Presentation on theme: "How to make super kool aid or extreme jello"— Presentation transcript:
1How to make super kool aid or extreme jello Kool Aid Jello ChapterHow to make super kool aid or extreme jello
2Kool Aid drinks are solutions Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more pure substances in a single phaseContains a solvent and soluteSolvent: dissolving medium (water)Solute: dissolved substance(salt)Particle sizes are the smallestWill not separate while standingDo not filterDo not scatter lightColligative properties are affected
4Muddy water is a Suspension Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures that have the largest particles of all mixturesWill separate upon standingCan be filteredDo scatter lightColligative properties are unaffectedExamples: Muddy water, Cu Lab.
6Milk/Gelatins are Colloids Colloids are homogeneous mixtures that are medium in size.Particles remain dispersed in liquid due to random particle motion of surrounding molecules.Will separate very slowly or not at allWill not filterWill scatter lightColligative properties are unaffected.
8Tyndall EffectLight bounces off objects it cannot pass through, is scattered by objects, or passes right through objects.The scattering of light as it passes through a transparent medium is called the Tyndall Effect.
9When focused light is shined on a homogeneous solution the light will not be scattered; it will pass right through.When focuses light is shined on a colloid the light will be scattered and no longer as focused.
10What are they? Oil and vinegar salad dressing? Gelatin? Starch in water?Smoke in air?Salt in water?Clay in water?Food coloring in water?
11Carbon dioxide in water? Steam in air?Table sugar in water?Milk?Bleach?Ammonia?Tea?
13ConcentrationDifferent solutions can have different concentrations by dissolving more or less solute in a given amount of solventConcentrations is scaled on molality and molarity
14MolarityMolarity(M) is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solutionM=moles of solute/liters of solution
15MolalityMolality(m) is defined at the number of moles of solute divided by the number of kilograms of solventM = moles of solute/kg of solvent
16SolubilitySolubility is the chemical process in which chemicals are able to dissolve each other (able to mix well)The ability to mixed is determined by the types of bonds holding the chemical together.“like dissolve like”
17MiscibleAlcohol and water mix quite readily due to the stronger forces of attraction between the solvent and solute.Both water and alcohol are polar bonds and therefore can dissolve each other.Miscible is the ability to dissolve each other due to similar bonds
18ImmiscibleImmiscible chemicals have opposite forces of attraction and therefore DO NOT MIXOil and waterMystic sand and water
19Colligative Properties of Solutions Not freezing when cold or boiling when hot!
20Colligative Properties Some of the properties of solutions do not depend on the amount and type of solute present in solution.Ie food coloring doesn’t affect the boiling point of water (much)Properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity are called Colligative properties.
21Electrolyte and non Electrolyte Electrolytes are substances that dissolve in water to give a solution that conducts an electric currentSports drinks and salt waterIonic compounds are usually strong electrolytes because they separate completely in waterCovalent compounds can be strong, weak or non electroyltes
22Non-electrolytes: a liquid or solid substance that does not allow the flow of an electric current, either in solution or in its pure state, such as water or sucrose.Nonvolatile substance is one that has little tendency to become a gas under existing conditions
23Freezing point depression The freezing point of a 1 molal solution of any nonelectrolyte solute in water is found to be 1.86 degrees lower than the freezing point of water.Thus 1 mole of solute in 1 kg of water will equal degree C
24If you had 2 moles of solute in 1 kg of water the freezing point would be -3.72 degree C. This is 1.86 X 2This 1.86 degree C/m is known as molal freezing point constant (Kf)Molal Freezing point constant is the freezing point depression of the solvent in a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile, non electrolyte solute.
25Kf for substancesEach solvent has its own characteristic molal freezing point constant.Kf is most accurate at 1 atm.Kf for water is -1.86, for Ether is and Acetic Acid -3.90
26The freezing point depression, ∆tf, is the difference between the freezing points of the pure solvent and a solution of a non electrolyte in that solvent, and it is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.∆tf=Kf*m
27Did you know?Some animals are able to survive freezing temperatures by producing natural antifreezes, substances that lower the freezing point of a liquid. In many freeze-tolerant insects, the antifreezes are alcohols and sugars.Examples are box turtles, painted turtles and garter snakes, sugar maples and white spruce.
28Sugar MapleTaking a sugar substance from a tree can be used to create maple syrupThe maple syrup aqueous solution boils at 219 degree FThat is 7 degree higher than water.Why?
29Boiling point elevation The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the prevailing atmospheric pressure.Vapor pressures of solutions containing nonvolatile solute is lower than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent.
30This means that more heat will be required to raise the vapor pressure of the solution. Thus, the boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure substance.The molal boiling point constant, Kb, is the boiling point elevation of the solvent in a 1 molal solution of a nonvolatile, non electrolyte solute.
31Boiling point elevation Boiling point elevation, ∆tb, is the difference between the boiling points of the pure solvent and a nonelectrolyte solution of that solvent, and it is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.∆tb=Kb*m
32What about Electrolytes? Electrolytes break apart into ions. Each ion has an effect on boiling point and freezing points. If a solution has more or less ions it will change the boiling points and melting points even more.
33Ions ∆tb or f=Kb or f*m*n m=molality n = number of ions Example NaCl = Na+ and Cl- = 2 ions=2 nMgCl2= Mg+ and 2 Cl- =3 ions =3 nFe2(SO4)3=2 Fe+3 and 3 SO4-2 = 5 ions or 5 n
34ExampleWhat is the new freezing point of 200 mL of water (Kf = oC) if195 g of sucrose (C12H22O11) are added to it?
35195 g sucrose=.570 moles342 g.570 moles=2.85 molal.200 KgNow we can plug into ∆tf=Kf*m
36∆tf=(-1.86oC) * (2.85 molal)∆tf= CThis means the water will freeze 5.301oC below its freezing point.
37∆tb or f=Kb or f*m*n Same as other formula, just adding n. NaCl, K2SO4, AlCl3, Al2O3.