Presentation on theme: "Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts?"— Presentation transcript:
16GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations – Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1
2Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts? CONTENTSOverviewRequirements of the specificationWhat are crowded coasts?Investigating crowded coastsIdeas for fieldworkResearch on crowded coastsMaking it work for the examIn Part 2Click on the information icon to jump to that section.Click on the home button to return to this contents page
31. OverviewUnit 2 has four components, but you are only required to study two of these.In the 75 minute exam you answer one question based on your two chosen topic areas. This means there is no choice.This exam is designed to test both knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts as well as geographical skills.Fieldwork, research and the enquiry process lie at the heart of this exam.The most important ways of ensuring the highest possible grades in this module is (i) being able to focus on the question set, (ii) to be able to use resources effectively, and (iii) to get your fieldwork in a form that works for the exam.UNIT 2: The Paired Options –you only study one in each pair!The ‘Physical’ PairExtreme WeatherCrowded CoastsThe ‘Human’ PairUnequal SpacesRebranding
4UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure Normally the first part of each question starts with a data stimulus element.The fieldwork and research elements are related directly to work you have carried out during a field trip AND may involve questions about how you processed, interpreted etc what you found.The remaining question is more management and issues based. Here case study knowledge will be required.The data stimulus in unlikelyto be the 15 mark questionData stimulus with an analysiselement is possible
5What makes the coast so attractive? The factors opposite show why the coastal zone has always attracted settlers and been favoured by developers. European countries built great ports to receive goods from their colonies abroad (e.g. The port of Hong Kong). Of the factors opposite, which do you think is the most important and why? How might this vary from place to place and time to time?Global - Quick coasts facts3 billion people live within 100km of the coastCoastal population densities are typically 80 people / km2 – 50% more than non coastal areas; they rise to in the Nile and Ganges deltas.Migration is a key component of growth
6Growth in the southern USA Coastal counties occupy 17% of USA land area, yet are home to and 53% of population.There are a number of growth hotspots including Florida, Georgia, Texas and California1500 new houses approved each day in all coastal counties combined.400% population growth since 1980 in some Florida countiesThe 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has focused ideas of coastal pressure – the impacts on fishing + ecosystems will likely be enormous
7Different types of coast Many coasts are multi-purpose, with an overlap of different types of activity occurring in adjacent locations or at the same places.Different types of coastRetirementCoastsExamples include:Parts of Norfolk, Cornwall, plus UK south coast, FloridaResource-richSouth-east Asia shrimp industry, Nile and Niger DeltaTourism coasts(almost all coasts), but specifically any coastal counties of southern England, Costa BlancaIndustrial coastsRotterdam, south East UK, Pearl River Delta, coastal cities of China, including Hong KongCoasts may be developed for a number of reasons – they can be classified into a number of different types – there are some examples opposite. What other types of coast are there and where might they be found?Other types of coasts may exist, e.g. The ‘Golf Coast’, the ‘Eco-coast’, the ‘Activity Coast’.
8Who might be the different coastal stakeholders? 1. Competition for coastsCoasts attract a wide range of users – this can bring challenges and opportunities for managers of coastal areas. Conservation of areas is becoming increasingly complex, especially when weighed up against the economic arguments of industry and tourism.Who might be the different coastal stakeholders?
9A number of physical and human factors shape the coastline. Factors that shape the coastlineAn exam question could ask you to identify the physical and human factors from a resource, e.g. GIS map / satellite imagePhysical factors, e.g. sand dunes, mudflats, estuary, sand banks, woodland , riverHuman factors, e.g. roads, agriculture / farming. Settlement, bridge
102. Coping with the pressure Coastal developments create patterns resulting from the competition for space. This can lead to pressure on coastal environments. The sea and shoreline can distort the patterns of land use.
11A pressurised coastal system…. Tossa de Mar, SpainIncreasingly crowded as tourist market changes.No longer fully ‘coastal’.Potential conflicts between old and new, residents and visitors, development versus conservation.A big issue is the future of such places with demands for water especially during the summer tourist season.
123. Increasing risksYou should be aware of the risks posed by the growing incidence of coastal hazards – and potentially their social, economic and environmental impactsContext links back to Unit 1 in terms of climate changeRising sea levels; increased storm activity + coastal flood riskImportance of ‘one off’ events such as 1953, tsunami and hurricanesTouch on issues such as isostatic change for the UKThere is a fieldwork choice (‘coastal retreat or flood risk’); in many cases both can easily be covered.The Fal estuaryin Cornwall; areasvulnerable to sea level rise
13Coastlines have always changed and responded to physical and human processes. What is now of particular concern is rates of change and numbers of vulnerable peopleCoastal change…..Climate change and rapid coastalisation are big threats globally. In the UK large amounts of money are being spend to try to manage threat and reduce risk.
14You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your chosen coast or coasts VULNERABILITYA brief contrast mightbe useful; physical andhuman factors bothimportantHAZARDSFrequency andmagnitude of eventssuch as storm surgesRisk =CAPACITY: present resources and abilityto prepared for the futureRiskThe probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions.HazardA potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.VulnerabilityThe conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.CapacityA combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
154. Coastal managementYou should be aware that there are a range of coastal management and defence strategies. What are their advantages and disadvantages?- Hold the line (hard and soft approaches)- Strategic retreat- Do Nothing- Advance the lineIntegrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and SMPs (Shoreline Management Plans) and ideas that should be researched.
16Example – Newbiggin, N.E England Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is an increasing risk.Also, the town itself has suffered from mining job losses and relative isolation within SE NorthumberlandAn ambitious £10million plan to improve the beach and promenade area through a replenishment scheme
17Plan detailsRemoval of some sea wall to improve beach access and appearanceLandscaping works around the town to improve image500,000 tonnes beach nourishmentOffshore breakwater to maintain beach and reduce wave energy; built from concrete tetrapods