3Class Objectives:Describe the anatomy and physiology of the musculoskeletal system including the significance of health history.Discuss the significance of assessment and diagnosis of musculoskeletal problems including diagnostic tests.Explain the pathophysiology, manifestations, complications & collaborative care of clients with fractures.Describe the preventative health teaching needs of the client with a cast.Describe the various types of traction and appropriate nursing care.
4Class Objectives Cont’d: Compare the nursing needs of the client undergoing a THR with those undergoing a TKRDiscuss the etiology, pathophysiology, prevention and management of clients with osteoporosis.Identfy the causes and related nursing management of osteomalacia and Pagets’s disease.Discuss the pathophysiology, manifestations, complications & collaborative care of clients with arthritis, gout, spinal cord deformities, septic arthritis.
5Readings: Read in your text Chapters 66, 67, 68, & 69 Recommended readingsBibliography listFractures
6Fractures Read text content dealing with fractures Know what a closed, open,displaced comminuted, impacted, & greestick fractures are.Note the risk factors & levels of prevention r/t #Review the stages of healingKnow neuromuscular assessmentWhat causes muscle spasm following #s and what are the consequences?
7A fracture is “any disruption in the continuity of the bone, when more stress is placed on it than it can absorb”. (Black, Hawkes & Keene, 2001, p587).When # occurs, muscles are also disrupted & pull fracture fragments out of position.Adjacent structures are affected – soft tissue edema, hemorrhage, joint dislocations, ruptured tendons, severed nerves, damaged blood vesselsLarge muscle groups create massive spasms, the proximal portion remains intact while the distal portion can be displaced in response to force and spasm.The amount of force necessary depends on the characteristics of the person’s bone.Examples of conditions that predispose people to #s include: osteoporosis, osteopenia (caused be steroid use or Cushing's syndrome), neoplasms, estrogen loss.
8FRACTURES Fractured clavical Bone almost penetrating skin at tip of red arrow
9Classification of Fractures: (See Chart 69-1) Open: (compound or complex) break in tissue over site of the bone injuryComplete: break across entire cross-section of bone & often displacedIncomplete: (greenstick) though only part of the cross-sectionClosed: (simple) intact skin over site of injuryComminuted: produces several bone fragmentsOpen: break in tissue over site of the bone injury Grade I, II, or IIIComplete: break across entire cross-section of bone & often displacedIncomplete: though only part of the cross-section (greenstick)Closed: intact skin over site of injuryComminuted: produces several bone fragments
10Simple: # remains contained, no skin break (closed) Compound: # damage also involves the skin or mucous membranes (open)Comminuted: bone has splintered into several fragmentsGreenstick: one side of bone is broken and the other side is bentDepressed: bone fragments are driven inward.TypesAvulsion: # in which a fragment of bone has been pulled away by a ligament or tendon and its attachment.Oblique: # occurs at an angle across the bone (less stable than a transverse)Spiral: # twists around the shaft of the boneImpacted: # in which a bone fragment is driven into another bone fragment.Transverse: # across the boneCompression: # # in which the bone has been compressed (Vertebral #s)
11Physical Assessment may reveal: Deformity (hemorrhage or spasm)ShorteningSwellingEcchymosisMuscle spasmPain, tendernessLoss of function, altered mobility & crepitusNeurovascular changesshock
13Complications Fat Embolism Syndrome Fat globules (emboli) occlude small vessels of lungs, brain, kidneys, & other organsCharacterized by neurologic dysfunction, pulmonary insufficiency, and petechial rash on chest, axilla & upper armsLong bone # & other major trauma ( such as THR) are the principle risk factorsMost frequently in young adults (20-30 years of age)When a bone is fractured, pressure within the bone marrow rises & exceeds capillary pressure; fat globules leave the marrow & enter bloodstream, it may also be caused by the stress induced release of catecholamine, which causes the rapid immobilization of fatty acids. Once fat globules are released they travel to the brain, kidney, lung & other organs, occluding small blood vessels - - causing ischemia.
