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Co-Teaching in High School Enhancing Achievement for Students with Disabilities.

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Presentation on theme: "Co-Teaching in High School Enhancing Achievement for Students with Disabilities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Co-Teaching in High School Enhancing Achievement for Students with Disabilities

2 Essential Questions: At the district level, the GHSGT scores went down for Students With Disabilities (SWD). What can we do to improve scores? What are some critical components that we can implement in the co-taught setting?

3 Georgia High School Graduation Test District Results for SWD 2009 to 2010 ELA: from 76% to 71% Math: from 84% to 73% Science: from 71% to 71% Social Studies: from 71% to 57% Every school contributes to the rating– even if your overall status is “meets AYP”

4 Creating a committee to study the issues - Guiding statement: Involving students with disabilities in engaging instruction with the necessary services and supports within the general education setting promotes higher levels of achievement.

5 What needs to be done? How can the co-teaching model maximize instruction to improve student achievement? The Special Educator’s role needs to be defined and strengthened in the co-taught setting What are some “Non-negotiables”? What are some critical components that I can do as a Special Ed. Co-Teacher to improve my students’ achievement?

6 Based upon extensive research, Marzano has identified 3 critical elements for dramatic school improvement: Instruction Assessment Vocabulary We agree! Our plan is to build these critical elements into our co-teaching practices!

7 3 Critical Elements for Co-Teaching Vocabulary – building background knowledge Attaining Concepts – enhancing the processing of information Assessment / Demonstrating Learning – using assessments to plan for instruction

8 CO-TEACHING IN HIGH SCHOOL: What should it look like in the classroom? Learning the Content: Specialized Instruction Special Education Co-Teachers will provide specialized instruction in the areas of vocabulary, attaining concepts and assessment : Learning the Content: Specialized Instruction Special Education Co-Teachers will provide specialized instruction in the areas of vocabulary, attaining concepts and assessment : Preparation: Know your students – focused IEP/Individual Learning Plans Co-planning – lesson plans address specialized instruction Co-Teachers establish roles and responsibilities Supports: Job embedded professional learning for co-teachers Coaching, consultation, mentoring Data collection and analysis Schedule that supports co-planning Overview for leadership Vocabulary: Building background word knowledge -Pre-assessment -Previewing -Marzano’s Six Step Process -Frayer Model -Compare/Contrast Chart Vocabulary: Building background word knowledge -Pre-assessment -Previewing -Marzano’s Six Step Process -Frayer Model -Compare/Contrast Chart Attaining Concepts: Enhance processing of information - Purposeful grouping of students -Think-Alouds -Graffiti Strategy -Placemat Strategy -Word Questioning Attaining Concepts: Enhance processing of information - Purposeful grouping of students -Think-Alouds -Graffiti Strategy -Placemat Strategy -Word Questioning Assessment / Demonstrating Learning: Using assessments to plan for instruction -Check for Understanding -Formatting Assessments -Commentary & Feedback -Common Formative Assessments -Performance Tasks Assessment / Demonstrating Learning: Using assessments to plan for instruction -Check for Understanding -Formatting Assessments -Commentary & Feedback -Common Formative Assessments -Performance Tasks Tools: Lesson planning form/checklist Observation form Co-Teaching resources

9 Vocabulary: Building background word knowledge Why teach Academic Vocabulary? According to Marzano (2005) the strongest action a teacher can take to ensure that students have the academic background knowledge to understand the content they will encounter is providing them with direct instruction in these terms. When students understand these terms, it is easier for them to understand the information they will read and hear in class.

10 Rank Strategy Percentile Gain 1 Extending Thinking Skills (compare/contrast; cause/effect; classifying; analogies/metaphors 45 2 Summarizing 34 3 Vocabulary In Context 33 4 Advance Organizers 28 5 Non-Verbal Representations 25 Strategies That Most Impact Achievement (US Department of Education: 2002)

11 How do students acquire new vocabulary? Students learn new words in stages Exposure Recognition Deep meaning Beck & McKeown, 1991 “ If students experience words before they read them in context, they have a greater chance of learning the words and understanding them in context…” Robert Marzano (2001) 80 – 90% of what is tested on State Tests that measure student achievement of State Standards is based on… VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS …of the State Standards Kendall & Marzano, – 90% of what is tested on State Tests that measure student achievement of State Standards is based on… VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTS …of the State Standards Kendall & Marzano, 1999 Previewing

