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**CHAPTER 4 MACROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF LAMINATES**

Dr. Ahmet Erkliğ

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Laminate Code A laminate is made of a group of single layers bonded to each other. Each layer can be identiﬁed by its location in the laminate, its material, and its angle of orientation with a reference axis.

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Laminate Code

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**Laminate Code [0/–45/90/60/30] or [0/–45/90/60/30]T [0/-45/902/60/0]**

subscript s outside the brackets represents that the three plies are repeated in the reverse order. T stands for a total laminate.

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Laminate Code

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**Special Types of Laminates**

Symmetric laminate: for every ply above the laminate midplane, there is an identical ply (material and orientation) an equal distance below the midplane Balanced laminate: for every ply at a +θ orientation, there is another ply at the – θ orientation somewhere in the laminate Cross-ply laminate: composed of plies of either 0˚ or 90˚ (no other ply orientation) Quansi-isotropic laminate: produced using at least three different ply orientations, all with equal angles between them. Exhibits isotropic extensional stiffness properties

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Question

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**1D Isotropic Beam Stress-Strain Relation**

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

The classical lamination theory is used to develop these relationships. Assumptions: Each lamina is orthotropic. Each lamina is homogeneous. A line straight and perpendicular to the middle surface remains straight and perpendicular to the middle surface during deformation

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

The laminate is thin and is loaded only in its plane (plane stress) Displacements are continuous and small throughout the laminate Each lamina is elastic No slip occurs between the lamina interfaces

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

Nx = normal force resultant in the x direction (per unit length) Ny = normal force resultant in the y direction (per unit length) Nxy = shear force resultant (per unit length)

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

Mx = bending moment resultant in the yz plane (per unit length) My = bending moment resultant in the xz plane (per unit length) Mxy = twisting moment resultant (per unit length)

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

Curvatures in the laminate Distance from the midplane in the thickness direction Midplane strains in the laminate

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**Strain-Displacement Equations**

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**Strain and Stress in a Laminate**

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**Strain and Stress in a Laminate**

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**Coordinate Locations of Plies in a Laminate**

Consider a laminate made of n plies. Each ply has a thickness of tk . Then the thickness of the laminate h is

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**Coordinate Locations of Plies in a Laminate**

The z-coordinate of each ply k surface (top and bottom) is given by Ply 1: Ply k: (k = 2, 3,…n – 2, n – 1): Ply n:

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Integrating the global stresses in each lamina gives the resultant forces per unit length in the x–y plane through the laminate thickness as Similarly, integrating the global stresses in each lamina gives the resulting moments per unit length in the x–y plane through the laminate thickness as

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The midplane strains and plate curvatures are independent of the z-coordinate. Also, the transformed reduced stiffness matrix is constant for each ply.

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**Force and Moment Resultant**

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**Force and Moment Resultant**

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**Force and Moment Resultant**

[A] – extensional stiffness matrix relating the resultant in-plane forces to the in-plane strains. [B] – coupling stiffness matrix coupling the force and moment terms to the midplane strains and midplane curvatures. [D] – bending stiffness matrix relating the resultant bending moments to the plate curvatures.

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**Force and Moment Resultant**

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**Analysis Procedures for Laminated Composites**

Find the value of the reduced stiffness matrix [Q] for each ply using its four elastic moduli, E1 , E2 , ν12 , and G12 Find the value of the transformed reduced stiffness matrix [ 𝑄 ] for each ply using the [Q] matrix calculated in step 1 and the angle of the ply Knowing the thickness, tk , of each ply, ﬁnd the coordinate of the top and bottom surface, hi , i = 1…, n, of each ply. Use the [ 𝑄 ] matrices from step 2 and the location of each ply from step 3 to ﬁnd the three stiffness matrices [A], [B], and [D]

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**Analysis Procedures for Laminated Composites**

Substitute the stiffness matrix values found in step 4 and the applied forces and moments Solve the six simultaneous equations to ﬁnd the midplane strains and curvatures. Now that the location of each ply is known, ﬁnd the global strains in each ply For ﬁnding the global stresses, use the stress–strain For ﬁnding the local strains, use the transformation For ﬁnding the local stresses, use the transformation

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Example Find the three stiffness matrices [A], [B], and [D] for a three-ply [0/30/-45] graphite/epoxy laminate as shown in Figure. Assume that each lamina has a thickness of 5 mm.

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Solution Step 1: Find the reduced stiffness matrix [Q] for each ply

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Step 2: Find the transformed stiffness matrix [ 𝑄 ] using the reduced stiffness matrix [Q] and the angle of the ply

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**Step 3: Find the coordinate of the top and bottom surface of each ply using equation 4.20**

The total thickness of the laminate is h = (0.005)(3) = m. The midplane is m from the top and the bottom of the laminate. Ply n: h0 = – m h1 = – m h2 = m h3 = m

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**Step 4: Find three stiffness matrices [A], [B], and [D]**

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Example 2 A [0/30/–45] graphite/epoxy laminate is subjected to a load of Nx = Ny = 1000 N/m. Find, Midplane strains and curvatures Global and local stresses on top surface of 30° ply

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Solution

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**Find the global strains in each ply**

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The strains and stresses at the top surface of the 30° ply are found as follows. First, the top surface of the 30° ply is located at z = h1 = – m.

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**Find the global stresses using the stress-strain equation**

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Global stresses

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**Find the local strains using the transformation equation**

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Local strains

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**Find the local stresses using the transformation equation**

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Local stresses

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Macromechanics of a Laminate

Macromechanics of a Laminate

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