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Unit 1.3 Studio Project Cultural Exchange: Design and Trade in Global Context.

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1 Unit 1.3 Studio Project Cultural Exchange: Design and Trade in Global Context

2 Lecture: ‘Creative Economies’ An exploration of the relationship between trade and creativity Dr Martin Bouette

3 A Lecture in 4 parts: 1 – Historical thoughts (Sutton Hoo and the Silk road) 2 – Turning points: Socialism and the Avant-garde creative verses the idealism of the machine age (Great Exhibition, William Morris and Bauhaus) 3 – Political factors (The development of the term creative industries, and the race to establish a knowledge economies) 4 – Contemporary issues (Ethics, technology, the environment and an aging population)

4 Historical thoughts

5 Sutton Hoo and the Silk road (history reflects current practice)

6 Sutton Hoo Treasure – 7 th Century AD, England

7 Silk Princess Painting – 7 th Century AD, Khotan (Now Western China)

8 Thoughts 7 th century Asian creatives were skilled and highly regarded Asia has long been a manufacturing hub Competitive development was as rife in the 7 th century as it is now Quality is a strong trading tool

9 Turning Points Socialism and the Avant-garde creative verses the idealism of the machine age (Morris, the great exhibition and the Bauhaus)

10 Details from the Great Exhibition of 1851

11 Morris and co (1865)


13 Thoughts Great exhibition highlighted a both the advantages and disadvantages of mass production Morris’s craft revival was equally flawed, elitist and idealistic, but underpinned the need for skills and knowledge in design Bauhaus builds the foundations for style, function and integrity in the design of mass manufactured goods (although Bauhaus objects were as bespoke as Morris’s) The inherent value of quality and design


15 Political factors Compartmentalising the creative industries in the UK, identifying their size, looking at other countries Pondering current issues and looking at opportunities for creative development

16 The UK and the development of a categorised Creative Industries

17 The big 13 advertising, architecture, art and antiques, computer games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video, music, performing arts, publishing, software, TV and radio. But why define it? What are the flaws of this approach?

18 ‘The creative industries are those industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talent. They are also those that have the potential to create wealth and jobs through developing intellectual property’ DCMS (2010)

19 It’s big isn’t it? Creative employment provides around two million jobs, in the creative sector itself and in creative roles in other sectors, DCMS 2010

20 Creative Britain: New talents for the new economy

21 ‘South Korea has clawed its way out of poverty by becoming a manufacturing powerhouse [ ] The ability to harness creativity will be the biggest challenge, as well as the biggest opportunity, for South Korea’. Richard Florida 2002

22 ‘The first Cultural and Creative Industries Development Policy was legislated on 7 January 2010. Taiwan’s CCI sector now comprises 15 different sub-sectors. [ ] The top 6 sub-sectors being the key flagship ones that the Taiwanese support with funding of £384.6 million’ Taiwan Creative Industries Sector report 2010

23 Taiwans’ top 15: 1. Product Design 2. Digital Content 3. Craft 4. Music and Performing Arts 5. Movies/Film 6. Broadcasting and Television 7. Visual Arts 8. Cultural Asset Applications & Performance/Exhibition Facilities 9. Publishing 10. Advertising 11. Branding and Fashion Design 12. Creative Lifestyle 13. Architectural Design 14. Visual Communications Design 15. Pop Music & Culture Content

24 Thoughts Who will be the knowledge economies of the future? What happens if we push it too far (x factor? Pre-decided fashion cycles?)

25 Contemporary issues Ethics, technology, the environment and aging populations

26 Beauty and elegance verses cost, desire and greed: What is the human and ethical cost of our desires?


28 The International Labour Organization (ILO) has estimated that 250 million children between the ages of five and fourteen work in developing countries and many of these children are forced to work. 61% in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% in Latin America. (BBC 2007) The biggest users of child labour are: Shoes – Child labour is particularly prominent in the manufacture of trainers Clothing - In the U.S. the majority of garment workers are immigrant women that work 60-80 hours a week, usually without minimum wage or over time pay. Toys - A lot of toys are made in sweatshops and by child labour factories China, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The average North American toy maker earns $11 an hour. In China, toy workers earn an average of 30 cents an hour

29 It isn’t only happening in developing countries. We are exploiting workers in the UK

30 Thoughts How do we educate consumers in wealthy countries? Few are aware that an average factory worker making garments will earn only a few pounds a day and the labour cost as a percentage of the garment at retail price is less than 2% Consumers are not always aware of the true cost of the goods they purchase Some don’t care that their cheaper products come at a high cost to others

31 Technology and the electronic age (second life to the ipad)

32 Is the Emotive EPOC headset Brain Computer Interface the future of gaming?

33 Next generation iphone screen?

34 Smart fabrics and the future of Healthcare

35 CAD for development of bespoke craft

36 Thoughts What are the commercial risks of using technology? How can small companies afford to compete? How do you make technology more accessible?

37 The environmental debate

38 Droog – Experimental product design

39 Tesler – Electric cars

40 Virgin Green Fund focuses on middle market growth and expansion investment opportunities in the renewable energy and resource efficiency sectors including water. The Virgin Earth Challenge is a prize of $25m for whoever can demonstrate to the judges' satisfaction a commercially viable design which results in the removal of anthropogenic, atmospheric greenhouse gases so as to contribute materially to the stability of Earth's climate.

41 ‘The materials chosen by designer and manufacturer are crucial. Mining metal for cars creates atmospheric pollution, and uses oil and petrol, thus wasting natural resources that cannot be replaced. The designer’s decision to use foam plastics to make cheap, throw-away food containers damages the ozone layer. This is not a prescription for doing nothing at all, but an attempt to make designers aware that every choice and dilemma in their work can have far-reaching and long-term ecological consequences’. Viktor Papanek (1995)


43 Thoughts How concerned should the designer be with environmental issues? Whose responsibility is it? Is there a commercial benefit in embracing sustainable and environmental issues into design and production?

44 Design for an aging population With an increasing older generation we have increasingly higher levels of disability related to age

45 DDDDDesign Berlin: Packaging design for all

46 Helen Hamlyn Research Institute Student Mathew White – Power tool Designed for older people for B&Q

47 Panasonic tilted drum washing machines and driers. Designed to reduce awkward bending and reaching actions

48 Thoughts With people living longer we have increasing numbers of older people with practical needs who also have disposable incomes How will this affect creative activities? Music, television, films, interior design are all servicing mixed audiences Contemporary design for the 60’s generation

49 Parting thoughts

50 Asia has long been a manufacturing hub, it has also been a creative one, and may well be again.. soon In Europe the industrial revolution saw fractions in design and craft, but is their an opportunity to bring these together? Using the term Creative Industries as a way of clustering types of businesses has proved commercially useful in the UK. It is also being adopted by some Asian countries The future of commercial success has design and creativity at its heart and relies on multiple factors: Ethical, Technological, Environmental and Inclusivity

51 Any questions?

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