14Fat Embolism Syndrome What to Look for: Manifestations of fat emboli occur within hours but may be up to a week after injury:Hypoxia PaO2 < 60 mm HgTachypnea, tachycardia, pyrexiaDeterioration in LOCConfusion , agitationRespiratory distress response – tachypnea, dyspnea, crackles, wheezes, precordial chest pain, copious thick white sputum, tachycardiapetechiae: chest, shoulders, axilla, mouth, conjunctival sac
15Fat Embolism: Prevention: Immobilize fractures: early & gentle stabilizationGentle careAdequate hydrationO2Aware of those at high riskManagement:Fluid replacementMechanical ventilationCorticosteroidsVasoactive medicationsMaintain HgbCalm, supportive environment
16Monitor Respiratory Status Every Shift. Immobility increases risk for Atelectasis, DVT and Pulmonary Emboli.Never ignore client's complaints.Follow-through and check it out.Fifty percent (50%) of persons with fat emboli die.Nurse Alert!
17ComplicationsInfection Musty, unpleasant odor over cast and/or at the ends of castDrainage through cast or cast openingSudden unexplained body temperature elevation“Hot Spot” felt over cast lesionMay result in osteomyelitis
18Interventions: Infection Wash handsUse aseptic technique when caring for wound and emptying drainsCulture drainageFoley catheter careMonitor tempReport excessive drainage or inflammation to physician
19ComplicationsWatch out for Deep Vein Thrombosis after skeletal or muscular injury/surgery!Other Early ComplicationsDeep vein thrombosis (DVT), thromboembolism, and pulmonary embolus (PE) are associated with reduced skeletal muscle contractions and bed rest. Patients with fractures of the lower extremities and pelvis are at high risk for thromboembolism. Pulmonary emboli may cause death several days to weeks after injury. (See Chapter 31 for a discussion of DVT; Chapter 30 for discussion of thromboembolism, and Chapter 23 for discussion of PE).Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) includes a group of bleeding disorders with diverse causes, including massive tissue trauma. Manifestations of DIC include ecchymoses, unexpected bleeding after surgery, and bleeding from the mucous membranes, venipuncture sites, and gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. The treatment of DIC is discussed in Chapter 33.
20Intervention: DVT/PE/FES Client wears elastic stockings.Teach leg exercises.Observe for changes in mental status, chest pain and SOB.Observe for swelling, redness and pain in legs (DO NOT MESSAGE).
21Muscle Spasm:Powerful involuntary muscle contractions shorten the flexor muscles & cause extreme pain. This may be triggered by hypoxia of muscle tissue.
22What Helps? Bed cradle Heat Avoid heavy sedation Avoid pressure in popiteal spaceMinimize compressionActive & passive exercises as orderedFrequent change in position
23Fracture: Early Complications Critical monitoring & assessment is imperative. Know assessment findings that may indicate one of the following early complications of fractures. Question waiting for a place to happen !!!!ShockNerve damage, arterial damageInfectionCast syndromeCompartmental SyndromeVolkmann’s ContractureFat Embolism SyndromeDeep Vein thrombosis & Pulmonary EmbolismNB
24Long-term Complications Joint stiffness or post-traumatic arthritisAvascular necrosisNonfunctional union after a fractureComplex regional pain syndromeReaction to internal fixation deviceA loss of the bone’s blood supply causes avascular necrosis (AN) - the bone dies & bone structure collapses . Femoral neck fractures which damage local blood vessels, increase the risk of avascular necrosis. Long term high dose steroids also increase risk. Symptoms of AN include pain & reduced ROM in affected joint. Heparin, Lasix & NSAIDs aren’t associated with AN.
26Complications of Fractures: ShockBones are very vascular. In combination with collateral damage to adjacent structures/vessels, the patient is at risk for hemorrhage.Shock fully develops if a healthy client loses 1/3 of normal blood volume.Blood loss:15-30% (up to 1500 ml) -subtle signs30-40% ( ml) –obvious shockOver 40% (over 2000 ml)1 unit of packed cells raises Hgb about 1 gram. Check with physician about expected normal loss.
