3Link to WISC-IVUKWORDWOLDWONDWISC-IIIUKWIAT-IIUKWISC-IVUK
4Kit Components Examiner’s Manual UK Scoring/Normative Supplement 2 Stimulus books25 Record forms25 Response BookletsWord CardPseudoword CardPseudoword CD
5New WIAT-IIUK Record Forms- Available to purchase separately 3. Language SubtestsSpellingWritten ExpressionListening ComprehensionOral Expression1. Reading SubtestsWord ReadingReading ComprehensionPseudoword Decoding2. Mathematics SubtestsNumerical OperationsMathematical Reasoning
6Use of WIAT-IIUK with Adults UK norms up to 16 years 11 monthsUS norms for adults 17 to 85 yearsUK Kit:Adult Scoring and Normative SupplementPlus
7Overview of WIAT-IIUK Comprehensive Individually administered 9 subtests in 4 content areasAdministration TimeAges minutesAges minutesAges minutes
8Overview of WIAT-IIUK Offers a full array of normative information Standard ScoresPercentilesStaninesNormal curve equivalents (NCEs)Age equivalents for each of the subtestsCo-normed with WISC-IVUK
9Development Goals of WIAT-IIUK Update the normsModification of subtestsStrengthen the link between assessment and interventionExtend the age rangeImprove scoringDevelop computer scoring programme
10Content areas covered by the WIAT-IIUK ReadingMathematicsWritten LanguageOral Language
11WIAT-IIUK and Reading Reading Composite Word Reading Reading ComprehensionPseudoword Decoding
12WIAT-IIUK and Mathematics Mathematics CompositeNumerical OperationsMathematical Reasoning
13WIAT-IIUK and Written Language SpellingWritten Expression
14WIAT-IIUK and Oral Language Listening ComprehensionOral Expression
15WIAT-IIUK testing considerations Some basic things to remember:Sit so that both you and the examinee can see the stimuli.Evaluate the examinee’s mood, affect and attitude.Build rapport and engage the examinee before starting testing.Maintain a steady pace but be flexible. Pay attention to changes in the examinee’s mood, activity level and co-operation.
16WIAT-IIUK testing considerations If you must take a break, do so at the end of the subtest.If you need to make modifications to the standard procedures (e.g. for an examinee with physical impairment, note these modifications on the record form and in your report).Modifications may invalidate the use of norms; but still result in useful qualitative and quantitative information.
17WIAT-IIUK Administration The order of subtest administration:Stimulus Book One:Word ReadingNumerical OperationsReading ComprehensionSpellingPseudoword DecodingStimulus Book Two:Mathematical ReasoningWritten ExpressionListening ComprehensionOral Expression
18Some things to remember Consult the Stimulus Booklets and Record Form about:Starting PointsReversal RulesDiscontinue RulesTimingTeaching of itemsRepetition of itemsPromptingQueryingQualitative Observations
19WIAT-IIUK scoring considerations Don’t penalise for slang, informal language or regional variations of pronunciation.Don’t penalise for articulation problems.Give credit for spontaneous corrections.Don’t give credit for spoiled responses.On multiple responses, score only the last response.If an examinee gives a correct response and an incorrect response, ask which one is intended, and score that response.
21WIAT-IIUK Parent Report Front page folds out and can be detached from the rest of the record formThe detachable page contains the Parent Report on which test results can be provided.
22Helpful abbreviations when recording responses Q – Query or questionDK – Don’t knowCR – Can’t rememberPC – Pointed CorrectlyPX – Pointed incorrectlyNR – No response
23Completing the score conversion worksheet Transfer the Total Raw Score from each of the subtests to the space provided.Use Appendix C to obtain the standard score for each subtest.Transfer the subtest standard scores to the Summary Report on the record form.
24Supplemental Score Conversion Worksheet Transfer the Total Raw Scores for the supplemental scores from the subtests to the space provided.Use Appendix B to obtain the quartiles or deciles for each total raw score.For Oral Expression – Word Fluency only, transfer the converted score from the Oral Expression subtest. Divide the converted score by 2 and record the quotient in the oval to the right of the previously recorded converted score.Transfer the supplemental quartiles or deciles to the Summary Report.
