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1 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Assalam-o-Alaikum to Spring 2008 Semester Your Teacher: Muhammad Zahid Siddique.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Assalam-o-Alaikum to Spring 2008 Semester Your Teacher: Muhammad Zahid Siddique."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Assalam-o-Alaikum to Spring 2008 Semester Your Teacher: Muhammad Zahid Siddique

2 2 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Objectives, Focus and Pre-requisites This is a one-semester introductory level course for under-graduate students. The course has been explicitly developed for the students of FAST BBA students in order to give them an orientation of the valid way of understanding Islam The course is meant to: –explain Islamic conception of knowledge –outline defining features of Islamic sources of knowledge –transmit the valid orthodox method of understanding and interpreting Islam

3 3 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Objectives, Focus and Pre-requisites Focus of this course is Islamic Epistemology –though a complete description about the ideology of a civilization entails discussion about Metaphysics: what reality is Epistemology: knowledge and its sources Morality: question of valuegood and bad Theme will be to show that Islamic rules of jurisprudence are far more comprehensive than available in any other epistemological discourse Good understanding of this course presumes –Muslim –Intermediate level course on Islamic Studies

4 4 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Course Outline Tentative Topics(Total Lectures 45) Introduction to the Sources of Islamic Ideology –Islamic Conception of Reality –Nature of Islamic epistemology –Scheme of studying Islamic epistemology Ilm-ut-Tafseer –Introduction to Quran –Sources of Tafseer –Instruments ofTafseer Ilm-ul-Hadith –Basic Terminologies –Authority of Hadith –Overview of Principles to Understand Ahdith

5 5 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Course Outline Tentative Topics(Total Lectures 45) Usool-ul-Fiqh –Introduction to Usool-e-Fiqh –Sources of Deriving Ehkam (legal-value) –Linguistic Rules to Derive Ehkam –The Legal Value (Hukm-us-Shari) –Sunnah –Ijma, Qiyas and Ijtihad Embodiment of Islamic Ulooms –Ilm-ul-Kalam –Fiqh –Tasawwuf –Seerat-un-Nabi (SAAW) and History

6 6 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Course Outline Tentative Topics(Total Lectures 45) Contemporary Issues (will discuss any two or three current issues from the following ones, if time permits) –Islamic Political Theory –Criminal Law of Islam –Islamic Society and Gender-Segregation –Challenges of Islamic Economics –Jihad –A Study of the Struggle for Islamic Revival by Islamic Movements

7 7 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Assessment 80% attendance is compulsory [9 absences are allowed] Following marks distribution scheme will be applied –Two Mid-Terms= Marks –Assignments + Quizzes = Marks –Final Exam= 50 Marks minutes text reading and following weakly lectures guarantees you good grades in this course –Concentrate on the theme of this course

8 8 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Text readings and Related Photo-state of selected study material will be available at photo copy shop Off class contact –Room # 17, NU-FAST (city campus) – , Ext. 20 and any time during office hours –Avoid disturbing on mobile allowed only in case of high emergency

9 9 Lectures 1-7: Introduction to Islamic Epistemology Islamic conception of reality Islamic theory of knowledge Scheme of studying Islamic epistemology

10 10 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Questions we must ask…but never do All civilizations (way of lives) are founded on the answer to the question what is reality?. This question entails answering following questions: –Who am I? i.e. my role and status in this world? –What is the nature of my life? i.e. objective and duration of my life –What is the nature of this universe and my relation to it? i.e. perpetual or mortal –How can I know reality? i.e. the source of knowledge –What is good and what is bad? i.e. revealed or rational

11 11 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic metaphysics Islamthe last and final message of God to human kindgives definite answers to these questions –Who am I? Man is Abdthe created one, the servant –What is the nature of my life? A test-case in order to worship my Lordobeying his commandments by submitting my will to Him –What is the nature of universe and my relation to it? Created for a specific duration and I am here as vicegerent, not its master –How can I know reality? Revelation known through Prophet –What is good and what is bad? Godly determined

12 12 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Philosophy Vs Religion Philosophers Based on human faculties Have conflicting views Agree on the speculative nature of their views Keep changing their positions Have ultimately abandoned their efforts due to poverty of human faculties Prophets Based on revelation Cent percent agreement on basic claims throughout Sure about the truth and validity of their message Never change their views for any reasons Highly upright and selfless in character and men of wisdom Two groups claim to make reply How would reason evaluate the two groups? –when reason itself cant find exact answers!

