Presentation on theme: "Section 2: Settlement Site, Function and Hierarchy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 2: Settlement Site, Function and Hierarchy A settlement is place where people live and work. It can be large, small, permanent or temporary
2 Part 1: Distinguish between site and location of a settlement Settlements have developed over timeLocation and growth of settlements are related to physical and human factorsThe first consideration about any settlement is its location. Why is a settlement found in a particular place? What are the reasons why this SITE was chosen as opposed to another place?
3 The Site of a settlement The site of a settlement isThe point at which the town (or hamlet, village or city) is located. The town is located at this place (its ‘building site’) because they have one or more advantages.What are the main factors?
4 The Situation of a settlement The situation of a settlement helps to describe where the settlement is located with reference to other features like other settlements, mountains, rivers and communications – it is situation that determines whether the place will continue to grow
5 Location Advantages Wet point site Drinking water supply Dry point siteHigh ground to avoid floodingBuilding materialsWood and stoneDefenceViews, rivers and slopesFuel SupplyHeating and cookingFood suppliesFarming land – good soilNodal pointsWhere 2 routes meetBridging pointsFord – river crossing pointShelter and aspectSouth Facing slopes
6 The thing to rememberIs that most cities, towns and villages grew up many years ago. As the places grew into villages and then onto towns and eventually into cities they changed and many forgot the actual ‘site’ reasons – in the 19th and 20th centuries many of the physical advantages were replaced by human factorsQuestion – what factors are important for the development of settlements today?
7 Location Advantages Wet point site Water is piped – not important Dry point siteRiver banks are built upBuilding materialsCement shipped inDefenceNot importantFuel SupplyFuel shipped inFood suppliesFood shipped inNodal pointsPossibly more important?Bridging pointsRivers crossed anywhereShelter and aspectPolitical factorsGovernment policy/planningEconomic factorsAre some parts rich/poor
8 The Site of BelfastBelfast was a river crossing point (or ford). In fact it was almost an accident that Belfast grew at all as Carrickfergus was more important until the 18th Century when Belfast’s position (and function) allowed it to grow into the main industrialised city in Ireland
9 So what about Ballymena then? What are the different reasons for the growth of Ballymena?
10 What is a Settlement Function? The function of a settlement is the main activity that a settlement has. It relates to the main job that a place has - for example the main function of Belfast would be
11 What are the main functions? Market TownsMining TownsIndustrial TownsPortsRoute CentresService CentresCultural/Religious centresAdministrative CentresResidential TownsTourist Resorts
12 Can you think of an example for each of these in Northern Ireland Market TownsMining TownsIndustrial TownsPortsRoute CentresService CentresCulutral/Religious centresAdministrative CentresResidential TownsTourist Resorts
13 Do Settlements have different Patterns? The notes from Page 20 and 21 are taken from ‘The wider world’ and they explain the relationship between the function and settlement patterns.Basically, settlements are shaped in different ways
18 Threshold PopulationThis is the number of people that are needed to make sure that there is enough demand for a particular serviceFor example – 350 people are needed for a village shop2,500 people are needed for a doctor10,000 people are needed for a secondary school50,000 people are needed for a Marks and Spencer60,000 people are needed for a Sainsbury’s
19 RangeThis is the maximum distance that people are prepared to travel in order to get or use a service. People are not prepared to travel far to a corner shop but will travel longer distances to shop in supermarket or a furniture store