25Completing the Summary Report Complete the demographic information and calculate age.Transfer the subtest standard scores from the Raw Score Conversion worksheet.Calculate the composite standard scores by summing the subtest standard scores, then use Table C.2.If desired, supply the confidence interval information for each subtest and composite.If you wish to obtain age equivalents (Table D.4.), then you must use the raw scores rather than the standard scores.
26Completing the Summary Report To calculate the Total Composite score, sum the standard scores of all 9 of the subtests, then use Table C.2. to convert this sum to a Total Composite Standard score.If desired, transfer the Supplemental scores from the Supplemental Score Conversion worksheet.
27Completing the Ability-Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Record the name of the ability test used and date of ability testing.For each ability-achievement discrepancy you wish to calculate, enter the score in the Ability Standard Score column.Decide whether you want to use the Predicted-Achievement method or the Simple Difference method.Use Appendix E to determine the WIAT-IIUK predicted from Wechsler scores. Subtract the actual WIAT-IIUK score from the predicted score.
28Completing the Ability-Achievement Discrepancy Analysis If using Simple Difference, subtract the actual WIAT-IIUK subtest score from the ability standard score.Determine whether each Ability-Achievement discrepancy is statistically significant using Appendix H.Determine how frequently a statistically significant difference occurred in the standardisation sample using Appendix H.
29Word Reading Description Assesses early reading (phonological awareness) and word recognition and decoding skills. Items evaluate the naming of letters of the alphabet, the identification and generation of rhyming words, the identification of beginning and ending sounds of words, the blending of sounds into words and the matching of sounds with letters and letter blends. Both word reading accuracy and automaticity can be evaluated.
30Word Reading Scoring Considerations If you want to evaluate automaticity, tick the >3 seconds column next to the item when the examinee requires more than 3 seconds to respond correctly.You may also mark when the examinee self corrects on an item by placing a tick in the column labelled SC.The >3 seconds and SC tick boxes are not used when calculating the Total Raw Score for the subtest, but they provide useful qualitative information.
31Word Reading Letter Identification & Phonological Awareness Items Items 4-29: Letter recognition and identification using all 26 alphabet lettersItems 30-33: Phonological awarenessItems 34-38: Phonemic categorisationItems 39-41: Phonemic blendingItems 42-47: Sound-symbol relationships
32Word Reading Word Reading Items High frequency “sight” words Initial or final consonantsConsonant digraphs (/th/,/sh/,/ph/,/ch/)Consonant blends (/sl/,/fr/,/pl/)CVVC (consonant, vowel, vowel, consonant pattern)Syllabication (dividing the word into syllables)Prefixes, suffixes, and rootsApplying pronunciation and accent rules
33Word Reading Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:Substitutes visually similar lettersProvides nonword responses for rhyming wordsPronounces words automaticallyLaboriously “sounds out” wordsMakes accent errorsAdds, omits, or transposes syllables
34Numerical Operations Description Assesses the ability to identify and write numbers, count using 1:1 correspondence, and solve written calculation problems and simple equations involving the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.ConsiderationsUse a pencil without an eraser. If a mistake is made, the examinee should cross it out and write the correction beside it.
35Numerical OperationsItems 1-7: Identification, discrimination, and ability to write numerals.Items 3 and 6: Rote counting and counting with 1:1 correspondence.Items : Basic operations, in increasing complexity, of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
36Numerical Operations Interpretation Use the Skill Analysis to evaluate:Inconsistent performance of specific skillsDifficulty with multi-digit calculationDifficulty with specific processes (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)Difficulty with specific types of numbers (fractions, decimals)
37Numerical Operations Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:Writes incorrectly formed or reversed numeralsUses fingers/aids for counting or calculatingDemonstrates automaticity of mathematical knowledgeConversion problems (horizontal and vertical)Uses place value correctlyMakes sequential errors
38Reading Comprehension Designed to measure the types of reading comprehensionskills taught in the classroom and used in everyday life.Initial items involve matching written words withrepresentative pictures. Later items include readingsentences aloud and reading different types of passages,then answering questions involving the comprehension ofcontent, such as identifying the main idea and specificdetails, making inferences, and defining vocabulary byusing context cues.Supplemental scores available for Target Words & ReadingSpeed.
