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Wechsler Individual Achievement Test - Second UK Edition

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1 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test - Second UK Edition



4 Kit Components Examiner’s Manual UK Scoring/Normative Supplement
2 Stimulus books 25 Record forms 25 Response Booklets Word Card Pseudoword Card Pseudoword CD

5 New WIAT-IIUK Record Forms- Available to purchase separately
3. Language Subtests Spelling Written Expression Listening Comprehension Oral Expression 1. Reading Subtests Word Reading Reading Comprehension Pseudoword Decoding 2. Mathematics Subtests Numerical Operations Mathematical Reasoning

6 Use of WIAT-IIUK with Adults
UK norms up to 16 years 11 months US norms for adults 17 to 85 years UK Kit: Adult Scoring and Normative Supplement Plus

7 Overview of WIAT-IIUK Comprehensive Individually administered
9 subtests in 4 content areas Administration Time Ages minutes Ages minutes Ages minutes

8 Overview of WIAT-IIUK Offers a full array of normative information
Standard Scores Percentiles Stanines Normal curve equivalents (NCEs) Age equivalents for each of the subtests Co-normed with WISC-IVUK

9 Development Goals of WIAT-IIUK
Update the norms Modification of subtests Strengthen the link between assessment and intervention Extend the age range Improve scoring Develop computer scoring programme

10 Content areas covered by the WIAT-IIUK
Reading Mathematics Written Language Oral Language

11 WIAT-IIUK and Reading Reading Composite Word Reading
Reading Comprehension Pseudoword Decoding

12 WIAT-IIUK and Mathematics
Mathematics Composite Numerical Operations Mathematical Reasoning

13 WIAT-IIUK and Written Language
Spelling Written Expression

14 WIAT-IIUK and Oral Language
Listening Comprehension Oral Expression

15 WIAT-IIUK testing considerations
Some basic things to remember: Sit so that both you and the examinee can see the stimuli. Evaluate the examinee’s mood, affect and attitude. Build rapport and engage the examinee before starting testing. Maintain a steady pace but be flexible. Pay attention to changes in the examinee’s mood, activity level and co-operation.

16 WIAT-IIUK testing considerations
If you must take a break, do so at the end of the subtest. If you need to make modifications to the standard procedures (e.g. for an examinee with physical impairment, note these modifications on the record form and in your report). Modifications may invalidate the use of norms; but still result in useful qualitative and quantitative information.

17 WIAT-IIUK Administration
The order of subtest administration: Stimulus Book One: Word Reading Numerical Operations Reading Comprehension Spelling Pseudoword Decoding Stimulus Book Two: Mathematical Reasoning Written Expression Listening Comprehension Oral Expression

18 Some things to remember
Consult the Stimulus Booklets and Record Form about: Starting Points Reversal Rules Discontinue Rules Timing Teaching of items Repetition of items Prompting Querying Qualitative Observations

19 WIAT-IIUK scoring considerations
Don’t penalise for slang, informal language or regional variations of pronunciation. Don’t penalise for articulation problems. Give credit for spontaneous corrections. Don’t give credit for spoiled responses. On multiple responses, score only the last response. If an examinee gives a correct response and an incorrect response, ask which one is intended, and score that response.

20 Completing the WIAT-IIUK Record Form

21 WIAT-IIUK Parent Report
Front page folds out and can be detached from the rest of the record form The detachable page contains the Parent Report on which test results can be provided.

22 Helpful abbreviations when recording responses
Q – Query or question DK – Don’t know CR – Can’t remember PC – Pointed Correctly PX – Pointed incorrectly NR – No response

23 Completing the score conversion worksheet
Transfer the Total Raw Score from each of the subtests to the space provided. Use Appendix C to obtain the standard score for each subtest. Transfer the subtest standard scores to the Summary Report on the record form.

24 Supplemental Score Conversion Worksheet
Transfer the Total Raw Scores for the supplemental scores from the subtests to the space provided. Use Appendix B to obtain the quartiles or deciles for each total raw score. For Oral Expression – Word Fluency only, transfer the converted score from the Oral Expression subtest. Divide the converted score by 2 and record the quotient in the oval to the right of the previously recorded converted score. Transfer the supplemental quartiles or deciles to the Summary Report.

