExpositoryExpository and PracticeInquiry Dialogue Learning material (resource) Workbook with visual representation Printed Study Sheet Lenses, magnifying glass, lenses EvaluationQuizFill in the blank testQuestion test Activities based on the theory: 1)Informing the learner of the lesson objective, 2)Presenting the stimulus material with distinctive features, 3)Providing learning guidance, 4)Eliciting performance, 5)Providing informative feedback, 6)Assessing Performance 1)Introduction, 2)Reference Example, 3)Definition, 4)Learning Tip, 5)Practice, 6)Study Problems, 7)Feedback 1)Preliminary, 2)Forming hypothesis, 3)Testing hypothesis, 4)Entrapping Students, 5)Varying cases systematically, 6)Questioning authority, 7)Testing hypothesis

34 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Conceptualization of the LD TheoriesOntology  The conceptual LD Theories Ontology in UML

35 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Conceptualization of the LD Theories Ontology Describes Type of content Describes how units of studies are modeled Describes theories, principles and models of instruction Describes how learners learn  Reuse and integration of ontologies or knowledge models:  The EML pedagogical model

36 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Conceptualization of the LD Theories Ontology  Reuse and integration of ontologies or knowledge models: The IMS-LD model

37 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the class « theory » EML: Describes the theories, principles and models of instruction as they described are in the literature or as they are conceived in the head of practitioners.

38 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the class « learning_design » A learning design is a description of a method enabling learners to attain certain learning objectives by performing certain learning activities in a certain order in the context of a certain learning environment. A learning design is based on the pedagogical principles of the designer and on specific domain and contexts variables.

39 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the sub class « empiricist_paradigm » EML: According to the empirical approach, as typified by Locke and Thorndike, all reliable knowledge is based on experience. The assumption is that behaviour is predictable, given a specific environmental conditions, and that processes can be analysed in isolation....

40 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the sub class« learning_activity » IMS- LD: A learning activity is directed at attaining a learning objective per individual user. Any user performs a learning activity only once (until completion)

41 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the sub class « events_of_instruction » According to Robert Gagne, there are nine events that activate processes needed for effective learning. These events should satisfy or provide the necessary conditions for learning and serve as the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media. Gagne believes all lessons should include this sequence of events.

42 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Extracted from the ontology in OWL  Description of the property «has_paradigm»

43 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the property «part_of_learning- design»

44 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the instance « theorist» Although Gagne's earlier work reflected behaviorist thought, he is considered to be an experimental psychologist who is concerned with learning and instruction. In 1965, Gagne published The Conditions of Learning which outlined the relation of learning objectives to appropriate instructional designs. Gagne's idea is tied to Skinner's idea of sequenced learning events as displayed in his Nine Events of Instruction.

45 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Formalization of the LD Theories Ontology  Description of the instance «Gagne_principle» Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes.

46 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Exploration Service: Class Hierarchy

47 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Exploration Service: Class Description

48 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Exploration Service: Ontology Documentation

49 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Exploration Service: Ontology repository

50 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Research service: predefinied queries

51 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Research service: parameter-based queries

52 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Research service: by coding in SeRQL

53 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Syntactic validation service Rule Rsy#0 For each LD, there must have at least one « method » Trigger condition The LD does not have « method » associated with:  learning-design  (  (  method)) Structure of the rule For each learning-design  Check if there is 1 method ; Si YES, go to rule Rsy1 ; IF NOT { Display message ER0 ET stop the validation}  Error message #0 associated (ER0) “The LD is NOT syntactically CORRECT. For each LD, there must have AT LEAST 1 method”

54 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Partial semantic validation service Rule RseP#2. Detection of sequential activity (learning ou support activity) in an « act » Trigger conditionThere are learning or support activities in sequence in the act :  activity-structure structure-type="sequence"  (  (learning-activity = N)  (support-activity = M)) Equivalent XML-IMSLD. Structure of the rule FOR EACH activity-structure  IF structure-type="sequence" THEN { READ the value of number-to-select; COUNT the number N of learning-activity-ref; COUNT the number M of support-activity-ref; DISPLAY the RC2 message GO to RseP#3}  Recommandation #2 (RC2) “ You have (number-to-select) sequential activities: N learning et M teaching activities. A non exhaustive list of theories which talks about “sequencing of instruction is”: Gagné-Briggs Th., Collin’s Th...”

55 Psyché, Bourdeau and Nkambou – LORNET Workshop at ITS Resulting deliverables Complete semantic validation service


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