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Section 2: Settlement Site, Function and Hierarchy A settlement is place where people live and work. It can be large, small, permanent or temporary.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2: Settlement Site, Function and Hierarchy A settlement is place where people live and work. It can be large, small, permanent or temporary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 2: Settlement Site, Function and Hierarchy A settlement is place where people live and work. It can be large, small, permanent or temporary

2 Part 1: Distinguish between site and location of a settlement Settlements have developed over time Settlements have developed over time Location and growth of settlements are related to physical and human factors Location and growth of settlements are related to physical and human factors The first consideration about any settlement is its location. Why is a settlement found in a particular place? What are the reasons why this SITE was chosen as opposed to another place? The first consideration about any settlement is its location. Why is a settlement found in a particular place? What are the reasons why this SITE was chosen as opposed to another place?

3 The Site of a settlement The site of a settlement is The point at which the town (or hamlet, village or city) is located. The town is located at this place (its building site) because they have one or more advantages. What are the main factors?

4 The Situation of a settlement The situation of a settlement helps to describe where the settlement is located with reference to other features like other settlements, mountains, rivers and communications – it is situation that determines whether the place will continue to grow

5 Location Advantages Wet point site Drinking water supply Dry point site High ground to avoid flooding Building materials Wood and stone Defence Views, rivers and slopes Fuel Supply Heating and cooking Food supplies Farming land – good soil Nodal points Where 2 routes meet Bridging points Ford – river crossing point Shelter and aspect South Facing slopes

6 The thing to remember Is that most cities, towns and villages grew up many years ago. As the places grew into villages and then onto towns and eventually into cities they changed and many forgot the actual site reasons – in the 19 th and 20 th centuries many of the physical advantages were replaced by human factors.... Is that most cities, towns and villages grew up many years ago. As the places grew into villages and then onto towns and eventually into cities they changed and many forgot the actual site reasons – in the 19 th and 20 th centuries many of the physical advantages were replaced by human factors Question – what factors are important for the development of settlements today? Question – what factors are important for the development of settlements today?

7 Location Advantages Wet point site Water is piped – not important Dry point site River banks are built up Building materials Cement shipped in Defence Not important Fuel Supply Fuel shipped in Food supplies Food shipped in Nodal points Possibly more important? Bridging points Rivers crossed anywhere Shelter and aspect Not important Political factors Government policy/planning Economic factors Are some parts rich/poor

8 The Site of Belfast Belfast was a river crossing point (or ford). In fact it was almost an accident that Belfast grew at all as Carrickfergus was more important until the 18 th Century when Belfasts position (and function) allowed it to grow into the main industrialised city in Ireland Belfast was a river crossing point (or ford). In fact it was almost an accident that Belfast grew at all as Carrickfergus was more important until the 18 th Century when Belfasts position (and function) allowed it to grow into the main industrialised city in Ireland

9 So what about Ballymena then? What are the different reasons for the growth of Ballymena? What are the different reasons for the growth of Ballymena?

10 What is a Settlement Function? The function of a settlement is the main activity that a settlement has. It relates to the main job that a place has - for example the main function of Belfast would be... The function of a settlement is the main activity that a settlement has. It relates to the main job that a place has - for example the main function of Belfast would be...

11 What are the main functions? Market Towns Market Towns Mining Towns Mining Towns Industrial Towns Industrial Towns Ports Ports Route Centres Route Centres Service Centres Service Centres Cultural/Religious centres Cultural/Religious centres Administrative Centres Administrative Centres Residential Towns Residential Towns Tourist Resorts Tourist Resorts

12 Can you think of an example for each of these in Northern Ireland Market Towns Market Towns Mining Towns Mining Towns Industrial Towns Industrial Towns Ports Ports Route Centres Route Centres Service Centres Service Centres Culutral/Religious centres Culutral/Religious centres Administrative Centres Administrative Centres Residential Towns Residential Towns Tourist Resorts Tourist Resorts

13 Do Settlements have different Patterns? The notes from Page 20 and 21 are taken from The wider world and they explain the relationship between the function and settlement patterns. The notes from Page 20 and 21 are taken from The wider world and they explain the relationship between the function and settlement patterns. Basically, settlements are shaped in different ways Basically, settlements are shaped in different ways

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18 Threshold Population This is the number of people that are needed to make sure that there is enough demand for a particular service This is the number of people that are needed to make sure that there is enough demand for a particular service For example – 350 people are needed for a village shop For example – 350 people are needed for a village shop 2,500 people are needed for a doctor 2,500 people are needed for a doctor 10,000 people are needed for a secondary school 10,000 people are needed for a secondary school 50,000 people are needed for a Marks and Spencer 50,000 people are needed for a Marks and Spencer 60,000 people are needed for a Sainsburys 60,000 people are needed for a Sainsburys

19 Range This is the maximum distance that people are prepared to travel in order to get or use a service. People are not prepared to travel far to a corner shop but will travel longer distances to shop in supermarket or a furniture store This is the maximum distance that people are prepared to travel in order to get or use a service. People are not prepared to travel far to a corner shop but will travel longer distances to shop in supermarket or a furniture store


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