13 13 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Rational justification for Prophetic reporting How come to deny their reporting, especially when: –they are so many in numbers, separated by the time and space differences –all were highly regarded for their upright character –their claim is not some logical impossibility Mere fact of beyond the realm of my reason is not enough to deny their message –Non-existence cant be derived from no-evidence impossible ( خلاف عقل ) and non-experienced ( خلاف عادت ) are different –reported facts dont necessarily require logical evidence in their support (e.g. historical events) –only report can do the job when other sources are lacking (e.g. being at some unknown place)

14 14 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique On THE Prophet: Back to the Past World before 1400 years ago –Limited information and means of communication –Dearth of moral and social standards –Arab was even more deprived of knowledge-base Individuality and society dominated by shirk No systematic state systemlaw of Jungle Moral deprivation at utmost level Within them a child is born –deprived of paternal love and raring –brought up among those Arab –received no knowledge at all –never traveled beyond a short visit to Syria

15 15 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique A star in the darkness Despite all that, he has extra ordinary personality –totally abstains from Shirk and injustices –never tells a lie nor betrays trustregarded truthful and trustworthy –placed at high levels of modesty ( حیا ), طهارة and morality –proves to be an upright successful businessman –after 40-years, detaches himself from his society in pursuit of truth On return to his nation, we observe a U-turn –starts condemning Shirk, injustices and immorality –calls toward Tauheed, Akhirah and Ibadah

16 16 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique A man like a rock His owns become his bitter enemies –put him into severe agonies –ultimately drove him out of the city –continued fighting against him even after then What was the bone of contention? –any monetary benefit?NO –any power struggle?No –any family revenge?NO Then why he stood fast against all troubles? –Do you know of someone to bear up severe sort of torture for no worldly benefits? especially of the hand of his addressees? –Have you ever seen such a bold liar or speculator?

17 17 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique A miraculous man More amazing is his message and its language –despite being an ordinary Arab, starts speaking unmatchable Arabic –despite not being exposed to any knowledge, turns out to be a great revolutionist, reformer, statesman, legislature, Journal and leader All was done not by deceit or force, but by heart-filling character and soul-inspiring nobleness –never betrayed or revenged even his bitter enemies Interestingly, despite all this magical success, never behaved like kings –had plain and simple living as earlier –knotted himself with his fellow beings as earlier

18 18 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique A-historical and a-social revolutionist Even more amazing is his legacy for this world as revolutionist –converted all aspects of human life to his desired form other humanly movements could not go beyond one or two aspects of life –in a single life time spansomething whole human history is unable to present was himself philosopher, preacher, leader and organizer, head of state and reformer!!! Mesmerizing is the fact that he cant be shown an out- product of his society –material dialectic might have raised a nationalist Arab reformerhow come to explain his message? –history could not turn him oldlooked beyond time –created his own ideology, resources and man-power

19 19 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Breathtaking truth If all of this was out of his own genius, THEN –he was truly entitled to claim his divinity Never reserves even one-percent credit to himself –always humbles himself as ordinary man and attributes all his success to His Almighty God

20 20 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic metaphysics as a basis of civilization Islamic metaphysics reflects itself at all levels of life –Individual: creates a highly responsible, disciplined, self-annihilating individuality regards himself subject and trustworthy, not autonomous and master –Social: makes love and صله رحمى the very fabric of relationships (e.g. Brotherhood of Medina) helps strengthen family institution ( خاندان وبرادرى ) structures social stratification around تقوى –institution of خانقاہ assumes dominant position strictly maintains gender-segregation to preserve and flourish family system

21 21 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic metaphysics as a basis of civilization –State: introduces conceptions of امت and خلافت strictly rejects racial and national basis of state. A nation has many features. It: –is based on hatred –assumes centrality to determine good & bad –lives for its own sake –pursues accumulation of capital as sole end –cant transcend geographical limits –is always imperialistic to subjugate others امت is based on the principle of brotherhood among اجابت امت, and preaching and اصلاح of دعوت امت –barriers from دعوت امت against the spread of حق is the basis of our conflict and fight with it

22 22 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic metaphysics as a basis of civilization Islamic state is خلافت (vicegerency of Prophet) where Shariah is the basis of formulating structure of legitimate obediences –strictly rejects democratic and secular conceptions of state More on the nature of Islamic society and state later in this course

23 23 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge Studying epistemology involves covering three areas 1.Nature of knowledge: content and objective of knowledge; knower-knowledge relation 2.Sources of knowledge: ways of knowing, their validity and limit 3.Areas of knowledge: embodiment of knowledge Nature of knowledge Ways of knowing Areas of knowledge Often discussing about science, people debate in the outer frontier Miss the point that real issue begins from the heart of knowledge

24 24 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Nature Concept and objective of knowledge is derived from concept of reality Content of Islamic epistemology is to know the Will of God Objective is to help mankind gain Marifah ( معرفه )called worship ( عبادت )of their Lord by practicing Prophetic teachings –No other source to معرفه and salvation than Prophetic revelation is acceptable Objective of submission of self is exactly opposite to scientific orientation of dominance of self

25 25 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Nature Scientific conception of knowledge is based upon Enlightenment beliefs of –freedom: right to determine good and bad (denial of عبدیت ) –Equality: equality of all conceptions of good (denial of ھدایت ) –Progress: objective of satisfying infinite wants (denial of life-after death) Such a conception of reality equates knowledge with the dominance of human will over nature realized through scientific laws whereby human asserts his will over nature to satisfy his desires

