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Child Sexual Exploitation

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1 Child Sexual Exploitation
Presentation by Sue Sainsbury Barnardo’s Children’s Service Manager

2 Raising Awareness Child Sexual Exploitation is not new!
Definition of child sexual exploitation Models of child sexual exploitation Grooming Process The role of the internet in sexual exploitation The sexual exploitation of boys Challenges The need to protect How we work/what we do Multi-agency response Perpetrators of child sexual exploitation Further support and advice

3 CSE in the news

4 CSE – A new phenomenon? Late 19th century – Campaigners depicted child prostitutes as “betrayed innocents” which led to increased age of consent from 13 to 16 – Criminal Law Amendment Act 1922 Interwar period – Judges commented on “wickedness of girls under 16 seducing men twice as old as themselves” – 1,700 convictions of under 18s for offences relating to prostitution plus 2,300 cautions (40% increase in under 16s) - Four 12yr old girls convicted and two 14yr old boys. Youngest conviction was a 10yr old. 2004 – there were three prosecutions 2007 – Judges describe 13yr old girls as “sexually promiscuous and active” and “prostitute and heroin addict”

5 CSE – A new phenomenon? Nine men were found guilty of offences relating to a localised grooming network based in Rochdale. Seven men from Oxford were convicted of offences relating to child sexual exploitation at the Old Bailey in London. The offences which had taken place from 2004 to 2011, included rape, arranging child prosecution Sexual activity with a child and trafficking a child within the UK for sexual exploitation.

6 Definition of child sexual exploitation
Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where children (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (for example, food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of performing sexual activities and/or another performing sexual activities on them. Child sexual exploitation can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition, for example persuasion to post sexual images on the internet/mobile phone with no immediate payment or gain. In all cases those exploiting the child/young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the child or young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability. (Definition by NWG and cited in DCSF guidance)

7 Models of CSE Barnardo’s has found that child sexual exploitation tends to be a hidden activity and much more likely to take place in private residences than visibly, on the streets. Barnardo’s has identified three different models of activity; they are not exhaustive, but show a spectrum of exploitation. Exploitation through befriending and inappropriate relationships Peer Exploitation/Gangs & Groups Organised/networked sexual exploitation trafficking Some young people are engaged in informal economies that incorporate the exchange of sex for rewards such as drugs, cigarettes, alcohol, money or gifts. Others exchange sex for accommodation or money as a result of homelessness and experiences of poverty. Some young people have been bullied and threatened into sexual activities by peers or gangs which is then used against them as a form of extortion and to keep them compliant. Please use this slide to discuss any pertinent local issues. Major organised crime – discuss some of the tactics used in your locality at present Target specific areas where young people gather without much adult supervision e.g. shopping, centres, cafes, takeaways, pubs, bus/train stations, parks, taxi ranks and residential units – expand on this. Perpetrators use of younger men and women to initially build the relationships (introducers). How older victims of CSE can be used in this way. Discuss the line between victim and perpetrator and how our systems often see’s a young person as a perpetrator first rather than a victim. Groomed into the ‘party’ lifestyles where they go to houses/flats with numerous men and other young women. These parties introduce young people to alcohol and drugs and offer a space to ‘chill’. A hidden crime The majority of sexually exploited children will be hidden from public view. They are unlikely to be loitering on the streets or in saunas or massage parlours. They are more likely to be in private houses/flats. Discuss the difference between internal and external trafficking. Explain that removing a YP from one area to another for the purpose of sex is trafficking. Use examples if you have them.

8 Exploitation through befriending and inappropriate relationships.
Inappropriate Relationships/Boyfriend model of exploitation where one perpetrator who has inappropriate power or control over a young person ( physical, emotional or financial). One indicator may be a significant age gap. The young person may believe they are in a loving relationship. The perpetrator befriends and grooms a young person into a ‘relationship’ and then coerces or forces them to have sex with friends or associates. Read this through Take time to explain to group that there are various routes in for young people who are sexually exploited as follows-hand out in pack- Routes into Sexual Exploitation ‘Older Boyfriend’ Young person is targeted due to their vulnerabilities Adult is usually at least 5 years older Initially relationship feels positive and rewarding for young person Adult uses techniques to increase isolation and create dependency Relationship becomes abusive Young person may be forced into sexual activity with others

9 Grooming The word grooming is used to describe the process that abusive adults use to trick a child or young person into believing that they are trustworthy so that they can eventually sexually exploit the young person Exercise Spend 10 minutes discussing with the person next to you about the early stages of a relationship you have been in and the type of things you or your partner did for each other.


