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HUKUM PIDANA DI BELANDA Guest lecture 20 December 2012 Fokke Fernhout Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Maastricht, Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "HUKUM PIDANA DI BELANDA Guest lecture 20 December 2012 Fokke Fernhout Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Maastricht, Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUKUM PIDANA DI BELANDA Guest lecture 20 December 2012 Fokke Fernhout Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Maastricht, Netherlands

2 HISTORY Before 1805Every state of the federation had its own criminal law (torture, medieval punishments) 1805-1814French occupation; Code Pénal; Code de Procédure Pénal 1 Dec 1813Kingdom of the Netherlands; plan to make new codes 1838Code of Criminal Procedure 1881 (!)Adoption of Criminal Code (KUHP) 1886Criminal Code enters into force

3 DEVELOPMENTS IN DUTCH-INDIES Early colonial timesMedieval Dutch law, Roman law, adat law 1854Plan to make new criminal code 1867Wetboek van Strafrecht voor Europeanen (KUHP buat orang Eropa) 1873KUHP buat orang “inlander” 1918Wetboek van Strafrecht voor Nederlandsch-Indië (translation of Dutch Criminal Code)

4 DIFFERENCES Pasal 10: hukuman mati by hanging (considered to be necessary for colonial suppression) Colonial institutions, local authorities (residents, regents) Indonesian elements (buffaloe, desa, child marriage) Kejahatan ringan (pencurian/penggelapan ringan dsb) Different (higher!) punishments for same criminal offences

5 DEVELOPMENTS IN INDONESIA 8 March 1942Japanese decide to keep Dutch Criminal Code (di bahasa Belanda!) and to ban the use of Dutch (!) 1942-1945Japanese changes to criminal law 18 August 1945Pasal 2 Aturan Peralihan UUD 1945: existing law will stay in force (di bahasa asli) UU 1/1946 (Undang-undang tentang peraturan hukum pidana) a) KUHP back to text in force on 8 March 1942 b) many textual changes (di bahasa Belanda!) After 1946many textual changes, but di bahasa Indonesia

6 REMARKS Changing a Criminal Code after an occupation takes a lot of time (Netherlands 73 years, Indonesia until now 67 years) Indonesia is the only country in the world where: - the Criminal Code is written in two different languages alternating in the same sentence - almost no lawyer or court can actually read the Criminal Code - no official translation of an inherited Criminal Code has been introdduced (Mahkamah Agung and Mahkamah Konstitusi use different texts)

7 COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINAL CASES 1838 Hoge Raad (Mahkamah Agung)  Gerechtshof (Pengadilan Tinggi)   Arrondissementsrechtbank (Pengadilan Negeri)  Kantonrechter (Hakim damai)

8 COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINAL CASES 1838 Hoge Raad (kasasi, 5 judges)  Gerechtshof (banding, 3 judges)   Arrondissementsrechtbank (TP, banding, 1/3)  Kantonrechter (TP, 1 judge)

9 COURTS DEALING WITH CRIMINAL CASES 2002 Hoge Raad (3/5 judges)  Gerechtshof (1/3 judges) [more serious cases]  Rechtbank (PN, 1/3 judges) (sectors for civil, criminal, administrative and tax cases)


11 European Convention ► European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) ► 1950 ► Treaty of Rome ► Council of Europe (not European Union) ► All European countries (from dwarfstate Andorra to giant state Russian Republic) except Belarus and Kosovo (total: 47) ► Originally: formulation and confirmation of values already common to all European countries

12 Instruments of enforcement ► European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) - seated in Straatsburg (symbolic) - one judge for each country - committees (3), chambers (7), Grand Chamber (17) - English and French as official languages ► Right of individual complaint (plus State complaints) - citizens, organizations, groups - exhaustion of local remedies [bypass for dualist national systems] ► Decisions (supranational) - inadmissible - violation - no violation - awarding of damages

13 INTERNATIONAL SUPERVISION ► Art. 5 ECHR: - par. 1: definition of lawful detention - par. 2: right to be informed immediately of charges and reason of arrest - par. 3/4: habeas corpus: right to be heard by a court when arrested or detained ► Art. 6 ECHR: - par. 1: right to a fair trial before a court within a reasonable time; - par. 2: presumption of innocence; - par. 3: right of a fair defense, including the right to question witnesses ► Art. 7 ECHR: principle of legality



16 STEPS IN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE Report of a crime/finding of police Investigation  Police transaction if allowed (end of case) Otherwise  File to Public Prosecutor  Case filed Prosecution for lack of evidence

17 PROSECUTION  Prosecution by decisionProsecution by (fine, community service only) indictment  No: Yes: case ends SUSPECT AGREES

18 INDICTMENT ► Three functions: ► 1) Convocation (court, place and date of trial) ► 2) Charge (dakwaan) - place and time - exact description of facts (cermat, jelas, lengkap) - legal provisions that are relevant to qualify the facts ► 3) Information of rights - right to a lawyer (sometimes free legal aid) - right to request to call witnesses and experts ► Separation of powers: dakwaan is the basis for the court

19 COURT TRIAL  Judges, court recorder, lawyer, victim, court bailiff, press, public prosecutor

20 JUDGMENT ► 1) Indictment void ► 2) Court lacks jurisdiction ► 3) Public Prosecutor inadmissible ► 4) Staying of proceedings because of mental illness of suspect ► 5) Acquittal (putusan bebas, no proof for dakwaan) ► 6) Putusan lepas (discharge) because there is no criminal offence to be associated with the dakwaan (2 reasons: dakwaan with insufficient facts and alasan pembenar) ► 7) Putusan lepas (discharge) because the offender cannot be held responsible [alasan pemaaf] ► 8) Punishment

21 GENERAL PRINCIPLES ► Principle of legality in procedural law - court is bound by every rule in the Code of Criminal Procedure ► Principle of legality in substantive law - no retroactivity - no analogy - lex certa ► Presumption of innocence ► Fair trial

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