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Water, Another Important Abiotic Factor (just like soil)

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Presentation on theme: "Water, Another Important Abiotic Factor (just like soil)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water, Another Important Abiotic Factor (just like soil)

2 Remember the Water Cycle?

3 1.Groundwater – water located beneath the ground surface in between soil spaces. 2.Surface water – water collecting on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, sea or ocean. Two Types of Liquid Water: (based on its location)

4 Surface water

5 1.It rains or precipitation happens, 2.If the ground is dry, it absorbs water like a sponge, 3.This becomes groundwater, 4.When the ground can no longer hold anymore water, 5.The rain starts to runoff the surface of the land, 6.This runoff goes into streams, rivers, & lakes and becomes surface water. How Do You Get the Two Types?

6 Let’s Take a Look at Surface Water First

7 Remember, water that is not absorbed by the ground runs-off and becomes surface water

8 Runoff - water that flows over the land surface. It becomes surface water like lakes, streams, rivers, and eventually the oceans. Definition:

9 What Makes a River Flow? …gravity, water from snow or rain falls on higher ground and flows to a lower point, typically the ocean. Ocean

10 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Water Flow High Ground MountainsUpstream Low Ground The Ocean Downstream

11 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Drainage Basin

12 Drainage basin - the land areas that gathers precipitation water and directs it to a particular stream. Definition:

13 Drainage Basin sometimes used in a larger sense to include all the land that drains into a river system. Drainage Basin – sometimes used in a larger sense to include all the land that drains into a river system.

14 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Divide

15 Divide - the ridge of land that separates two adjacent drainage basins. Definition:

16 Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean

17 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Floodplain

18 Floodplain - flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional or periodic flooding Definition:

19 floodplain - Definition:

20 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Meander

21 meander – a winding, turning bend in a river Definition:

22 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Oxbow lakes

23 Ox bow lake - a type of lake which is formed when a wide meander from a stream or a river is cut off to form a lake. Definition:

24 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Delta

25 Delta - a landform where the mouth of a river flows into an ocean, sea, desert, estuary or lake. Definition: The Nile River Delta

26 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Watershed

27 watershed - the region of land whose water drains into a specified body of water Definition:

28 South Carolina Rivers Map

29 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Alluvial Fan

30 Alluvial fan - a fan-shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain Definition:

31 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries sediments

32 sediments- loose pieces of sand, silt and clay that come from the process of weathering and erosion that settle at the bottom of rivers and lakes Definition:

33 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries Dams – man-made

34 dams- man made structure created for flood control that can create lakes for recreation and water storage. Some dams can create hydroelectricity. Definition:

35 From the Reading Guide: Parts of a River – 3 sections Looking from above Tributaries trunk Distributaries eutrophication

36 eutrophication- an increase in the nutrients and organisms in the life of a lake that eventually causes the lake to become dry land. Definition:

37 Now, Let’s Look at Groundwater

38 Remember Permeability ?Remember Permeability ? The ground is permeable, it has spaces between the soil particles that permit water or air to pass through.The ground is permeable, it has spaces between the soil particles that permit water or air to pass through. When it rains water seeps into the ground…it continues downward until it hits something that stops it.When it rains water seeps into the ground…it continues downward until it hits something that stops it. Why Does the Ground Absorb Water?

39 There are Two Zones Under the Ground--- 1.Zone of Aeration – the area in the soil where most of the spaces are filled with air. 2.Zone of saturation – the area in the soil where most of the spaces are filled with water…it is saturated.

40 The Border Between the Two has a Name--- Water Table - upper level of an underground surface in which the soil or rocks are permanently saturated with water. The top of the Zone of Saturation The bottom of the Zone of Aeration.

41 Zone of Aeration Zone of Saturation Air water

42 Notice the Water Table Underground is at Lake Level on the Surface… …follow a lake’s level into the side of the land, and you now know the level of the water table.


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