39Target Words: Reading Sentences Aloud Evaluates the ability to read words in contextAssesses oral reading in conjunction with comprehensionYields a supplemental score for Target Words which is reported as a quartile score
40Reading Comprehension Passages Three types of passages are included in each set of itemsYields a supplemental score for Reading Speed, which is reported as a quartile scoreScored 0, 1 or 2 based on accuracy and quality or responseAdditional scoring examples are included in the Scoring and Normative Supplements
41Reading Comprehension Interpretation- Look at each of the following eight objectives and analyse the examinees mastery of that objective:Using Picture Clues – Given a sentence and a picture depicting the content of the sentence, answer a question directly relating to an action or detail in the picture.Recognising Stated Detail – Given a passage, restate a piece of information directly in the passage.
42Reading Comprehension Sequencing – Given a passage that contains a sequence of events or steps in a process, identify the event or step requested.Recognising Stated Cause and Effect – Given a passage, state the cause or effect in a cause-effect relationship stated directly in the passage.Recognising Implied Cause and Effect – Given a passage, state the implied cause or implied effect for a cause-effect relationship occurring within the passage.
43Reading Comprehension Predicting Events and Outcomes – Given a passage containing a series of events or background information, state an event or outcome that is likely to happen.Drawing Conclusions – Given a passage, state the conclusion that can best be inferred from information stated in the passage.Comparing and Contrasting – Given a passage, explain either the similarity or the difference between characters, objects, or events in the passage.NoteResearch on the relationship between reading and listening has shown that listening comprehension is developed earlier than reading comprehension and that the young child has a larger listening vocabulary than reading vocabulary.
44Reading Comprehension Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:Reading passage aloud or silently when given a choiceRefers back to the passage in order to answer questionsReads sentences fluentlyMakes self-correctionsUses context clues when decodingUses phonetic decoding skills
45SpellingDescriptionAssesses the examinee’s ability to spell by writing letters and letter blends that match specific sounds and writing words. Homonyms were included to reflect utilisation of context clues to select the appropriate spelling.ConsiderationsExaminee uses a pencil without an eraser. Allow the examinee about 10 seconds to begin writing.
46SpellingUse the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:- Difficulty with single consonant letter/sound orconsonant letter cluster/sound relationshipsSpelling errors occur at the beginning, medial position, or ending of wordsWrite and rewrites a word several ways to determine which “looks” rightSpells phonetically
47Spelling Self-corrects errors Omits suffixes that mark tense or part of speech (-ed, -ing, -ly)Makes errors on contractionsWrites the incorrect homonym
48Spelling Interpretation Mis-spellings are indicative of the developmental stage of thespeller.The cross-checking of spelling and word-reading performancecan provide important supplemental information about anexaminee’s ability to visualise and manipulate the sounds inwords.
49SpellingFor exampleDifficulty spelling regular words suggests a review of spelling rules and word analysis skills.Good spelling of regular words but difficulty spelling irregular words suggests a review of the concept of “exceptions” to spelling rules.Poor spelling of homophones suggests instruction in detecting context clues in sentences, along with direct practice with homophones.
50Pseudoword Decoding Description Measures the ability to apply phonetic decoding skills. The list of nonsense words are designed to be representative of the phonetic structure of words in the English language.ConsiderationsRecording errors phonetically can help with later error analysis.
51Pseudoword Decoding Interpretation The Pseudoword Decoding subtest can be used to evaluatewhether the phonological decoding mechanism is developingin an age-appropriate manner.Frequently, older students who are struggling in reading willdemonstrate non-mastery of the alphabet principle as they areunable to decode unfamiliar words.
52Mathematical Reasoning DescriptionThe examinee counts, identifies geometric shapes, and solves single- and multi-step word problems, including items related to time, money, and measurement in response to both verbal and visual prompts. The examinee solves problems with whole numbers, fractions or decimals, interprets graphs, identifies mathematical patterns, and solves problems related to statistics and probability.