27Potential Blood Loss Following Fractures (Liters) Humerus1-2Elbow.5-1.5Forearm.5-1PelvisHipFemurKnee1-1.5TibiaAnkleSpine/ribs1-3This is not what is expected but what is possible!
28See Text 1) Compartment Syndrome 2) Cast Syndrome 3) Infection What?How to recognize?What should be done?
29Fracture Reduction Closed reduction: usually done under anesthesia Carried out through manual traction to move fracture fragments & restore bone alignmentFollowed by immobilization device (cast)Open Reduction: incision and realignmentUsually performed with internal fixation devices (screws, pins, plates, wires)
31Fracture Reduction Cont’d External Fixation: maintain position for unstable fractures & for weakened muscles, allow for use of contiguous joints while affected part remains immobilized. Common sites include face & jaw, pelvis, fingers.Traction: application of a pulling force to an injured body part or extremity while a counter-traction pulls in the opposite direction.
33Figure 27-3: Types of Internal Fixation Devices Tension band wiring # phalanxCompression plate & screws # femurIntermedulary nail - femur
34Open reduction and internal fixation of Comminuted mandibular fracture
35CASTSReview information learned in 2nd & 3rd year. At this point you should knowTypes of castsWhy a cast may need to be Bi-valvedDrying & caring for a castComplications caused by casts …Management of Casts & BracesImportance of knowing weight bearing statusNB!
36Windowing and Bivalving a Cast Windows maybe cut in dried casts:relieve pressure from abd. distension (body cast)To prevent “Cast Syndrome”To assess radial pulse (check circulation in a casted arm)To inspect areas of discomfort or areas of suspected tissue damageTo remove drains or care for wounds.
38Cast Drying:Synthetic casts – dry approx mins (clients feel the sensation of heat thus may feel hot).Plaster casts set rapidly but take several hrs-days to completely dry (lg. cast).Promote the circulation of warm, dry air around a damp cast to enhance moisture evaporation and speed drying process.Heat occurs with early cast drying stagesDo not cover cast while drying, can place layers of towels underneath pillow to elevate cast to absorb dampness.Green cast (damp cast)Lg. cast avoid covering and to allow air to circulateNever use heated hairdryer to dry cast.
39Nerve Damage during casts/traction: Traction applied to an extremity puts pressure on the peroneal nerve where it passes around the neck of the fibula to just below the knee.Pressure at this point may cause footdrop, leading to inability to dorsiflex the foot.Inability to plantarflex indicates damage to the tibial nerve.The calf muscle is not affected & the temp of extremity doesn’t change.
40Assess for complications following cast : Compartment syndromeFat emboliInfectionDVTCast syndrome
41Complications of Fractures/Casts Compartmental Syndrome:Edema from a fracture causes an increase in compartmental pressure that decreases capillary blood perfusion.When the local blood supply unable to meet tissue metabolic demands ischemia begins = compromised circulation.Increase pressure in a confined space due to tight cast, edema or bleeding.
42Complications of Fractures/Casts Compartmental Syndrome:Pulselessness: slow nail bed capillary refill (>3sec)Skin pallor, blanching, cyanosis or coolnessIncreasing pain, swelling,pain on passive motion, painful edema peripheral to cast.Paresthesias (tingling, pricking), heightened sensation to touch, diminished sensitivity to touch (hypesthesia), anesthesia (numbness)Motor paralysis to previous functioning musclesExam: What are the 4 classic signs/symptoms of a fracture? What is the associated vascular injury that may occur? Pain, loss of function, deformity, shortening, crepitus, swelling and discoloration. Complications that can occur with fractures: Shock, fat embolism syndrome, compartment syndrome, avascular necrosis of the boneA compartmental syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the tissues within that space. This condition is a cause of major loss of function, limb and even life. It can result from trauma, prolonged recumbancy (in surgery or resulting from drugs or alcohol), or physical activity. It is common enough to affect thousands of individuals each year, yet rare enough that each physician may encounter it only once or twice during his or her career
44Compartment Syndrome Treatment FasciotomyRELEASE PRESSURERELIEFCUT OPEN
45Complications Cont’dFigure 27-6: Cast SyndromeCast syndrome results from the compression of the duodenum between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. The external compression is usually caused by a tight body cast.Black 2001, p. 601).
