Presentation on theme: "Issue 2- How Democratic was Britain by … (1900,1918,1928)?"— Presentation transcript:
Issue 2- How Democratic was Britain by … (1900,1918,1928)?
How democratic was Britain by 1918 (or 1928) -This question is an evaluation of whether or not you believe Britain was democratic by a given year. You must comment on these 6 aspects of democracy: 1.Expanding the franchise 2.Redistributing parliamentary seats 3.Increasing choice 4.Ending corruption and Improving fairness 5. Awarding pay to Members of Parliament 6. Restricting the power of the House of Lords
5. Awarding pay to Members of Parliament Why is this important? 6. Restricting the power of the House of Lords Why is this important?
Britain's lack of democracy in 1850 Plural voting young people could not vote Universities elected MPs MPs were not paid There were only 2 parties The number of seats in parliament were not evenly distributed Voting was public Widespread corruption only wealthy landowners could vote Women could not vote
Section 1- Expanding the franchise What was achieved in the Reform Act of 1867 (page 6)? give detailed KU What were its limitations in regards to voting? (who still could not vote?) What was achieved in the Reform Act of 1884 (top of page 13)? What were its limitations in regards to voting? What was achieved in the 1918 Representation of the Peoples Act? What were its limitations in regards to voting?
Section 1 Expanding the franchise The 1928 Equal Franchise Act -All women over 21 could now vote Limitations????? Was Britain democratic by 1928, in regards to expanding the franchise? -Everyone over 21 could vote, but could it be lowered to younger people to make it more democratic? -Plural voting still existed until the Representation of the People Act 1948 -Therefore, can it be said that Britain was democratic?
1867 Reform Act Boroughs (cities & towns) All male homeowners could now vote. Renters paying £10 per year could now vote. Counties Owners of property valued at £5 per year. Renters paying £5 per year could now vote. 1 in 3 males could now vote The electorate increased to 2.5 million people Middle class people could now vote A very high percentage of males in the boroughs could now vote. Spread the vote to more people than Disraeli intended.
1884 Reform Act Awarded the vote to working class men in the countryside The British electorate now totalled over 5,500,000 limitations all women and 40% of adult males were still without the vote at the time. Young people could not vote(under 21) Plural voting still existed
1918 Representation of the People Act Women over 30 could now vote if they met the property qualificaitons Women with a university degree could now vote Men over 21 could now vote Limitations 22% of women 30 and over did not meet the property qualifications and could not vote Women under 30 without a degree could not vote Men under 21 could not vote Plural voting still existed
1928 Equal Franchise Act Women were given the same voting rights as men all women aged 21 + Limitations of 1928 Equal Franchise Act Plural voting still existed Only 21 year olds were viewed as able to vote (until 1969)
How accurate is it to describe Britain as a fully democratic country by 1928? Essay due: Tuesday October 1st
Section 1 Sentence 1: State whether or not you believe Britain was democratic by 1928, in terms of expanding the franchise. Sentence 2: State what had been achieved in terms of expanding the franchise by 1928. Give detailed statistics. Sentence 3: State your belief of whether or not, this was sufficient to call Britain democratic. Sentence 4: State the limitations on democracy in terms of expanding the franchise, to achieve balance.
Sentence 5: Using your own reasoning and explanation, Refer to the limitations and argue your belief. Either: - downplay the importance of these limitations and argue that Britain had become significantly more democratic by 1928, in regards to the lack of voting right which existed before. Or - argue that these limitations are too important, and that it cannot be said that Britain had achieved full democracy because… Sentence 6: answer the question in regards to expanding the franchise.
Section 2- The Redistribution of seats What was achieved in the Reform Act of 1867 (page 6)? give detailed KU What were its limitations in regards to the distribution of seats? What was achieved in the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 (bottom of page 12)? What were its limitations in regards to voting?
Quick Note In this essay, when analysing any of the 6 issues, make sure to analyse that issue ONLY. For example, when you are analysing Widening the Franchise, do not start discussing how seats were not evenly distributed. When you are analysing bribery and corruption, do not begin discussing how Britain was not democratic after the 1883 Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act because women could not vote ONLY REFER TO DEMOCRATIC ISSUES WITHIN THE SPECIFIC TOPIC!!!!