12 StrategyPurposeProcessTemplate Pre-assess vocabulary Pre-assessment:  To find out what students already know about the vocabulary in the new unit before it is taught  To plan for instruction that addresses varying levels of knowledge  To form flexible groups One to two weeks before a new unit is introduced, students are pre-assessed to determine readiness. Pre-assessments are quick tools that help teachers find out what students know. Examples include:  Self-assessment of words (see Marzano’s template)  Short quiz or teacher made pretest  Graffiti Walk + teacher observation to identify students with limited knowledge Vocabulary Strategies for High School Building background word knowledge Vocabulary Strategies for High School Building background word knowledge

13 Vocabulary Strategies for High School Building background word knowledge Vocabulary Strategies for High School Building background word knowledge StrategyPurposeProcessTemplate Preview vocabulary based on results Preview vocabulary: To build background knowledge for SWD and others with limited knowledge of the new terms Previewing refers to activities that start students thinking about the content they will encounter. Research indicates that previewing has a significant effect on learning – especially for students with limited background knowledge on a topic. Based on assessment results, co- teachers plan for previewing. Previewing activities may be for the group of students having the lowest scores on the pre- assessment or could be done with the whole class if most scores are low. In some cases, a smaller group of high scoring students may receive extension activities while the rest of the class receives previewing (the Alternative Model works well here). Previewing strategies can include: - use of the Frayer Model -Word Questioning Strategy -Read-aloud passages, articles or trade books & provide graphic organizer -websites with tutorials, demonstration or other video clips

14 StrategyProcess Marzano’s Six Step Process for Learning Vocabulary 1.The teacher provides a description, explanation, or example of the new term 2.Students restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words using the Vocabulary Template. 3.Students construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term 4.Teacher engages students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their wordlist (vocabulary section of their notebook) 5.Opportunities for students to discuss the terms with one another are provided periodically 6.Opportunities are provided for students to use games that allow them to reinforce/maintain the terms Vocabulary Strategies for High School Building background word knowledge Vocabulary Strategies for High School Building background word knowledge

15 * Steps 4, 5 & 6 are crucial to the maintenance and generalization of the vocabulary words.

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17 Six Step Process for Building Academic Vocabulary The focus of steps one through three is on introducing new terms and steps four through six offer ways to review the terms providing students with a deeper insights. Before beginning step one, students should rate their knowledge of the vocabulary word. To understand words at a deeper level, students require repeated and varied exposure to words, during which they revise their initial understandings. The focus of steps one through three is on introducing new terms and steps four through six offer ways to review the terms providing students with a deeper insights. Before beginning step one, students should rate their knowledge of the vocabulary word. To understand words at a deeper level, students require repeated and varied exposure to words, during which they revise their initial understandings. Dr. Robert Marzano

18 FRAYER MODEL COMPARE/CONTRAST

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20 How does a teacher determine which vocabulary words and phrases are essential? They should examine: GPS PICASSO Reading material – textbooks, etc High-frequency word lists 10 Questions to ask yourself: 1.Which words are most important to understanding the text? 2.How much prior knowledge will students have about this word or its related concept? 3.Is the concept significant and does it therefore require pre-teaching? 4.Is the word encountered frequently? 5.Does the word have multiple meanings? 6.Which words can be figured out from the context? 7.Are there words that could be grouped together to enhance understanding a concept? 8.What strategies could I employ to help students’ integrate the concept (and related words) into their lives? 9.How can I make repeated exposures to the word/concept productive and enjoyable? 10.How can I help students use the word/concept in meaningful ways in multiple contexts? How does a teacher determine which vocabulary words and phrases are essential? They should examine: GPS PICASSO Reading material – textbooks, etc High-frequency word lists 10 Questions to ask yourself: 1.Which words are most important to understanding the text? 2.How much prior knowledge will students have about this word or its related concept? 3.Is the concept significant and does it therefore require pre-teaching? 4.Is the word encountered frequently? 5.Does the word have multiple meanings? 6.Which words can be figured out from the context? 7.Are there words that could be grouped together to enhance understanding a concept? 8.What strategies could I employ to help students’ integrate the concept (and related words) into their lives? 9.How can I make repeated exposures to the word/concept productive and enjoyable? 10.How can I help students use the word/concept in meaningful ways in multiple contexts?