46Complications Cont’d Cast Syndrome: Bloating feeling Prolonged nausea: repeated vomitingAbdominal distension: vague abdominal painShortness of breathUntreated may lead to death!
47Cast SyndromeAn abdominal flat-plate is ordered. If you diagnosed the cast syndrome, you correctly identified the clinical signs consistent with this syndrome. This is due to an extrinsic compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery
48Other Complications Cont’d Infection: Musty, unpleasant odor over cast and/or at the ends of castDrainage through cast or cast openingSudden unexplained body temperature elevation“Hot Spot” felt over cast lesionMay result in osteomylitis
49Complications Cont’d Volkmann’s Contracture: A common complication of elbow fracturesCan result in unresolved compartment syndrome. Arterial blood flow decreases, leading to ischemia, degeneration & contracture of muscleMay lead to permanently stiff, claw-like deformity of arm & hand
51Complications Cont’d NB FAT EMBOLISM: Fat emboli occur when fat globules lodge in the pulmonary vascular bed or peripheral circulation. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is characterized by neurologic dysfunction, pulmonary insufficiency, and petechial rash on chest, axilla & upper arms. Long bone # & other major trauma ( such as THR) are the principle risk factorsWhen a bone is fractured, pressure within the bone marrow rises & exceeds capillary pressure; fat globules leave the marrow & enter bloodstream, it may also be caused by the stress induced release of catecholamine, which causes the rapid immobilization of fatty acids. Once fat globules are released they travel to the brain, kidney, lung & other organs, occluding small blood vessels - - causing ischemia.
52Fat Embolism: Beware!!When a bone is fractured, pressure within the bone marrow rises & exceeds capillary pressure; fat globules leave the marrow & enter bloodstream, it may also be caused by the stress induced release of catecholamine, which causes the rapid immobilization of fatty acids. Once fat globules are released they travel to the brain, kidney, lung & other organs, occluding small blood vessels - - causing ischemia.
53Fat Emboli: Fat globules within the pulmonary arterioles. The globules stain reddish-orange. The cumulative effect of these globules is similar to a large pulmonary embolus, but the onset is usually 2 to 3 days following the initiating event, such as the trauma associated with bone fractures.
54Monitor respiratory status every shift. Nurse Alert:Immobility increases risk for fat embolism, atelectasis, and pulmonary emboli. Never ignore client's complaints. Follow-through and check it out.Fifty percent 50% of persons with fat emboli die.
55WHAT TO LOOK FOR:Manifestations of fat emboli occur within a few hours to weeks after injury:deterioration in LOCconfusion , agitationSOBpetechiae: Chest, axilla, mouth, conjunctival sacatelectasis may resultsigns of shock- tachycardia, tachypneaHypoxia Po2 < 60 mm Hg
56Fat Embolism: Fat globulins released from long bone pelvis or multiple fractures Prevention:Immobilize fractures: early & gentle stabilizationGentle careAdequate hydrationO2Management:O2Fluid replacementMechanical ventilationCorticosteroidsMaintain Hgb
57Complications Cont’d Neuro-vascular problems Early detection may mean no or slight disability in the future. Assess carefully & knowingly!
58Who is at Risk for Neurovascular Problems? Those with/who:External fixatorsInterstitial edema/bleedingExcessive exerciseTrauma to joint/limbCasts, Splints, Constrictive DressingsMedical Procedures (heart cath)TractionSpinal Surgery/injuryTissue compression
59KNOW the SIX Ps: Cast Assessment PainPallorParesthesiaPulselessnessParalysisPolarThey alert you to problems!Compartment Syndrome??Infection??Cast Syndrome??