11 Peer Exploitation/Gangs & Groups
Peer Exploitation – young people are forced or coerced into sexual activity by peers and associates. The exploitation appears to be taking place within age appropriate associations or relationships. Research within Barnardo's services identified a significant issue with groups of young people hanging around in parks drinking alcohol given by older people or peers and having sex. Gang – mainly comprising men and boys aged 13 – 25 years old, who take part in many forms of criminal activity, such as knife crime or robbery, who can engage in violence against other gang ,and who have identifiable markers such as territory, a name, sometimes clothing etc. Group - involves people who come together in person or online for the purpose of setting up, co-ordinating and/or taking part in the sexual exploitation of children in either an organised or opportunistic way.

12 Organised/Networked Sexual Exploitation/Trafficking.
Young people (often connected) are passed through networks, possibly over geographical distances, between towns and cities where they may be forced/coerced into sexual activity with multiple men. Often this occurs at ‘sex parties’, and young people who are involved may be used as agents to recruit others into the network. This internal trafficking of British children within the country often involves a number of perpetrators and is more sophisticated in the way that it is organised. Some of this activity is described as serious organised crime and can involve the organised ‘buying and selling’ of young people by perpetrators.

13 The role of the internet in sexual exploitation

14 The internet as an instrument
Barnardo’s Core Presentation Slide No. 14 Thursday, 06 April 2017 The internet as an instrument of abuse (Selling) children on-line for abuse on-line Making abusive images of children Viewing abusive images of children Selling children on-line for abuse offline Grooming children on-line for sexual abuse offline Children viewing abusive images of children Children viewing adult pornographic images Access to internet and chat lines 5mins- Contact via mobile phones General criminality 14

15 ‘Sexting’ in your local area
SEXTING IS DEFINED AS THE “EXCHANGE OF SEXUAL MESSAGES OR IMAGES” AND “CREATING, SHARING AND FORWARDING SEXUALLY SUGGESTIVE NUDE OR NEARLY NUDE IMAGES” THROUGH MOBILE PHONES AND THE INTERNET. Alarming rise in 'sexting' craze across Hampshire schools WHEN a class of 13-year-olds were asked to raise their hands if they had sent an explicit naked picture of themselves or knew someone who had, the response was shocking. Every child in the Southampton classroom put their hands up for the random survey. (Daily echo April 2013)

16 E-Safety – we need to understand…
the reasons why young people are taking and forwarding these images the issue of trust in relationships how photos can end up out of the hands of the intended recipient and be circulated much more widely the speed at which images can be spread on the internet the online and offline bullying which may occur as a result the  idea of digital footprint and online reputation the legal implications of self-generated indecent images the process of removing content online, and where to seek further help and advice why they should not take and send these images. 5 mins Use the next four slides to stress that young people will and do use internet and e communications widely but indicate potential for lasting abuse, and stress how materials can be disseminated on huge scale and retention possible forever presents massive additional risk.

17 The role of technology in CSE
Services reported that the scale of online and mobile abuse has markedly increased even since Almost all services reported it as an increasing priority, and some have identified that the majority of their service users were initially groomed via social networking sites and mobile technology. ‘The use of technology is such a big issue. I hear of young people who posting appropriate pictures of themselves on the internet through the encouragement of others. I hear about grooming of young people by older adults over the internet which progresses onto mobiles. Sexual bullying and threats over the internet and mobiles, we hear about this all the time.’ [Service manager]

18 Sexual exploitation of boys common scenarios
Older men offering paid work/ “odd jobs” Older man often known to the young man Develop a trusting friendship Young person feels like they owe something back. Young man exploring their sexuality in risky ways. Seeking sexual experiences Targeted/ arranging to meet in public sex environments Young men searching for men on the internet Involving young men in sexual exploitation through parties. Huge amounts of drugs and alcohol given. Older boys used to recruit younger Organised Young men given money and mobile phones.

