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Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts?

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Presentation on theme: "Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts?"— Presentation transcript:

1 6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations – Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1

2 Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts?
CONTENTS Overview Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts? Investigating crowded coasts Ideas for fieldwork Research on crowded coasts Making it work for the exam In Part 2 Click on the information icon to jump to that section. Click on the home button to return to this contents page

3 1. Overview Unit 2 has four components, but you are only required to study two of these. In the 75 minute exam you answer one question based on your two chosen topic areas. This means there is no choice. This exam is designed to test both knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts as well as geographical skills. Fieldwork, research and the enquiry process lie at the heart of this exam. The most important ways of ensuring the highest possible grades in this module is (i) being able to focus on the question set, (ii) to be able to use resources effectively, and (iii) to get your fieldwork in a form that works for the exam. UNIT 2: The Paired Options –you only study one in each pair! The ‘Physical’ Pair Extreme Weather Crowded Coasts The ‘Human’ Pair Unequal Spaces Rebranding

4 UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure
Normally the first part of each question starts with a data stimulus element. The fieldwork and research elements are related directly to work you have carried out during a field trip AND may involve questions about how you processed, interpreted etc what you found. The remaining question is more management and issues based. Here case study knowledge will be required. The data stimulus in unlikely to be the 15 mark question Data stimulus with an analysis element is possible

5 What makes the coast so attractive?
The factors opposite show why the coastal zone has always attracted settlers and been favoured by developers. European countries built great ports to receive goods from their colonies abroad (e.g. The port of Hong Kong). Of the factors opposite, which do you think is the most important and why? How might this vary from place to place and time to time? Global - Quick coasts facts 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast Coastal population densities are typically 80 people / km2 – 50% more than non coastal areas; they rise to in the Nile and Ganges deltas. Migration is a key component of growth

6 Growth in the southern USA
Coastal counties occupy 17% of USA land area, yet are home to and 53% of population. There are a number of growth hotspots including Florida, Georgia, Texas and California 1500 new houses approved each day in all coastal counties combined. 400% population growth since 1980 in some Florida counties The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has focused ideas of coastal pressure – the impacts on fishing + ecosystems will likely be enormous

7 Different types of coast
Many coasts are multi-purpose, with an overlap of different types of activity occurring in adjacent locations or at the same places. Different types of coast Retirement Coasts Examples include: Parts of Norfolk, Cornwall, plus UK south coast, Florida Resource-rich South-east Asia shrimp industry, Nile and Niger Delta Tourism coasts (almost all coasts), but specifically any coastal counties of southern England, Costa Blanca Industrial coasts Rotterdam, south East UK, Pearl River Delta, coastal cities of China, including Hong Kong Coasts may be developed for a number of reasons – they can be classified into a number of different types – there are some examples opposite. What other types of coast are there and where might they be found? Other types of coasts may exist, e.g. The ‘Golf Coast’, the ‘Eco-coast’, the ‘Activity Coast’.

8 Who might be the different coastal stakeholders?
1. Competition for coasts Coasts attract a wide range of users – this can bring challenges and opportunities for managers of coastal areas. Conservation of areas is becoming increasingly complex, especially when weighed up against the economic arguments of industry and tourism. Who might be the different coastal stakeholders?

9 A number of physical and human factors shape the coastline.
Factors that shape the coastline An exam question could ask you to identify the physical and human factors from a resource, e.g. GIS map / satellite image Physical factors, e.g. sand dunes, mudflats, estuary, sand banks, woodland , river Human factors, e.g. roads, agriculture / farming. Settlement, bridge

10 2. Coping with the pressure
Coastal developments create patterns resulting from the competition for space. This can lead to pressure on coastal environments. The sea and shoreline can distort the patterns of land use.

11 A pressurised coastal system….
Tossa de Mar, Spain Increasingly crowded as tourist market changes. No longer fully ‘coastal’. Potential conflicts between old and new, residents and visitors, development versus conservation. A big issue is the future of such places with demands for water especially during the summer tourist season.

12 3. Increasing risks You should be aware of the risks posed by the growing incidence of coastal hazards – and potentially their social, economic and environmental impacts Context links back to Unit 1 in terms of climate change Rising sea levels; increased storm activity + coastal flood risk Importance of ‘one off’ events such as 1953, tsunami and hurricanes Touch on issues such as isostatic change for the UK There is a fieldwork choice (‘coastal retreat or flood risk’); in many cases both can easily be covered. The Fal estuary in Cornwall; areas vulnerable to sea level rise

13 Coastlines have always changed and responded to physical and human processes. What is now of particular concern is rates of change and numbers of vulnerable people Coastal change….. Climate change and rapid coastalisation are big threats globally. In the UK large amounts of money are being spend to try to manage threat and reduce risk.

14 You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your chosen coast or coasts
VULNERABILITY A brief contrast might be useful; physical and human factors both important HAZARDS Frequency and magnitude of events such as storm surges Risk = CAPACITY: present resources and ability to prepared for the future Risk The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions. Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Vulnerability The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. Capacity A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.

15 4. Coastal management You should be aware that there are a range of coastal management and defence strategies. What are their advantages and disadvantages? - Hold the line (hard and soft approaches) - Strategic retreat - Do Nothing - Advance the line Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and SMPs (Shoreline Management Plans) and ideas that should be researched.

16 Example – Newbiggin, N.E England
Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is an increasing risk. Also, the town itself has suffered from mining job losses and relative isolation within SE Northumberland An ambitious £10million plan to improve the beach and promenade area through a replenishment scheme

17 Plan details Removal of some sea wall to improve beach access and appearance Landscaping works around the town to improve image 500,000 tonnes beach nourishment Offshore breakwater to maintain beach and reduce wave energy; built from concrete tetrapods

18 Now see part 2 for the Fieldwork and Research

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