60AssessMonitor neurovascular status of distal aspects of involved extremities in comparison with corresponding body part after the initial post op period & every 2 hours for the following 24 hours and every 4 to 12 hours thereafter (according to agency policy). Nurse Alert: Irreversible tissue death occurs in 4 to 12 hours.Inspect color and temperature.Monitor for edema caused by tissue trauma or venous stasis.Assess capillary refill by pressing on toe or fingernail, releasing, and noting "pinking" on nail within 3 seconds
61Complications Cont’dWatch out for Deep Vein Thrombosis after skeletal or muscular injury/surgery!
62Hemorrhage: Know what it means! Stage I up to 15% (up to 750 ml)Stage II 15-30% (up to 1500 ml) -subtle signsStage III 30-40% ( ml) –obvious shockStage IV over 40% (over 2000 ml)
63Complications Cont’d Blood Loss in Fractures Bones are very vascular. In combination with collateral damage to adjacent structures/vessels, the patient is at risk for hemorrhage.Shock fully develops if a healthy client looses 1/3 of normal blood volume.7 - 8% of body wt is blood. An adult has about 5.5 L of blood.10% volume loss = tachycardia30% loss affects B.P1 unit of packed cells raises Hgb about 1 gram. Check with physician about expected normal loss.
64Potential Blood Loss Following Fractures (Liters) Humerus 1-2ElbowForearm .5-1PelvisHipThis is not what is expected but what is possible!Femur 1-2Knee 1-1.5TibiaAnkleSpine/ribs 1-3Check with surgeon to determine extent of expected blood lossInterventions: BleedingVitals q4h.Assess for bleeding.Report excessively low BP.
65Watch for Blood loss post op For Example In the client with a total hip replacement (THR) the total amount of drainage is usually less than 50 ml every 8 hours, it may be a bit more if the client received a plasma expander such as dextran.Drains are usually removed within hours post surgery.
66SPASM Muscle Spasms Interventions: Powerful involuntary muscle contractions shorten the flexor muscles & cause extreme pain. This may be triggered by hypoxia of muscle tissue.What helps?Bed cradleHeatAvoid heavy sedationAvoid pressure in popliteal spaceMinimize compressionActive & passive exercises as orderedFrequent change in positionSPASM
67Interventions: Infection Wash Hands.Use aseptic technique when caring for wound and emptying drains.Culture drainage.Foley catheter careMonitor temp.Report excessive drainage or inflammation to physician.
68Intervention: DVT/PE/FES Client wears elastic stockings.Teach leg exercises.Observe for changes in mental status, chest pain and SOB.Observe for swelling, redness and pain in legs (DO NOT MESSAGE).Fat embolism is the most lethal complication of THR.
69Interventions: Bleeding Vitals q4h.Assess for bleeding.Report excessively low BP.
70Intervention: Pain Management Encourage client to report hip pain immediately.Promote adequate rest through out the day.Administer oral analgesics PRN.
71Traction What is used traction for? What is the difference between Skeletal & Skin traction?What would the nurse assess for that is particular to each type?Differentiate between the following types of traction & give an example of each:Continuous & IntermittentRunning & SuspensionSkeletal/ Skin/ CervicalRussell’s & Buck’s
72Traction serves several purposes: It aligns the ends of a fracture by pulling the limb into a straight position.It ends muscle spasm.It relieves pain.It takes the pressure off the bone ends by relaxing the muscle.important to know!
73Skin Traction: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZEWz_Ps7vo Apply traction to underlying bones and other structures (muscles).Used :1. with commercially prepared foam slings2. by encircling a body part with a halter, corset or sling.Counteraction is provided by a persons wt. when the bed is tilted away from the pull.Skin Traction: Application of a pulling force directly to the skin through the use of strips, boots or foam splints. Skin traction bears a low longitudinal force load (5-7 lbs) which gives minimal effectiveness.Temporarily should be used due to skin bkdn.NB
74Buck’s SKIN TRACTIONSkin traction uses 5 to 7 pound weights attached to the skin to indirectly apply the necessary pulling force on the bone. If traction is temporary, or if only a light or discontinuous force is needed, then skin traction is the preferred treatment. Because the procedure is not invasive, it is usually performed in a hospital bed.Bucks Traction: exerted by a straight pull on one or both legs. Can be used to immobilize a limb for a short time (# hip prior to surgery) or reduce muscle spasms.Prefabricated boot usedContinuous traction unless otherwise stated by Dr.If wt to be removed , manual traction applied until wts. Replaced.
