Presentation on theme: "English Language Learning & Teaching: Curriculum Design and Renewal"— Presentation transcript:
1 English Language Learning & Teaching: Curriculum Design and Renewal Dr. Desmond Thomas,International Academy,University of Essex
2 Indicated reading (note dates!) Clark,J. 1987, Curriculum Renewal in School Foreign Language Learning, OxfordJohnson, K. 1982, Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology, PergamonMunby, J. 1978, Communicative Syllabus Design, Cambridge University PressWhite, R. 1988, The ELT Curriculum, Blackwell.
3 Also very useful ...Denise Finney, 2002, The ELT Curriculum: A Flexible Model for a Changing World. In Richards R. & Renandya, W. (eds.) Methodology in Language Teaching, Cambridge University PressShould be available as a pdf download
4 What is meant by ‘curriculum’? Many definitions but most include:Specification of educational aimsSpecification of content, teaching procedures, learning experiencesSpecification of a means of assessment to measure achievement of aimsEg:
6 A more traditional route would be .... Educational value systemsApproaches to Teaching & LearningCurriculum DesignSyllabi, Materials & Methods, Activities
7 Clark’s educational value systems (1) Classical humanism is elitist, concerned with generalizable intellectual capacities and with the transmission of knowledge, culture and standards from one generation to another.Implications for curriculum design at national and local levels?
8 Clark’s educational value systems (2) Reconstructionism is concerned with bringing about social change through the educational system, with achieving a social consensus on common goals, and with planning vigorously to achieve themImplications for curriculum design?
9 Clark’s educational value systems (3) Progressivism is concerned with the development of the individual as a whole person, with personal and group responsibility, with promoting natural learning processes through various stages of development, and with fostering a capacity for learningImplications for curriculum design?
10 Value systems in conflict The case of Slovakia in the 1990s:Reconstructionist syllabi in the process of being rejectedProgressivist materials and methods imported from UK/USAClassical humanist assessment procedures
11 ‘Content’ model of curriculum design Based on classical humanist valuesCentral focus is knowledge to be transmitted from teacher to learners: grammar rules, vocabulary lists etc.Methods: grammar-translation, drilling, memorization, emphasis on accuracy
12 ‘Objectives’ model of CD Based on reconstructionist valuesCentral focus is the scientific management of education and the profiling of learners whose performance is measured against specific targetsMethods: stronger emphasis on skills development and the functions of language - not just linguistic knowledge
13 ‘Process’ model of CD Based on progressivist values Focus is on learner needs, interests and development. (The ‘learner-centred’ curriculum)Methods: CLT, project work etc.
14 The mixed-focus model of CD An integrated approach which can combine different syllabi – linguistic, skills etc.Focus is on the need to adopt a flexible approach based on learners needs and targeted levels of achievementMethods: dependent on the contextAssessment implications ???
15 The Council of Europe Framework The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) provides a basis for the mutual recognition of language qualifications.It is increasingly used in the reform and renewal of national curriculaIt describes: language competences at different levels (levels of proficiency)
16 The CEFR Levels A1: Basic User (Beginner) A2: Basic User (Elementary) B1: Independent User (Pre-Intermediate)B2: Independent User (Intermediate)C1: Proficient User (Upper-intermediate)C2: Proficient User (Advanced)