19 Sexual exploitation of boys common factors
Isolation Lack of self confidence Drug and alcohol abuse Family instability/homelessness/looked after Organised groups trafficking young people between cities Limited awareness of risk

20 Sexual exploitation of boys differences
Barnardo’s Core Presentation Slide No. 20 Thursday, 06 April 2017 Sexual exploitation of boys differences More hidden More isolated from peer group Perceived to be at less risk Young men are less likely to have an “emotional attachment” to one individual who is exploiting them. Risk can be created in part by them exploring their sexuality by seeking unsafe sexual encounters. Use of internet a significant factor Greater reluctance to seek help from services 20

21 Exercise - why don’t young people tell?

22 Why young people don’t tell?
Children may not see it as abuse or dangerous Too trivial Shame / embarrassment Culture of fear/silence Blame self Rewards often appear to outweigh the risks Fear situation would get worse Children may be involved in other criminal or anti-social activity 3 mins It is important to step in children’s and young people’s shoes and understand why they don’t tell. Reasons can vary but may include- Expectation of being perceived as trivial –some times YP has had horrific experiences and no one has done anything to protect them. Professionals have not got involved so they just had to get on with it…why would they believe this was anything different. Fear they’ve brought it on themselves……. the language we use as a society may suggest this. Fear of the System which may be is geared up to defend the abuser. Previous history of abuse in the family therefore negative experiences and low expectations. Fear of not being believed. Fear that people will call them a slag,whore etc Fear that everyone will know what they have done. Fear that their family will punish them – what if the abuser is within the family. Fear that they will have to tell people everything. Fear of the interview process. Fear of the Court process. Fear that the abuser will ‘get off’ anyway so what’s the point.

23 Exercise –What draws young people back to their abusers
come up with some ways to overcome these barriers.

24 What might draw children back to their abusers
Dependant relationship with exploiters Flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety attacks, irritability and other symptoms of stress. A loss of ability to concentrate Present as anti-social, aggressive and angry, and/or fearful and nervous, finding it difficult to relate to others Grief and loss Fear Loss of trust in ALL adults Low self-esteem Worry about … Feel like criminals Emotional / psychological distress Mental health issues – could include: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 5 mins Use slide to remind people about push and pull factors for children and young people. Fear- adults who control them Self-esteem- they may believe that the experience has ruined them for life psychologically and socially. They may become depressed, and sometimes suicidal. Worry- about people in their families and communities knowing what has happened to them, and become afraid to go home. Mental Health- usually the longer the exploitation, the more mental health problems that will be experienced PTSD- owing to their sense of powerlessness. Could have involved violence and deprivation at hands of abuser. Use your experience to bring this alive. 24

25 Challenges Sexually exploited young people are often a hard to reach group because… The grooming process creates what we call a “willing victim” meaning that the young people often do not realise or accept that they are being sexually exploited. It takes time for young people to accept their own abuse. Young people are likely to get very defensive or refuse to engage with their worker if they see them as being critical of the young person’s “boyfriend”, If the abusing adult involved with the young person sees Barnardo’s as a threat, they can try and stop the young person from engaging with the service.

26 Challenges These young people can lead chaotic lifestyles which can be due to their substance use and life circumstances. Many of them are frequently missing making them difficult to get hold of. Appointments are often missed, or cancelled.

27 Challenges These young people often have little positive experience of adult support and many are disengaged from all services. They are mistrustful of adults or professionals. As part of the voluntary sector we find it easier to engage with young people than statutory services as young people have the choice as to whether or not they wish to engage with the service. If they don’t have to, they probably will want to!

28 Perceptions-why does it matter?
Recent serious case reviews state that young people need to be listened to and that adults need to take their disclosures seriously. The Rochdale SCR(2012) review stated that services put into place to safeguard children and young people are still not acting on disclosures that children make and ‘had the needs of these young people been better identified and addressed at an early stage, the risks of later abuse might have been reduced’. Many of the disclosures made to adults saw the young people being blamed for the sexual exploitation experienced. They were dealt with as ‘rebellious adolescents’ and two young people ‘received criminal convictions for behaviour that should have been dealt with in terms of their status as victims of abuse rather than as offenders’. The perception of young people is the assumption that they are ‘consenting or ‘asking for it’. This is far from a reality- Perceptions Need to Change. Read through

29 It’s not a choice… Because grooming process often creates what is known as a “willing victim” it is vital to remember that… Children and young people cannot consent to their own abuse. Consent does not make an unlawful act lawful. Sexual exploitation is an area which always has significant child protection concerns as children involved in prostitution and sexual exploitation should be considered as victims of abuse.

30 Child Protection Sexual exploitation is an area which always has significant child protection concerns as children involved in prostitution and sexual exploitation should be considered as victims of abuse. A child protection concern as defined by section 47 of the Children Act 1989 is where a child is considered to be at risk of “significant harm”. If we look at the 4 categories of abuse as defined by the Children Act 1989 we have examples of concerns in cases of sexual exploitation which would fall into all 4 categories.