75Skeletal Traction:Is accomplished by surgically inserting metal wires or pins thru distal bones to the # site or by anchoring metal tongs in the skull.A traction bow is attached to wire or pin and traction force is applied .Used to reduce unstable fractures of long bones
76Balanced Skeletal Traction with Thomas Splint Skeletal traction is performed when more pulling force is needed, or when the part of the body needing traction is positioned so that skin traction is impossible. Skeletal traction uses weights of pounds. It requires the placement of tongs, pins, or screws into the bone so that the weight is applied directly to the bone. This is an invasive procedure that is done in an operating room under general, regional, or local anesthesia.Balanced suspension skeletal traction with Thomas leg splint. The patient can move vertically as long as the resultant line of pull is maintained.
78Balanced Skeletal Traction with Thomas Splint Positioning the extremity so that the angle of pull brings the ends of the fracture together is essential. Weights must hang freelyElaborate methods of weights, counterweights, and pulleys have been developed to provide the appropriate force, while keeping the bones aligned and preventing muscle spasm.The patient's age, weight, and medical condition are all taken into account when deciding on the type and degree of traction.
79Relative ease of use and ability to maintain comfort Skin TractionAdvantage:Relative ease of use and ability to maintain comfortDisadvantage:Wt required to maintain Normal body alignment or fracture alignment can not exceed 6 lbs per extremity.Skeletal TractionAdvantage:Increases mobility without threatening joint continuity. Easier to change linen, backcareDisadvantage:Need to use multiple wts makes client slide in bed more.
81RisksThe main risks associated with skin traction are that the traction will be applied incorrectly, or that the skin will become irritated.More risks associated with skeletal traction.Bone inflammation.Infection can occur at the pin sites.Both types of traction have complications associated with long periods of immobility:bed soresreduced respiratory functionurinary & and circulatory problemsoccasionally, fractures fail to healemotional toll of prolonged bedrestKidney/gallstones
82More about tractionPositioning the extremity so that the angle of pull brings the ends of the fracture together is essential. Weights must hang freelyElaborate methods of weights, counterweights, and pulleys have been developed to provide the appropriate force, while keeping the bones aligned and preventing muscle spasm.The patient's age, weight, and medical condition are all taken into account when deciding on the type and degree of traction.
83Check the four P's of traction maintenance: Pounds: Inspect traction setup. Is the correct weight in place?Pull: Is the direction of pull aligned with the long axis of affected bone?Pulleys: Is the rope gliding smoothly over pulley?Pressure: Are clamps and connections tight?
84Assess, Assess, AssessAssess client's knowledge of the reason for traction, including nonverbal behavior and responses.Assess integrity and condition of skin over bony prominences and under devices in use.Assess client's overall health condition, including degree of mobility, ability to perform ADLs, and current medical conditions.Assess client's level of pain and need for analgesics before procedure begins.Assess for respiratory dysfunction
85USUAL PIN SITE CAREWith gloves remove gauze dressings from around pinsInspect sites for drainage or inflammation.Prepare supplies and apply new gloves.Clean each pin site with NaCl by placing sterile applicator close to the pin and cleaning away from the insertion site. Dispose of applicator.Continue process for each pin site.Using a sterile applicator, apply a small amount of topical antibiotic ointment as orderedProvide pin site care according to hospital policy/ Dr. orders.Cover with a sterile 2 X 2 split gauze dressing or leave site open to air (OTA) as prescribed
86More care for traction client Assess level of discomfort and provide nonpharmacological and pharmacological relief as indicated.Encourage active and passive exercises and use of unaffected extremities for ADLs.Encourage us of trapeze bar for repositioning in bed.Provide a fracture pan for elimination prnEvaluate effectiveness of care & need for intervention
87Care of the Client in Traction When caring for a client in continuous, balanced, skeletal traction with a Thomas Splint what should the nurse know? Wow, what a question!Consider skin, infection, personal care, ROM/exercisesCare of ropes, pulleysWhat to do when transporting client/bed elsewhere
88Nerve damage during traction Traction applied to an extremity puts pressure on the peroneal nerve where it passes around the neck of the fibula to just below the knee.Pressure at this point may cause footdrop, leading to inability to dorsiflex the foot.Inability to plantarflex indicates damage to the tibial nerve.The calf muscle is not affected & the temp of extremity doesn’t change.
