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Mitosis, Meiosis, Mi Head Hurts. BIOLOGY, DAY 29.

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Presentation on theme: "Mitosis, Meiosis, Mi Head Hurts. BIOLOGY, DAY 29."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mitosis, Meiosis, Mi Head Hurts. BIOLOGY, DAY 29

2 Note Taking Tips Don’t write down everything that you read or hear. Be alert and attentive to the main points. Concentrate on the "meat" of the subject and forget the trimmings.

3 Note Taking Tips Notes should consist of key words, or very short sentences. As a speaker gets side- tracked you can go back and add further information.

4 Note Taking Tips Take accurate notes. You should usually use your own words, but try not to change the meaning. If you quote directly from the author, quote correctly.

5 Note Taking Tips Think a minute about your material before you start making notes. Don’t take notes just to be taking notes! Take notes that will be of real value to you when you look over them later.

6 Note Taking Tips Have a uniform system of punctuation and abbreviation that will make sense to you. Use a skeleton outline, and show importance by indenting. Leave lots of white space for later additions.

7 Note Taking Tips Omit descriptions and full explanations. Keep your notes short and to the point. Condense your material so you can grasp it rapidly.

8 Note Taking Tips Don’t worry about missing a point. Leave space and try to pick up the material you miss at a later date, either through reading, questioning, or common sense.

9 Note Taking Tips Don’t keep notes on oddly shaped pieces of paper. Keep notes in order and in one place.

10 Note Taking Tips Shortly after making your notes, go back and rework (not recopy!) your notes by adding extra points, spelling out unclear items, etc.. Remember, we forget quickly. Budget time for this vital step just as you do for the class itself.

11 Note Taking Tips Review your notes periodically. This is the only way to achieve lasting memory.

12 Note Taking Tips Use symbols to call attention to important words: underline, CAPS, circle, box, *, !, ?

13 Note Taking Tips Don’t erase a mistake and don’t black it out completely. Draw a single line through it. This saves time and you may discover later that you want the mistake.

14 &and No. or #number =equal to, is the same as b/4before ref.reference w/with >greater than

15 Reproduction Sexual Meiosis (and Fertilization) Slower Requires more energy Results in genetic diversity Requires a mate Asexual Mitosis No need for a mate No diversity Less chance of errors Very fast

16 Reproduction Sexual Meiosis (and Fertilization) Slower Requires more energy Results in genetic diversity Requires a mate Asexual Mitosis No need for a mate No diversity Less chance of errors Very fast

17 Haploids and Diploids Most new cells are created by mitosis, which creates exact copies of existing cells. These are diploid, or somatic cells. But we know that. Today we’re going to talk about that other kind of cell.

18 Haploids and Diploids Haploid cells are unique. They only have half as much genetic information as diploids. They make up only reproductive cells, called sperm and egg cells. They are created by a process called meiosis.

19 Haploids and Diploids Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.

20 Haploids and Diploids Easier version: Meiosis makes sex cells.

21 Meiosis Meiosis has many stages, which sometimes look very similar to mitosis. There are some important differences in the process and the main result. Hang on, we’re going in.

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23 Interphase I Cells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate chromosomes.

24 Prophase I Each chromosomes pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosomes to from a tetrad.

25 Prophase I (cont.) During this stage, crossing-over occurs. Homologous pairs exchange parts that result in a new combination of alleles, or traits.

26 Prophase I (cont.) Crossing-over is super important.

27 Metaphase I Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes.

28 Anaphase I The spindle fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell.

29 Telophase I and Cytokinesis Nuclear membranes form, and the cell separates into two cells.

30 Halfway through. LET’S TAKE A BREAK.

31 Prophase II Meiosis I results in two haploid cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.

32 Metaphase II The chromosomes in each cell line up in a similar way to metaphase in mitosis.

33 Anaphase II The sister chromatids in each cell separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell.

34 Telophase II and Cytokinesis The nuclear envelops form, and the cells divide into two new cells.

35 The Result: Meiosis II ends with 4 haploid daughter cells, all genetically different from each other.

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37 Mosquito Chromosomes 2N=6

38 In Interphase, DNA is copied. Sister Chromatids

39 In Mitosis, they move to the center of the cell

40 In Anaphase of Mitosis, they are pulled apart, then go into different cells.

41 In Meiosis, it’s a little different. Sister Chromatids

42 In Meiosis, it’s a little different. Sister Chromatids Homologous pairs

43 Homologous pairs join up, and line up together forming tetrads. Crossing over occurs.

44 In Anaphase, the homologous pairs are pulled apart. Each new cell is a haploid, as it has only half the number chromosomes, or N

45 In Meiosis II, these cells will also split into new cells, for a total of 4 haploid cells.


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