Increasing Choice Before 1900, voters only had two parties to choose from This is not democratic!! Many members of society only partially supported the Conservatives and Liberals. Workers found that neither party was particularly supporting their needs.
Trade Unions Workers in different industries (coal mining, textiles, railroad workers) had formed organisations which would represent their needs. These organisations are called Trade Unions, and some of them came to represent all workers in Britain in a particular industry (all coal miners, or ship builders) These Trade unions would fight for workers rights (pay, hours, workplace safety etc)
Trade Unions These Trade Unions became large wealthy organisations which were able to have representatives in the Liberal Party. These Trade Union representatives in the Liberal Party became known as Lib-Lab members. (Meaning Liberal party members who represented labour organisations). Eventually these men became Members of Parliament for the Liberal Party.
The Labour Party is formed- 1900 These members of parliament who represented labour organisations, remained Liberal Party ministers. However, by 1900, these MPs and trade unions realised a new party was needed to adequately represent the workers of Britain. With funding from the workers themselves, trade unions from around Britain used their wealth to support a new party, the Labour Party.
The Labour Party With a third Party involved in the election process, there was INCREASING CHOICE. To what extent did Increasing Choice make Britain more democratic in 1900?
Reforming the House of Lords The unelected House of Lords had the ability to block any new acts made by the House of Commons. The House of Commons attempted to block the power of the House of Lords, but of course, the House of Lords would not pass such acts.
The Situation The Liberals held power in the early 1900s. Because reform had been quite widespread by now, the Liberals turned their focus to improving the lives of poor citizens in Britain. The Liberals wanted to provide social welfare and better health care for its citizens. –But this would cost huge amounts of money –So the Liberals also had to come up with the money to pay for this by raising taxes.
The Liberals plan The Liberals planned to introduce new taxes on alcohol, cars, and a large tax on the super wealthy in 1909. This plan to raise taxes and spend the new money elsewhere is called a BUDGET. The Liberals had a huge majority in the House of Commons, so their budget (the plan to raise taxes and spend it on social reform) passed through the House of Commons rather quickly
The Liberal Budget passes the House of Commons Liberal Budget Goes to the House of Lords to be voted on. Why would the House of Lords reject the Liberal budget?? Damn rich jerks So the plan to raise taxes to pay for social welfare reforms fails. We’re too rich for ya’ll Liberal rubbish, don’t be taxing us
How do we end the power of the House of Lords????? The Liberals travelled the country between 1909 and 1911, spreading the news of their desire to ‘tax the rich to help the poor’ –They spoke against the wealthy members of the House of Lords, making the House of Lords very unpopular. As a result, the House of Lords was viewed as an undemocratic section of parliament which needed to be changed.
Parliament Act of 1911 This act reduced the power of the House of Lords –The House of Lords no longer had the power to vote on budgets (any act which dealt with taxation, or the distribution of money for things like social welfare programs) –Also, the House of Lords could no longer stop an act from being passed in Parliament, they could only delay the passing of an act for two years. After two years, an act would become law even if the House of Lords didn’t want it too. The House of Lords became scared to exercise its power out of fear that its power would be further taken away
Power of the House of Lords Limitations -The House of Lords remains unelected, even today -The House of Lords had the power to delay a new act for 2 years, until the Parliament Act of 1949 which restricted this to 1 year.
Read pages 18 to 19 on Reforming the House of Lords and answer the following questions 1.Why was the House of Lords undemocratic? 2.What are social reforms? 3.What is a budget? 4.Why did the Liberals need to raise taxes? 5.How did the Liberals pass an act which restricted the power of the House of Lords? 6.In what way was the House of Lords restricted? 7. Do you believe Britain had achieved democracy in terms of the House of Lords’ power? Read and take notes on the rest of 19 and the top of page 20
Increasing Choice Read the bottom of page 19 to the top of page 20. Answer the following questions 1. What is a trade union 2. Why did Trade unions grow to become large wealthy organizations 3. How did trade unions gain a role in Parliament? 4. Describe how the labour party formed? 5. In your opinion, with the formation of a new party, had Britain achieved full democracy in terms of the choice of parties it offered?
Opportunity to Become an MP Read page 19 and answer the following questions 1.Why could any man not become an MP in Britain before 1911? 2.What did the Parliament Act of 1911 achieve? 3.Was Britain now democratic in terms of allowing opportunity to become a MP?