89Specific Fractures Hip Fractures Condylar fractures Pelvic fractures Patellar fracturesTibial & fibular fracturesFoot fracturesUpper extremitiesPlease review Pages for care of specific fractures
90Sports Injuries Common Overuse injuries: Lower Extremities: Stress fractures (common in tarsal bones)Plantar fasciitis (damage of long ligament that attaches to the sole of the heal bone)Shin splints (medial tibial area)Patellar tendinitis (jumper’s knee)Upper ExtremitiesTennis elbowTendinitis (hand & wrist)Strains & sprainsOver-use syndromes are common sports-related problems that arise from micro trauma that do not completely stop the affected person’s activities.Strains: trauma to a muscle body or to the attachment to a tendon from over-strerching, overextension,, or misuse. May be acute or chrionic. Splinting, cold (first 24 to 48 hours) then heat (after 72 hours)Sprains: overstress of ligaments, may be mild or severe. Treatment is physio to surgery.
91Sports Injuries Cont’d Rotator cuff tearsShoulder muscle injuryAnterior cruciate ligament injuriesTear of ACLMeniscal injuriesRotator cuff: NSAIDS,, strengthening physio, possible surgeryACL: Arthroscopy is diagnostic as well as treatmentMeniscal: surgical
92Arthroscopy Same day surgery. Mostly preformed on knee and shoulder by use of a fibroptic arthoscopeCandidates for surgery are people who can flex their joint greater than fourty degrees and the joint is infection free.Used for obtaining a Biopsy, assessing cartilage, removing loose bodies & trimming cartilage.Infection is the major complication to arthroscopy.
93Complications of Arthroscopy: InfectionBlood in joint (hemarthrosisSwellingSynovial ruptureJoint injuryThrombophlebitis.
95By the time a person presents with complaints of numbness, paresthesias, pain, or motor deficit, nerve damage has progressed to the stage of larger fiber sensory and/or motor loss.The median nerve shares confined space with nine flexor tendons as it travels through the carpal tunnel. Any condition which reduces that space is likely to cause CTS due to compression of the vulnerable median nerve.
96Any solution which relieves pressure on the nerve and promotes circulation in the microvascular neural blood supply is likely to "cure" CTS and relieve its attendant symptoms of pain, etc.
97DUPUYTREN'S CONTRACTURE A painless thickening of the connective tissue in the palmar hand that can lead to difficulty extending the digits. Causes include hand trauma and genetic predisposition.Painless nodule on the palm,Cord-like bands across the palm & thickening of the lines of the palm, and curling (contracture) of the 4th and 5th digits.
98Surgery is performed in some cases unresponsive to conservative measures such as (splinting, warm soaks, exercises).
99Neurovascular Assessment: Questions to Consider:1. Discuss why neurovascular assessment is so important. Your answer should include consideration of the three components of neurovascular assessment: Circulation, Motor Function, & Sensation, as well as discussion of the 6Ps of neurovascular assessment.2.Who is most at risk for problems of the peripheral nervous system/blood flow?***
100ExplanationA loss of the bone’s blood supply causes avascular necrosis (AN) - the bone dies & bone structure collapses . Femoral neck fractures which damage local blood vessels, increase the risk of avascular necrosis. Long term high dose steroids also increase risk. Symptoms of AN include pain & reduced ROM in affected joint. Heparin, Lasix &NSAIDs aren’t associated with AN.