53Mathematical Reasoning InterpretationUse the Skills Analysis to evaluate:- Problem Solving (Word Problems and ConsumerMaths)Numeration and Number ConceptsGraphsProbability and StatisticsGeometryMeasurement
54Mathematical Reasoning Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:Uses paper and pencil for calculationOrganises work to facilitate problem-solvingUses concrete aids for computationBreaks multi-step problem into smaller unitsDisregards irrelevant informationUses correct operation to calculate solutionEmploys use of an effective strategy to problem solve
55Examples of Strategies Include: Guessing and checkingDrawing pictures and tables of informationEliminating extraneous informationDeveloping a formula or written equationConstructing a modelEstimating an answer and then working backwardsAttempting to simplify a problem
56Written Expression Description Assesses the writing process. It is divided into 5 sections: Alphabet Writing, Word Fluency, Sentences, Paragraph and Essay.Alphabet Writing is timed and is a measure of automaticity and recall of sequential information.Word Fluency assesses the ability to generate and write a list of words that match a prescribed category.Sentences evaluate the ability to combine multiple sentences into one, meaningful sentence, or the ability to generate a sentence from visual or verbal cues.
57Written ExpressionThe Paragraph (given to younger children) can be evaluated analytically using a rubric scoring system based on organisation, vocabulary, and writing mechanics (spelling and punctuation).The Essay (given to older children and adults) can be evaluated analytically using a rubric scoring system based on organisation, vocabulary, theme development and writing mechanics.Both the the Paragraph and the Essay can be scored holistically, but analytic scoring is required for a subtest standard score.Word count is a Supplemental score.
58Written Expression Interpretation This is a direct way of measuring an examinee’s written discourse.This goes beyond the indirect method of assessing writing ability by measuring vocabulary and editing skills. Written Expression addresses vocabulary, editing skills, and skills in formulating an idea and developing that idea into coherent discourse.
59Written Expression Analytic Considered somewhat more reliable than holistic method.Provides differentiated information on strengths and weaknesses.Necessary for ability-achievement discrepancy analysis.HolisticQuickerSkilled scorers can accomplish the same things as those using analytic approach.Provides general overview of child’s writing ability.May be used initially to screen responses.
60Listening Comprehension DescriptionDivided into three sections: Receptive Vocabulary, Sentence Comprehension and Expressive Vocabulary.Subtest is designed to measure the ability to listen for detail by selecting the picture that matches a word or sentence, and generating a word that matches a picture and an oral description.
61Listening Comprehension InterpretationThe verbal communication skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing are interrelated. Performance on each objective can also be compared to performance on the parallel Reading Comprehension objective.
62Listening Comprehension Things to look for:A response indicating that the child is focusing either on the picture or the definition for the item word, but not both.A response in which the child re-states the definition in the item.A response that is an invented word, such as “clockulator” rather than “calculator.”
63Listening Comprehension RememberWhen comparing Reading Comprehension to Listening Comprehension, children typically develop listening comprehension earlier than reading ability.
64Oral Expression Description Oral Expression has four sections: Sentence Repetition (administered only to younger children), Word Fluency, Visual Passage Retell, and Giving Directions.Requires the examinee to produce oral language to recall and repeat, categorise, describe, and provide information to direct others.
66Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Limitations of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy AnalysisEvidence separate from test results should indicate that the child has a “failure to achieve” or lack of attainment in one of the principal areas of school learning.Clinical evidence and direct observations must indicate that the child may have some form of “psychological process disorder” such as attention and concentration difficulties or problems of conceptualisation, information processing, or comprehension of written and spoken language.
67Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Limitations of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy AnalysisThe examiner must ascertain that observed behaviour, symptoms, or deficits in the child’s learning are not due to other factors such as sensory incapacity (visual or hearing impairment), emotional disturbance, and educational and economic disadvantages.Similarly, the examiner must determine that deficits do not result from factors in the medical or developmental history of the child. These factors include prenatal medical problems; delayed speech; hearing or visual development; brain injury or illnesses that cause neurological damage; difficulties with physical development or motor co-ordination problems; and many other risk factors.
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