31 What does this really mean?
For our young people it means: Physical assault Rape Emotional abuse Isolation Humiliation/ embarrassment Fear Confusion “I love him because he looked after me, bought me nice things. Then he asked me to have sex with this man because he owed him money. He said he would kill him if he didn’t pay up, so I did it. Now he threatens to kill me and beats me up if I don’t sleep with who he says.” 16-year-old girl.

32 Professional Duties. Any person working with under 18’s have a responsibility to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Any person working with under 18’s have a duty to pass on child protection concerns. This also includes concerns about young people with whom you may not be working. It is YOUR responsibility to make the assessment as to whether you suspect a young person is at risk- not the young person’s.

33 Child Abduction Legislation.
Sub-Section 2(1) of the Child Abduction Act 1984 provides an offence in relation to the taking or detaining of a child where the offender is not connected with that child. It states: "any person other than the parent, lawful carer, etc, commits an offence if without lawful authority or reasonable excuse, he takes or detains a child under the age of 16 years:  (A) so as to remove him from lawful control of the person having lawful control of the child or,  (B) so as to keep him out of the lawful control of any person entitled to lawful control of the child." 

34 What can we do. Barnardo’s works from the model of practice “The 4 A’s”; Access. Either by referral from another agency or self referral. Flexible, responsive and on the young person’s own terms. Attention. We “hook” a young person out of an unsafe relationship into positive ones with persistence and by focussing on issues that matter to the young person. Assertive Outreach. Consistent and persistent attention from a named worker including texts, calling and cards and meeting the young person on their own ground. Advocacy. Establishing and maintaining effective interagency relationships keeping the needs of the young person at the centre.


36 Our Aim Although our ultimate aim is to support these young people to be removed from sexual exploitation this does not happen quickly. By focussing on their vulnerability factors and risk indicators we can reduce how much at risk the young person is.

37 Complex Needs The young people we are working with generally have a range of complex needs and difficulties including… Substance misuse, going missing, mental health problems, self harm/ suicide attempts, housing issues, NEET, family breakdown, domestic violence, eating disorders, historic and current abuse, sexual health problems and low self esteem. Barnardo’s cannot deal with all these issues alone!

38 Multi Agency Working! In order to protect children ALL agencies need to adopt a multi agency approach. This is the best way to manage risk. You don’t know everything! All agencies hold just one small piece of the jigsaw. It’s only by putting these pieces together that we see the full picture. Remember, protecting children is the responsibility of adults, not of the children themselves. Sometimes we have to protect children against their own will. A multi agency approach is needed to help identify dangerous people which helps with our assessment of risk and protection of young people

39 Perpetrators of CSE

40 Characteristics of a ‘groomer’
Friendly Good communicator Good listener Acute observer – able to identify weak spots or ‘hooks’ very quickly Skilful with young people Manipulative Clever Read through

41 Quote from a groomer “These were throw away girls, no more ‘ worthy than a lollipop thrown down on the ground” Adil Rashid, 18 - admitted to having sex with a 13 year old girl groomed on the internet.

42 Key Points Prevention and early intervention are vital when indications of risk are first identified-awareness of risk is key to prevention. A child cannot consent to his/her own abuse and sexually exploited children are in need of protection. Using the legislation in a proactive way-but if we cannot prosecute we can at least disrupt Confront and challenge attitudes and values that confirm some young people are worthless It is critical that accessible and acceptable services work alongside these children in some very risky and distressing situations

43 Government Action Plan (2011)
Local authorities must map the needs of their own area Monitor ongoing prevalence and responses Develop an effective local strategy ensuring there is a co-ordinated multi-agency response Increase understanding of child sexual exploitation, in the professional and wider community Safeguard and promote the welfare of groups of children who are potentially more vulnerable than others and are at increased risk of child sexual exploitation, by: establishing effective communication channels between the LSCB and partner agencies, including specialist services which have an important role to play; attending voluntary and community sector conferences to increase personal knowledge; providing briefing to social care teams; and arranging multi agency training days/courses The action plan follows the publication of the Puppet on a String report by Barnardo's Read through

44 Further support and advice

45 Changing Perspectives
Assumptions Changing Perspectives

46 Teenage Prostitute Rent Boy Think about the terms…
If young people hear these terms what other terms would come to their mind; what images and ideas of their lifestyle etc ?