26 26 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Nature This conception leads to evolutionary theory of truth or knowledge b/c of inability of human faculties to find it –Uncertainty: truth and reality is uncertain –Falsifiability: knowledge is what that can be proved wrong –Doubt: always disbelieve and look for counter examples –Progress: truth is unfolding itself to us as we have more experience –Relativity: your truth may be different from mine –Research: be creative to bring new ideas –Evolution: explain existing phenomenon by evolutionary-interpretation

27 27 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Nature Each conception of knowledge gives birth to a concption of morality Scientific conception of knowledge: –Justifies the moral status of being without God separates religious-morality and authority from the meaning of knowledge reduces religious knowledge to private affairs by forcing it out of social expressions –trivializes religious conception of reality –Justifies the rationality of accumulation and competition (greed and envy) subordinates knowledge to the discipline of buying and selling by subjecting it to accumulationend in itself

28 28 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Nature The standard ethical-values resulting by the dominance of this knowledge are: –Self-interestsense of exchange based relationships makes society a market or civil society –Greed (desire for more and more accumulation) and envy (competition for worldly riches) –Devotion for worldly lifedesire for longer and longer life ( طول امل ) –Multiplication of wantsutility hunting attitude –Trivialization of Ibadah in individual, social and states spheres of life –Wastage of time in useless & non-sense activities

29 29 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Nature Religious knowledge on the other hand: –does not support the rationality of maximization of dominance over nature ( تصرف في الارض ) justifies the morality of submission ( اطاعت ), not of self-expression –opposite to, e.g., Maslows conception of self –gives a definite, absolute and universal conception of reality –is narrative in essence which does not only include what to know (know-how), but also how to speak and how to listen –combines law, morality and beauty into a single, inseparable entity

30 30 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Sources Source of Islamic knowledge is revelation preserved in –Primary sources The Quran The Sunnah of the Prophet (SAAW) –interpreted in Secondary sources Ijma (consensus among experts) Qiyas (reasoning by analogy) Some other, but controversial, secondary sources are عرف ،مصالح مرسلہ،استحصان (social convention), teachings of earlier Ummah etc Takes reason as instrument to understand revelation, and not as source of truth itself –establishes the priority of Naql over Aql

31 31 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Sources –Arguments based on reason and report can presume four cases of conflict: Both are certainan impossibility to take place Both are probableReport will be prioritized Former is probable and letter is certainletter is prioritized Former is certain and letter is probableformer prioritized while letter adjusted using appropriate interpretation ( تاویل ) –The final authority of our fundamental beliefs is based upon Naqlon the authority of Prophet discussed earlier religion is based upon the centrality of Prophet

32 32 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Sources Validity of injunctions ( احكام ) derived from Islamic sources depends upon the application of specific- methodologynot following that method disqualifies any effort on the part of researchers –so b/c Islam is an epistemology, not merely an attitude –this is the most ignored feature in modernist discourses Limit: Forms of derived احكام, and not merely their objectives, transcend time and spacei.e. are universal –cant be restricted to any specific person, time or space without having valid argument from valid sources of Shariah, and not merely out of reason, intuition or passion These issues are explored later in this course

33 33 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Areas Islamic epistemology has assumed the form of three major areas to regulate three dimensions of our lives: –Kalam deals with beliefsat the level of mind –Fiqh deals with actions and relations rendered by individualsat the level of body –Tasawwuf deals with moralityat the level of قلب Other important areas are –Life History of Prophet (SAAW) and history Ulema have derived the above classification from the following saying:

34 34 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Islamic theory of knowledge: Areas

35 35 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique How to study Islamic Epistemology? The broader approaches of studying Shariah have already been discussed in IB as per following heads –Orthodox: Islam from its own vintage point –Revisionist: Islamization of west –Modernist: Westernization of Islam Refresh it from your IB lecture slides –This course is based upon Orthodox approach to Shariah as that is the only valid method for it

36 36 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique How to study Islamic Epistemology? Revisionism and Modernism are attitudes developed in response to the dominance of west and has taken dozens of forms right from Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to date Do have some common features –prioritize reason over Naql –encourage individual learning of Quran –marginalize authority of Hadith to some degrees –break out of Ijma –seek state-protection for propagation of their views –dont set high practical-example by following Shariah at higher levels of عزیمت

37 37 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique How to study Islamic Epistemology? From Orthodox approach, all areas of knowledge can be described into five categories 1.Fundamental disciplines Quran, Hadith 2.Instrumental disciplines Arabic, Fiqh, Usool, etc. 3.Supporting disciplines Medical, industry 4.Neutral disciplines Mathematics 5.Destructive disciplines Magic, social sciences

38 38 Spring 2008 Islamic Ideology Zahid Siddique Following articles are available at photo state shop –Rational foundations of Tauheed ( توحيد ), Prophet hood of Muhammad (SAAW) and Life after Death –Islam and Jahilya –Capitalist Epistemology: an introduction Reading material


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