25 Completing the Summary Report
Complete the demographic information and calculate age. Transfer the subtest standard scores from the Raw Score Conversion worksheet. Calculate the composite standard scores by summing the subtest standard scores, then use Table C.2. If desired, supply the confidence interval information for each subtest and composite. If you wish to obtain age equivalents (Table D.4.), then you must use the raw scores rather than the standard scores.

26 Completing the Summary Report
To calculate the Total Composite score, sum the standard scores of all 9 of the subtests, then use Table C.2. to convert this sum to a Total Composite Standard score. If desired, transfer the Supplemental scores from the Supplemental Score Conversion worksheet.

27 Completing the Ability-Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Record the name of the ability test used and date of ability testing. For each ability-achievement discrepancy you wish to calculate, enter the score in the Ability Standard Score column. Decide whether you want to use the Predicted-Achievement method or the Simple Difference method. Use Appendix E to determine the WIAT-IIUK predicted from Wechsler scores. Subtract the actual WIAT-IIUK score from the predicted score.

28 Completing the Ability-Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
If using Simple Difference, subtract the actual WIAT-IIUK subtest score from the ability standard score. Determine whether each Ability-Achievement discrepancy is statistically significant using Appendix H. Determine how frequently a statistically significant difference occurred in the standardisation sample using Appendix H.

29 Word Reading Description
Assesses early reading (phonological awareness) and word recognition and decoding skills. Items evaluate the naming of letters of the alphabet, the identification and generation of rhyming words, the identification of beginning and ending sounds of words, the blending of sounds into words and the matching of sounds with letters and letter blends. Both word reading accuracy and automaticity can be evaluated.

30 Word Reading Scoring Considerations
If you want to evaluate automaticity, tick the >3 seconds column next to the item when the examinee requires more than 3 seconds to respond correctly. You may also mark when the examinee self corrects on an item by placing a tick in the column labelled SC. The >3 seconds and SC tick boxes are not used when calculating the Total Raw Score for the subtest, but they provide useful qualitative information.

31 Word Reading Letter Identification & Phonological Awareness Items
Items 4-29: Letter recognition and identification using all 26 alphabet letters Items 30-33: Phonological awareness Items 34-38: Phonemic categorisation Items 39-41: Phonemic blending Items 42-47: Sound-symbol relationships

32 Word Reading Word Reading Items High frequency “sight” words
Initial or final consonants Consonant digraphs (/th/,/sh/,/ph/,/ch/) Consonant blends (/sl/,/fr/,/pl/) CVVC (consonant, vowel, vowel, consonant pattern) Syllabication (dividing the word into syllables) Prefixes, suffixes, and roots Applying pronunciation and accent rules

33 Word Reading Use the Qualitative Observations to note the
frequency of the following: Substitutes visually similar letters Provides nonword responses for rhyming words Pronounces words automatically Laboriously “sounds out” words Makes accent errors Adds, omits, or transposes syllables

34 Numerical Operations Description
Assesses the ability to identify and write numbers, count using 1:1 correspondence, and solve written calculation problems and simple equations involving the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Considerations Use a pencil without an eraser. If a mistake is made, the examinee should cross it out and write the correction beside it.

35 Numerical Operations Items 1-7: Identification, discrimination, and ability to write numerals. Items 3 and 6: Rote counting and counting with 1:1 correspondence. Items : Basic operations, in increasing complexity, of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division

36 Numerical Operations Interpretation
Use the Skill Analysis to evaluate: Inconsistent performance of specific skills Difficulty with multi-digit calculation Difficulty with specific processes (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) Difficulty with specific types of numbers (fractions, decimals)

37 Numerical Operations Use the Qualitative Observations to note the
frequency of the following: Writes incorrectly formed or reversed numerals Uses fingers/aids for counting or calculating Demonstrates automaticity of mathematical knowledge Conversion problems (horizontal and vertical) Uses place value correctly Makes sequential errors

38 Reading Comprehension
Designed to measure the types of reading comprehension skills taught in the classroom and used in everyday life. Initial items involve matching written words with representative pictures. Later items include reading sentences aloud and reading different types of passages, then answering questions involving the comprehension of content, such as identifying the main idea and specific details, making inferences, and defining vocabulary by using context cues. Supplemental scores available for Target Words & Reading Speed.

