Presentation on theme: "COOPERATION AND COORDINATION WITH RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS/INITIATIVES AMBASSADOR BONNIE D. JENKINS COORDINATOR FOR THREAT REDUCTION PROGRAMS."— Presentation transcript:
COOPERATION AND COORDINATION WITH RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS/INITIATIVES AMBASSADOR BONNIE D. JENKINS COORDINATOR FOR THREAT REDUCTION PROGRAMS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives Nuclear terrorism is a global threat It is important to advance a common approach and commitment to nuclear security at the highest level Nations must work together through dedicated international organizations and initiatives to address the threat Many programs and initiatives focused on this effort that can benefit from increased coordination Global efforts need continuous coordination
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives An underlying goal of the Nuclear Security Summit was to come to an agreement on working cooperatively on securing nuclear material worldwide and prevent illicit nuclear trafficking Highlighted recent and future efforts for the global community to take to improve the security of nuclear materials
NSS Comments, Communiqué and Work Plan
U.S. Statement at the Nuclear Summit The U.S. noted that by working with existing legal and multilateral nuclear security frameworks, U.S. nuclear security cooperative activities help states worldwide meet their security obligations
Comments at NSS Cooperation on nuclear security is one of the most effective ways the international community can respond to the threat of nuclear terrorism Enhanced international and regional cooperation is the way forward to combat the proliferation of WMD and their related systems We should work together through international frameworks to promote global nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism
Communiqué Participating States will work together, as appropriate, to ensure that nuclear security cooperation mechanisms are complementary, reinforcing, efficient, consistent with related IAEA activities, and appropriately matched to indentified needs in those States requesting assistance
Communiqué Success will require responsible national actions and sustained and effective international cooperation Call on States to work cooperatively as an international community to advance nuclear security Maintaining effective nuclear security will require continuous national efforts facilitated by international cooperation. We will promote the strengthening of global nuclear security through dialogue and cooperation with all states
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives Communiqué Reference to the Work Plan: We issue the Work Plan as guidance for national and international action including through cooperation within the context of relevant international fora and organizations
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives The Work Plan lays out a number of nuclear security related international organizations and initiatives that play an important role in nuclear security Recognizes that securing nuclear material encompass a number of different initiatives, activities and organizations Outlines comprehensively relevant international organizations and initiatives in the area of nuclear security Need to actively find ways to coordinate at each opportunity
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives 11 Four-year global effort to secure vulnerable nuclear material Encompasses the many programs and activities that fundamentally seek to prevent the chances of terrorists from obtaining nuclear material Securing material at the source, converting reactors, and removing nuclear material Must also bolster our ability to detect smuggled material, recover lost material, identify the materials origin, and prosecute those who are trading in these materials Nuclear security is a perpetual commitment, requiring ongoing vigilance as threats change, equipment wears out, and technologies advance Continued efforts by the international community will be required
International organizations and Initiatives
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives Relevant IOs/Initiatives: International Agreements International Atomic Energy Agency United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1887 and 1540 Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) G8 Global Partnership (GP) Global Threat Reduction Initiative Non-governmental Organizations and Industry activities and initiatives
International Atomic Energy Agency Communiqué: Reaffirmed the role of the IAEA in the international nuclear security framework and will work to ensure that it continues to have the appropriate structure, resources and expertise needed to carry out its mandated nuclear security activities.
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives The IAEA manages and implements a number of activities and programs designed to assist Member States with securing nuclear and radiological materials, responding to nuclear and radiological incidents, and, more generally, enhancing their nuclear security frameworks. IAEA has a unique role in the global nuclear security regime. The IAEAs involvement in nuclear security issues is wide- ranging and significant.
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives IAEAs International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) : Assists Member States in strengthening their national nuclear security systems. A team of international experts examine the States system of physical protection, compare it against international best practices, and make recommendations for improvements.
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives IAEA Nuclear Security Plan IAEA Nuclear Security Series IAEA Information Circular 225
United Nations Communiqué: Recognize the role and contributions of the United Nations Work Plan: Noting the need to fully implement UNSCR 1540 …in particular as it relates to nuclear material U.S. Statement at the NSS: At the United Nations, we unanimously passed UNSCR 1887 endorsing the goal of securing all nuclear materials…
UNSCR 1887 Relevant Provisions Expressing its support for the convening of the 2010 Global Summit on Nuclear Security, Affirming its support for the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its 2005 Amendment, and the Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Recognizing the progress made by the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and the G-8 Global Partnership Calls upon Member States to share best practices with a view to improved safety standards and nuclear security practices and raise standards of nuclear security to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism, with the aim of securing all vulnerable nuclear material from such risks within four years
UNSCR 1540: Three Primary Obligations To refrain from providing support to non-State actors seeking WMD, under UN Chapter VII First formal decision taken by the Security Council to address the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction as a threat to international peace and security To prohibit non-State actors from engaging in specified activities relating to WMD, including the acquisition and use, attempted acquisition and use, and the financing of the acquisition and use of such items. To take and enforce effective measures to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of WMD, including by establishing appropriate controls over related materials.