47 Young People’s Responses
slut CRACK WHORE slag dirty ho SLAPPER tart DISGUSTING BUMMER BOY filthy nympho DRUGGIE sket wants it BIKE street corner SMACK HEAD streetwise man whore GAYLORD STI’s waster high class hooker loads of money CHEAP gross

48 Professionals Responses Popular assumptions
She’s Promiscuous She is prostituting herself He is making a choice She’s always doing this She is putting herself at risk He’s sexualised. He is over the age of consent/ it’s legal There’s nothing we can do It’s their boyfriend/ partner Attention seeking Manipulative They want the money/ drugs He is streetwise He is giving consent It’s legal

49 Change Our Perspective
Vulnerable ABUSED low self esteem manipulated neglected HURTING Coerced INNOCENT trusting Inexperienced young testing boundaries LOOKING FOR LOVE scared AT RISK acting out past trauma GROOMED Learned behaviours ANGRY confused Needing attention wanting to feel grown up


51 Hampshire Children’s Services Department are developing a Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub to run alongside existing services provided by Hants Direct and the Children’s Reception Team. This is a new way of responding to referrals

52 Referral Pathway to Children’s Social Care
Public Professionals Line Hantsdirect Children’s Reception Team Embedded Social Work Team Signposted Social Care

53 HCC is well positioned to develop a MASH following the successful implementation of a Multi Agency CYP triage group alongside the Children’s Reception Team. The MASH model is widely accepted as best practice and is a logical step for Hampshire

54 Triage of Police Reports
Police CYP Referrals TRIAGE Police / Health / Social Care Health Social Care NFA Police

55 A Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub or MASH was first developed in Devon in 2010 following a Police and Children’s Services initiative for developing services which provided true multiagency assessment and triaging of safeguarding concerns. The purpose was a dedicated multiagency team to protect the most vulnerable children and adults from harm, neglect and abuse. The Devon model trialled the use of police intelligence to make risk based assessments, and was a recommended example of good joint working in the final Munroe report 2011/12 which urged Children’s Social Care to consider new single access methods of ‘gate keeping’.

56 Partners involved in MASH
Children’s Services inclusive of education and YOT. Police Adult Social care Health.

57 Virtual partners Probation Housing District Councils
Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service Hampshire Ambulance Service

58 HampshireFire / Rescue
MASH CYP triage CA12 Children Social Care & Education Health Police Adult Services Virtual HampshireProbation Borough and District Councils HampshireFire / Rescue Hampshire Ambulance service Community Safety Troubled Families Housing

59 Desired Outcomes of MASH
A faster, more co-ordinated and consistent response to safeguarding concerns about vulnerable children and adults. An improved ‘journey’ for the child or adult with a greater emphasis on early intervention and better informed services provided at the right time. A more straightforward and responsive process for the professional or citizen raising a concern, with clear guidance and support. Closer partnership working, clear accountability and improved multi-agency communications. A reduction in the number of inappropriate referrals and re-referrals.

60 Benefits of MASH The MASH gives quicker response times with a better coordinated approach to resources meaning each agency works more effectively and efficiently in their own field of expertise. The proven reduction in inappropriate referrals and re-referrals means that time and resources are targeted most effectively and savings are made.

61 The proven reduction in inappropriate referrals and re-referrals means that time and resources are targeted most effectively and savings are made. Staff and agencies have an increased understanding and appreciation of each others roles and responsibilities leading to increased skills, better multi agency working and more effective judgement. Development of flexible working patterns and providing enhanced customer service.

62 Process for Referrals from January 2014
Contact made to CRT CRT will either signpost to Early Help or transfer to MASH MASH will research and gather information from co-located and virtual partners MASH will decide whether Early Help or Statutory Assessment by Children’s Services is required CP Strategy discussions will be face to face and take place in MASH CRT and MASH will use the SERAF tool.

63 Case Study Michelle is14yrs 6mths old. Over the last few months she has been truanting from school and coming home late. There have been some arguments between Michelle and her parents. Michelle has stopped attending afterschool clubs and no longer confides in her teachers. She has accessed the sexual health clinic for the morning after pill on one occasion and states her sexual activity was consensual. Recently she has been sending clothed but provocative pictures via her mobile to unknown males.

64 Feedback What are the risks for Michelle ?
Would completion of a SERAF assist in structuring your thinking around CSE risks ?

65 Hampshire CSE Working Group
Multi-agency partners Terms of reference Strategic - MET/Hotspots/Analysis CSE Leads in Children’s Services Operational Early Help – threshold matrix.

66 Questions?

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