Opportunity to Become an MP Limitations Nancy Astor was the first woman to be an MP in 1919, and opened the door to women. By 1928, Britain can be said to be fully democratic in terms of the opportunity to become an MP. However, membership in the House of Lords remained unelected.
Corruption and Intimidation
Corruption There were no laws which stopped rich politicians from using their money to win. Politicians transported voters to voting stations to vote for them Some would bribe factory owners into forcing their workers to vote for them. Since voting was public, if a employee did not vote for who their boss demanded, they would be fired!!! These are just some examples.
The Ballot Act of 1872 Introduced by the Liberal government under Prime Minister Gladstone. Booths were set up so voting was done in secret. As a result, voters could no longer be intimidated into voting for someone they do not want. However, Corrupt spending practices continued
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act of 1883 1.An election candidate’s spending became limited. 2.Campaign money could no longer be spent on things like food and drinks. 3.A record of spending had to be kept. 4. Disobeying the law would result in a candidates disqualification for 7 years!! 5. Involvement in corruption would result in fines or imprisonment.
Corruption and Intimidation Limitations In small areas, where the number of voters was small and a single rich landowner or employer was dominant, corruption and intimidation still existed. This happened in areas such as Norwich
The Redistribution of Seats The 1867 Reform Act redistributed seats, but not adequately. The 1884 Reform Act created a much more even distribution of seats, which almost accurately represented population throughout Britain. The 1918 Representation of the People Act distributed seats again. By 1928, Britain had more or less accomplished democracy in terms of the redistribution of seats
The Redistribution of Seats Limitation- Universities such as Oxford University and Cambridge University remained university constituencies which elected a MP. This may have restricted full democracy? At the same time, These seats only totaled about 12, making them a very small number in a House of Commons which numbered 658.
1.Expanding the franchise 2. Redistributing parliamentary seats 3. Increasing choice 4. Ending corruption and Improving fairness 5. Awarding pay to Members of Parliament 6. the power of the House of Lords Given all of these aspects, did Britain achieve full democracy by 1928? Order the 6 aspects from the ones which support your argument the most, to the least. Underneath each, mention your opinion on how each aspect supports and does not support your argument
I do not believe Britain was democratic 1.The power of the House of Lords -By 1928 the power of the House of Lords was restricted in the Parliament Act of 1911, which reduced their power to delay a bill for 2 years as well as restricting their power to vote on budgets. However, due to the fact that it remained as an unelected body within government, this inhibited Britain from being fully democratic. -A nation must have two fully democratic houses within its government to be considered a full democracy. -The power of the House of Lords was not adequately restricted until the 1949 Representation of the People Act, but it remains unelected with the power to delay a law for 1 year.
I do believe Britain was democratic 1.Awarding Pay to Members of Parliament The Parliament Act of 1911 allowed members of Parliament to be paid for the first time, which awarded equal opportunity for the people of Britain to become involved in the political process. By 1928, women had become involved in the House of Commons as well men. This is an essential component of democracy which had been achieved by 1928. Although the House of Lord’s was unelected, The House of Commons was the main source of law making power, and had become fully democratic.
Intro 1.State some background information 2.State what the question is asking and suggest your answer. It has been argued that… it will be argued that… 3-5. State all the different ways in which you believe Britain was and was not democratic, in the same order in which you will mention them in the essay. Through expanding the franchise Britain did/did not achieve democracy. Through decreasing intimidation and corruption….
Section 1 Sentence 1: State whether or not you believe Britain was democratic by 1928, in terms of…( your strongest reason). Sentence 2: State what had been achieved in terms of your strongest reason for why Britain was (or was not) democratic by 1928. Give detailed statistics and acts. Sentence 3: State your belief of whether or not, this was sufficient to call Britain democratic. Sentence 4: State the limitations on democracy in terms of your strongest factor, to achieve balance.
Sentence 5: Using your own reasoning and explanation, Refer to the limitations and argue your belief. Either: - downplay the importance of these limitations and argue that Britain had become significantly more democratic by 1928, in regards to …. (whatever you are discussing. Despite these limitations, Britain can still be considered fully democratic because… Or - argue that these limitations are too important, and that it cannot be said that Britain had achieved full democracy because… In a fully democratic nation there must be…. Sentence 6: answer the question in regards to the topic you are discussing in this section.