21 Attaining Concepts: Enhance processing of information Purposeful grouping of students Think-Alouds Graffiti Strategy Placemat Strategy Word Questioning

22 StrategyPurposeProcessTemplate Purposeful Grouping of Students  To enhance the processing of new information through interactions in groups which allow for multiple perspectives, engaging discussion, reduced student to teacher ratios, and opportunities to provide specialized instruction When co-planning for a unit or lesson, plan for how students will acquire concepts and vocabulary, consider how you may group students to enhance learning and provide specialized instruction. Consider student needs identified through the ILP and assessment of prior knowledge to develop grouping strategies. Co-Teachers should be able to identify the purpose of grouping and how it will enhance learning for SWD and others. Here are some examples:  Cooperative Groups of 3 to 4  Paired Groups of 2  Stations  Alternative Groups  Parallel Teaching  Team Teaching  Double Dip Strategies for Attaining Concepts – High School Specialized Instruction for SWD that involves enhancing the processing of new information while interacting with the content, teachers and students Strategies for Attaining Concepts – High School Specialized Instruction for SWD that involves enhancing the processing of new information while interacting with the content, teachers and students

23 Think-Alouds Purpose To model the process of comprehension and problem solving for students To provide scaffolding I was thinking…, but now I predict…… This is how I think when I solve this problem….. That is interesting because…. What I am seeing in my mind is…….

24 Graffiti Strategy Enhance processing of information for: -review -activating prior knowledge -a variety of content areas 1. List one concept per piece of chart paper 2. Group students under a concept (# of students per group depends on # of concepts) 3. Students have 2 minutes to write everything about a concept 4. Students rotate to next concept, students have 2 minutes to read what others wrote and add to it 5. Continue moving groups until each group has rotated through each concept 6. Have groups move to their 1 st concept and summarize to whole group

25 Placemat Strategy To deepen understanding, provide guided practice or extend learning on a concept To provide students with an opportunity to share ideas and learn from each other in a cooperative small-group discussion 1.Divide class in up to groups of 4 2.Use chart or other paper and provide a large piece for each group. Each group draws the placemat diagram. Provide tasks that involve vocabulary words, solving problems or topic concepts to the whole class 3.Each student shows his/her work for every concept, group consensus is listed in middle box 4.See files for the rest of the instructions

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27 Word Questioning To teach students how to analyze major concepts very deeply, going through all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy

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29 Assessment / Demonstrating Learning: Using assessments to plan for instruction Check for Understanding Formatting Assessments Commentary and Feedback Common Formative Assessments Performance Tasks

30 Checking for understanding is a systematic approach to formative assessment. It involves ongoing assessments, reviews, and observations in a classroom. Unless you check for understanding, it is difficult to know how students are progressing on standards. Research indicates that checking for understanding corrects misperceptions and can also improve learning. Check for Understanding

31 Purpose: To check students’ level of understanding on information presented in a lesson or unit To make adjustments to instruction if student does not understand key information To encourage students to monitor their own understanding Purpose: To check students’ level of understanding on information presented in a lesson or unit To make adjustments to instruction if student does not understand key information To encourage students to monitor their own understanding The following are quick and easy strategies to check for understanding: See Appendix for details and step by step instructions for implementation. 1. Minute Paper 2. World Connections 3. Draw It 4. Share One, Get One 5. Quality Questioning The following are quick and easy strategies to check for understanding: See Appendix for details and step by step instructions for implementation. 1. Minute Paper 2. World Connections 3. Draw It 4. Share One, Get One 5. Quality Questioning

32 What does it mean to format assessments/tests? Teacher-Made tests can be created so that the format addresses diverse learners. An effective Teacher-Made test can reveal the following: The student’s strengths and needs The skills or concepts the learner needs to learn next Misconceptions that require re-teaching or more background How the student is processing information Growth in learning through the use of varied formats Accommodations in the IEP must be followed. Less formal formatting adaptations can be made in a flexible manner “as needed”. What does it mean to format assessments/tests? Teacher-Made tests can be created so that the format addresses diverse learners. An effective Teacher-Made test can reveal the following: The student’s strengths and needs The skills or concepts the learner needs to learn next Misconceptions that require re-teaching or more background How the student is processing information Growth in learning through the use of varied formats Accommodations in the IEP must be followed. Less formal formatting adaptations can be made in a flexible manner “as needed”. Formatting Assessments