39 Target Words: Reading Sentences Aloud
Evaluates the ability to read words in context Assesses oral reading in conjunction with comprehension Yields a supplemental score for Target Words which is reported as a quartile score

40 Reading Comprehension Passages
Three types of passages are included in each set of items Yields a supplemental score for Reading Speed, which is reported as a quartile score Scored 0, 1 or 2 based on accuracy and quality or response Additional scoring examples are included in the Scoring and Normative Supplements

41 Reading Comprehension
Interpretation - Look at each of the following eight objectives and analyse the examinees mastery of that objective: Using Picture Clues – Given a sentence and a picture depicting the content of the sentence, answer a question directly relating to an action or detail in the picture. Recognising Stated Detail – Given a passage, restate a piece of information directly in the passage.

42 Reading Comprehension
Sequencing – Given a passage that contains a sequence of events or steps in a process, identify the event or step requested. Recognising Stated Cause and Effect – Given a passage, state the cause or effect in a cause-effect relationship stated directly in the passage. Recognising Implied Cause and Effect – Given a passage, state the implied cause or implied effect for a cause-effect relationship occurring within the passage.

43 Reading Comprehension
Predicting Events and Outcomes – Given a passage containing a series of events or background information, state an event or outcome that is likely to happen. Drawing Conclusions – Given a passage, state the conclusion that can best be inferred from information stated in the passage. Comparing and Contrasting – Given a passage, explain either the similarity or the difference between characters, objects, or events in the passage. Note Research on the relationship between reading and listening has shown that listening comprehension is developed earlier than reading comprehension and that the young child has a larger listening vocabulary than reading vocabulary.

44 Reading Comprehension
Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following: Reading passage aloud or silently when given a choice Refers back to the passage in order to answer questions Reads sentences fluently Makes self-corrections Uses context clues when decoding Uses phonetic decoding skills

45 Spelling Description Assesses the examinee’s ability to spell by writing letters and letter blends that match specific sounds and writing words. Homonyms were included to reflect utilisation of context clues to select the appropriate spelling. Considerations Examinee uses a pencil without an eraser. Allow the examinee about 10 seconds to begin writing.

46 Spelling Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following: - Difficulty with single consonant letter/sound or consonant letter cluster/sound relationships Spelling errors occur at the beginning, medial position, or ending of words Write and rewrites a word several ways to determine which “looks” right Spells phonetically

47 Spelling Self-corrects errors
Omits suffixes that mark tense or part of speech (-ed, -ing, -ly) Makes errors on contractions Writes the incorrect homonym

48 Spelling Interpretation
Mis-spellings are indicative of the developmental stage of the speller. The cross-checking of spelling and word-reading performance can provide important supplemental information about an examinee’s ability to visualise and manipulate the sounds in words.

49 Spelling For example Difficulty spelling regular words suggests a review of spelling rules and word analysis skills. Good spelling of regular words but difficulty spelling irregular words suggests a review of the concept of “exceptions” to spelling rules. Poor spelling of homophones suggests instruction in detecting context clues in sentences, along with direct practice with homophones.

50 Pseudoword Decoding Description
Measures the ability to apply phonetic decoding skills. The list of nonsense words are designed to be representative of the phonetic structure of words in the English language. Considerations Recording errors phonetically can help with later error analysis.

51 Pseudoword Decoding Interpretation
The Pseudoword Decoding subtest can be used to evaluate whether the phonological decoding mechanism is developing in an age-appropriate manner. Frequently, older students who are struggling in reading will demonstrate non-mastery of the alphabet principle as they are unable to decode unfamiliar words.

52 Mathematical Reasoning
Description The examinee counts, identifies geometric shapes, and solves single- and multi-step word problems, including items related to time, money, and measurement in response to both verbal and visual prompts. The examinee solves problems with whole numbers, fractions or decimals, interprets graphs, identifies mathematical patterns, and solves problems related to statistics and probability.

