Presentation on theme: "6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations – Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1."— Presentation transcript:
6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations – Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1
1.Overview 2.Requirements of the specification 3.What are crowded coasts? 4.Investigating crowded coasts 5.Ideas for fieldwork 6.Research on crowded coasts 7.Making it work for the exam CONTENTS Click on the information icon to jump to that section. Click on the home button to return to this contents page In Part 2
1. Overview Unit 2 has four components, but you are only required to study two of these. In the 75 minute exam you answer one question based on your two chosen topic areas. This means there is no choice. This exam is designed to test both knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts as well as geographical skills. Fieldwork, research and the enquiry process lie at the heart of this exam. The most important ways of ensuring the highest possible grades in this module is (i) being able to focus on the question set, (ii) to be able to use resources effectively, and (iii) to get your fieldwork in a form that works for the exam. UNIT 2: The Paired Options –you only study one in each pair! The ‘Physical’ Pair 1.Extreme Weather 2.Crowded Coasts The ‘Human’ Pair 1.Unequal Spaces 2.Rebranding
UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure Normally the first part of each question starts with a data stimulus element. The fieldwork and research elements are related directly to work you have carried out during a field trip AND may involve questions about how you processed, interpreted etc what you found. The remaining question is more management and issues based. Here case study knowledge will be required. The data stimulus in unlikely to be the 15 mark question Data stimulus with an analysis element is possible
What makes the coast so attractive? The factors opposite show why the coastal zone has always attracted settlers and been favoured by developers. European countries built great ports to receive goods from their colonies abroad (e.g. The port of Hong Kong). Of the factors opposite, which do you think is the most important and why? How might this vary from place to place and time to time? Global - Quick coasts facts 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast Coastal population densities are typically 80 people / km2 – 50% more than non coastal areas; they rise to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges deltas. Migration is a key component of growth
400% population growth since 1980 in some Florida counties 1500 new houses approved each day in all coastal counties combined. Growth in the southern USA Coastal counties occupy 17% of USA land area, yet are home to and 53% of population. There are a number of growth hotspots including Florida, Georgia, Texas and California The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has focused ideas of coastal pressure – the impacts on fishing + ecosystems will likely be enormous
Different types of coast Retirement Coasts Examples include: Parts of Norfolk, Cornwall, plus UK south coast, Florida Resource- rich Coasts Examples include: South-east Asia shrimp industry, Nile and Niger Delta Tourism coasts Examples include: (almost all coasts), but specifically any coastal counties of southern England, Costa Blanca Industrial coasts Examples include: Rotterdam, south East UK, Pearl River Delta, coastal cities of China, including Hong Kong Coasts may be developed for a number of reasons – they can be classified into a number of different types – there are some examples opposite. What other types of coast are there and where might they be found? Many coasts are multi-purpose, with an overlap of different types of activity occurring in adjacent locations or at the same places. Other types of coasts may exist, e.g. The ‘Golf Coast’, the ‘Eco-coast’, the ‘Activity Coast’.
1. Competition for coasts Coasts attract a wide range of users – this can bring challenges and opportunities for managers of coastal areas. Conservation of areas is becoming increasingly complex, especially when weighed up against the economic arguments of industry and tourism. Who might be the different coastal stakeholders?
A number of physical and human factors shape the coastline. Factors that shape the coastline Physical factors, e.g. sand dunes, mudflats, estuary, sand banks, woodland, river An exam question could ask you to identify the physical and human factors from a resource, e.g. GIS map / satellite image Human factors, e.g. roads, agriculture / farming. Settlement, bridge
2. Coping with the pressure Coastal developments create patterns resulting from the competition for space. This can lead to pressure on coastal environments. The sea and shoreline can distort the patterns of land use.
A pressurised coastal system…. Tossa de Mar, Spain Increasingly crowded as tourist market changes. No longer fully ‘coastal’. Potential conflicts between old and new, residents and visitors, development versus conservation. A big issue is the future of such places with demands for water especially during the summer tourist season.
3. Increasing risks The Fal estuary in Cornwall; areas vulnerable to sea level rise Context links back to Unit 1 in terms of climate change Rising sea levels; increased storm activity + coastal flood risk Importance of ‘one off’ events such as 1953, tsunami and hurricanes Touch on issues such as isostatic change for the UK There is a fieldwork choice (‘coastal retreat or flood risk’); in many cases both can easily be covered. You should be aware of the risks posed by the growing incidence of coastal hazards – and potentially their social, economic and environmental impacts
Coastal change….. Climate change and rapid coastalisation are big threats globally. In the UK large amounts of money are being spend to try to manage threat and reduce risk. Coastlines have always changed and responded to physical and human processes. What is now of particular concern is rates of change and numbers of vulnerable people
You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your chosen coast or coasts Risk = HAZARDS Frequency and magnitude of events such as storm surges CAPACITY: present resources and ability to prepared for the future VULNERABILITY A brief contrast might be useful; physical and human factors both important
4. Coastal management - Hold the line (hard and soft approaches) - Strategic retreat - Do Nothing - Advance the line You should be aware that there are a range of coastal management and defence strategies. What are their advantages and disadvantages? Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and SMPs (Shoreline Management Plans) and ideas that should be researched.
Example – Newbiggin, N.E England Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is an increasing risk. Also, the town itself has suffered from mining job losses and relative isolation within SE Northumberland An ambitious £10million plan to improve the beach and promenade area through a replenishment scheme
Plan details 2007-8 500,000 tonnes beach nourishment Offshore breakwater to maintain beach and reduce wave energy; built from concrete tetrapods Removal of some sea wall to improve beach access and appearance Landscaping works around the town to improve image