33 Here are some formatting ideas for Co-Teachers to consider when developing tests: 1. Limit number of items per page (crowding or cluttering test may make it difficult for some students) 2. Different font size and spacing on page may help some students answer the same test items correctly 3. Consider the number of questions needed to show learning 4. Colored fonts may help students with reading and comprehension 5. Phrasing of directions and questions could be revised without lowering standards 6. Vocabulary definitions and cues may be provided when you are not assessing vocabulary (i.e., assessing reasoning, problem solving or other application skills) 7. Consider alternative ways for students to show what they have learned: oral exams, oral presentations, written papers, tasks, etc. 8. Use visual demonstrations for some test items 9. Go from concrete to abstract in each section of questions to help students build confidence 10.Use some take home tests to provide students with more time and relaxed atmosphere 11.Include visuals such as graphic organizers, charts, graphs, or pictures 12. Allow students to use an index card with key formulas, terms, or people/dates for history so that students are not always penalized for poor memory or spelling. Here are some formatting ideas for Co-Teachers to consider when developing tests: 1. Limit number of items per page (crowding or cluttering test may make it difficult for some students) 2. Different font size and spacing on page may help some students answer the same test items correctly 3. Consider the number of questions needed to show learning 4. Colored fonts may help students with reading and comprehension 5. Phrasing of directions and questions could be revised without lowering standards 6. Vocabulary definitions and cues may be provided when you are not assessing vocabulary (i.e., assessing reasoning, problem solving or other application skills) 7. Consider alternative ways for students to show what they have learned: oral exams, oral presentations, written papers, tasks, etc. 8. Use visual demonstrations for some test items 9. Go from concrete to abstract in each section of questions to help students build confidence 10.Use some take home tests to provide students with more time and relaxed atmosphere 11.Include visuals such as graphic organizers, charts, graphs, or pictures 12. Allow students to use an index card with key formulas, terms, or people/dates for history so that students are not always penalized for poor memory or spelling.

34 What is effective feedback? Research indicates the following characteristics: uses the language of the standards descriptive feedback works best – not evaluative or judgmental points out strengths offers specific information to guide improvement & helps students to see the next step occurs during learning, while there is still time to act on it limits corrective information to focused targets encourages students to see mistakes as leading to further learning it does not do the thinking for the student is given as often as is practical Purpose: To help students identify where they are now with their learning in respect to the standard To identify steps for improvement To prompt further learning What is effective feedback? Research indicates the following characteristics: uses the language of the standards descriptive feedback works best – not evaluative or judgmental points out strengths offers specific information to guide improvement & helps students to see the next step occurs during learning, while there is still time to act on it limits corrective information to focused targets encourages students to see mistakes as leading to further learning it does not do the thinking for the student is given as often as is practical Purpose: To help students identify where they are now with their learning in respect to the standard To identify steps for improvement To prompt further learning Commentary and Feedback

35 1.Feedback on success – Options:  Identify what is done correctly  Describe a feature of quality present in the work  Point out effective use of strategy or process 2.Specific steps for improvement – Options:  Identify a correction  Make a specific suggestion or describe a feature of quality needing work  Point out a problem with strategy or process  Offer a reminder  Ask a question  Consider mode – is it better to use oral, written, or visual/demonstration? 3. Timing – Feedback occurs during learning and is given as often as possible – Considerations:  Feedback should be immediate for knowledge and facts  Can delay feedback slightly for more comprehensive review of student thinking and processing  Build in time for students to act on the feedback

36 Examples of Effective Feedback: Success: “The table you drew really helped solve the problem.” “You got all of the questions on parallel and perpendicular lines right.” Specific to guiding improvement: “You had some trouble with the differences between isosceles and scalene triangles. Reread page 102 and try these again.” “Try putting your arguments into the graphic organizer for persuasive writing and look for holes Examples of Effective Feedback: Success: “The table you drew really helped solve the problem.” “You got all of the questions on parallel and perpendicular lines right.” Specific to guiding improvement: “You had some trouble with the differences between isosceles and scalene triangles. Reread page 102 and try these again.” “Try putting your arguments into the graphic organizer for persuasive writing and look for holes

37 Common Formative Assessments Performance Tasks Common formative assessments are created collaboratively by a team of teachers responsible for the same grade level or course with alignment to standards and pacing guide. They are usually given throughout the year to all students in a grade level. Performance tasks involve the application of knowledge and skills rather than recall and result in tangible products or observable performances. They involve meaningful connections, encourage self- evaluation and revision, require judgment to score and are evaluated using predetermined criteria (rubrics).

38 Non-negotiables: The 3 critical elements should be present in the co-taught classroom Co-planning to use the elements is best! The special ed. teacher can use the 3 elements in any class and should put in lesson plans This is a framework to improve student achievement Other strategies for vocabulary, attaining concepts or assessment can also be used An observation form has been developed to provide feedback to teachers Supervisors, Ed Prog Specialists, Spec Instruction Consultants are available for additional support and training


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