53 Mathematical Reasoning
Interpretation Use the Skills Analysis to evaluate: - Problem Solving (Word Problems and Consumer Maths) Numeration and Number Concepts Graphs Probability and Statistics Geometry Measurement

54 Mathematical Reasoning
Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following: Uses paper and pencil for calculation Organises work to facilitate problem-solving Uses concrete aids for computation Breaks multi-step problem into smaller units Disregards irrelevant information Uses correct operation to calculate solution Employs use of an effective strategy to problem solve

55 Examples of Strategies Include:
Guessing and checking Drawing pictures and tables of information Eliminating extraneous information Developing a formula or written equation Constructing a model Estimating an answer and then working backwards Attempting to simplify a problem

56 Written Expression Description
Assesses the writing process. It is divided into 5 sections: Alphabet Writing, Word Fluency, Sentences, Paragraph and Essay. Alphabet Writing is timed and is a measure of automaticity and recall of sequential information. Word Fluency assesses the ability to generate and write a list of words that match a prescribed category. Sentences evaluate the ability to combine multiple sentences into one, meaningful sentence, or the ability to generate a sentence from visual or verbal cues.

57 Written Expression The Paragraph (given to younger children) can be evaluated analytically using a rubric scoring system based on organisation, vocabulary, and writing mechanics (spelling and punctuation). The Essay (given to older children and adults) can be evaluated analytically using a rubric scoring system based on organisation, vocabulary, theme development and writing mechanics. Both the the Paragraph and the Essay can be scored holistically, but analytic scoring is required for a subtest standard score. Word count is a Supplemental score.

58 Written Expression Interpretation
This is a direct way of measuring an examinee’s written discourse. This goes beyond the indirect method of assessing writing ability by measuring vocabulary and editing skills. Written Expression addresses vocabulary, editing skills, and skills in formulating an idea and developing that idea into coherent discourse.

59 Written Expression Analytic
Considered somewhat more reliable than holistic method. Provides differentiated information on strengths and weaknesses. Necessary for ability-achievement discrepancy analysis. Holistic Quicker Skilled scorers can accomplish the same things as those using analytic approach. Provides general overview of child’s writing ability. May be used initially to screen responses.

60 Listening Comprehension
Description Divided into three sections: Receptive Vocabulary, Sentence Comprehension and Expressive Vocabulary. Subtest is designed to measure the ability to listen for detail by selecting the picture that matches a word or sentence, and generating a word that matches a picture and an oral description.

61 Listening Comprehension
Interpretation The verbal communication skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing are interrelated. Performance on each objective can also be compared to performance on the parallel Reading Comprehension objective.

62 Listening Comprehension
Things to look for: A response indicating that the child is focusing either on the picture or the definition for the item word, but not both. A response in which the child re-states the definition in the item. A response that is an invented word, such as “clockulator” rather than “calculator.”

63 Listening Comprehension
Remember When comparing Reading Comprehension to Listening Comprehension, children typically develop listening comprehension earlier than reading ability.

64 Oral Expression Description
Oral Expression has four sections: Sentence Repetition (administered only to younger children), Word Fluency, Visual Passage Retell, and Giving Directions. Requires the examinee to produce oral language to recall and repeat, categorise, describe, and provide information to direct others.

65 Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Two Basic Approaches: Predicted - Achievement Method Simple - Difference Method

66 Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Limitations of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Evidence separate from test results should indicate that the child has a “failure to achieve” or lack of attainment in one of the principal areas of school learning. Clinical evidence and direct observations must indicate that the child may have some form of “psychological process disorder” such as attention and concentration difficulties or problems of conceptualisation, information processing, or comprehension of written and spoken language.

67 Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Limitations of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis The examiner must ascertain that observed behaviour, symptoms, or deficits in the child’s learning are not due to other factors such as sensory incapacity (visual or hearing impairment), emotional disturbance, and educational and economic disadvantages. Similarly, the examiner must determine that deficits do not result from factors in the medical or developmental history of the child. These factors include prenatal medical problems; delayed speech; hearing or visual development; brain injury or illnesses that cause neurological damage; difficulties with physical development or motor co-ordination problems; and many other risk factors.

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