UNSCR 1540 UNSCR 1540 does not alter the rights and obligations of state parties to other treaties and regimes. Provides a flexible system that responds to assistance requests and coordinates with other governments on technical assistance to enable recipients to meet their 1540 obligations Works in coordination with other programs sets out obligations for States, and States have discretion on how to implement their obligations.
Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Communiqué: Recognize the role and contributions of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Work plan: Participating States encourage…expanded participation in and commitment to international initiatives and voluntary cooperative mechanisms aimed at improving nuclear security and preventing nuclear terrorism.
Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) International partnership of 82 nations and 4 observers that works to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to nuclear terrorism. Co-Chaired by the U.S. and Russia. Shares best practices and facilitates coordination with pre- existing efforts to assist partners in strengthening their nuclear security capacities. Conducts multilateral activities that strengthen the plans, policies, procedures, and interoperability of partner nations. Partners make a political commitment to implement the Statement of Principles on a voluntary basis.
Introduction of GICNTs Implementation and Assessment Group (AIG) The AIG is an informal advisory body of partners which, upon direction of the GICNT Plenary, coordinates activities and works to create practical products that aid partners in implementing the Statement of Principles In June of 2010, Spain was endorsed as the first AIG Coordinator Oversees working groups focused on developing products related to key GICNT functional areas such as nuclear detection and nuclear forensics All products are shared via a secure online web-portal accessible only to GICNT partners
G8 Global Partnership Communiqué: Recognize the role and contributions of the G8-led Global Partnership Work Plan Participating States welcome the intent of the G-8 Global Partnership…to undertake additional programming to enhance nuclear security
G8 Global Partnership Mission: To keep WMD out of the hands of terrorists or states that support them. Pledge of $20 billion (2002 – 2010) from 23 partners. More than $18 billion allocated to date. Primary multilateral commitment to finance, implement, and coordinate WMD threat reduction activities globally. Ini tial focus on Russia/FSU but now global focus Annual Annex
G8 Global Partnership Successes: Improved accounting, control, and physical protection of nuclear and radiological materials. Enhanced nuclear, biological, and chemical security. Dismantled nuclear submarines and safe storage of removed spent fuel. Improved detection of nuclear and radiological materials and prevented illicit trafficking by improving border security capabilities. Engaged and redirected to peaceful purposes scientists, technicians, and engineers who have WMD, missile, and related expertise.
G8 Global Partnership Muskoka Summit (2010): G8 leaders: Asked senior experts to evaluate results to date. Asked senior experts to develop options for programming and financing beyond 2012 focusing on: Nuclear and radiological security. Biosecurity. Scientist engagement. Facilitating implementation of UNSCR Reiterated interest in the potential participation of additional countries.
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives Non-governmental bodies: Nongovernmental organizations, nuclear industry, private sector and other stakeholders play an important role in the global effort to secure nuclear material Communiqué: Recognize the continuing role of nuclear industry, including the private sector, in nuclear security and will work with industry to ensure the necessary priority of physical protection, material accountancy, and security culture
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives Work Plan: Participating States will promote cooperation, as appropriate, among international organizations, governments, other stakeholders, and academia for effective capacity building.
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives World Institute for Nuclear Security. Goal: help improve security of nuclear and high hazard radioactive materials so that they are secure from unauthorized access, theft, sabotage and diversion and cannot be utilized for terrorist or other nefarious purposes. Provides an international forum for those accountable for nuclear security to share and promote the implementation of best security practices. Produces international best practices guides, hosts workshops, and produces a number of other related publications.
Cooperation and Coordination with Relevant International Organizations/Initiatives The international NGO community hosted an event on the first day of the Nuclear Security Summit to raise awareness of the importance of nuclear security among the NGO community The day following the Nuclear Summit, the international nuclear industry representatives met to discuss issues related to nuclear security and the special role they play in these issues.
Additional Relevant Initiatives Include Capacity building for nuclear security and cooperation Promotion of a nuclear security culture through technology development, human resource development, education, engagement and training Cooperation to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking Sharing of information and expertise on nuclear detection, forensics, law enforcement
Additional Relevant Initiatives Include Regional organizations Centers of Excellence and Regional Training Centers Export controls and border security Global Threat Reduction Initiative
Next Steps and Conclusion
Coordination Mechanisms Initiatives themselves provide coordination International organizations provide coordination mechanisms Need to strengthen and solidify existing coordination efforts Work Plan provides a mechanism for coordination Future NSS meetings a venue to continue discussions on this topic
Cooperation and Coordination: A Continuous Effort Need to continually address challenges of cooperation and coordination How does the work of the IOs and the initiatives work together to achieve the larger goal of nuclear security What are the viable existing mechanisms that can be used to help promote coordination and cooperation How to we emphasize the strengths of particular organizations or initiatives to minimize redundancies How do we incorporate the work of organizations outside the government into government efforts
Conclusions WMD proliferation and terrorism is a global threat International cooperation is imperative Important to work through and with international organizations and engage in international initiatives Requires a multi-disciplinary approach encompassing many activities that must be sustained Enhanced coordination and implementation will improve outcomes.