Presentation on theme: "Kinetic Theory of matter. Kinetic theory of matter 1)All matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms, molecules) 2)These particles are always in motion."— Presentation transcript:
Kinetic theory of matter 1)All matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms, molecules) 2)These particles are always in motion 3)The hotter the temperature of the substance, the faster the particles move 4)At the same temperature, more massive particles move slower than less massive particles
Big concepts particles are in constant motion (they always have energy to use) Amount of energy involved with particles in object can determine it’s state of matter Energy and mass are conserved
RUB YOUR HANDS TOGETHER, THEN PLACE THEM ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FACE OF YOUR PARTNER
What is energy? Are there different types of energy?
Energy Definition: Having energy allows an object to do work on itself, other objects or the surrounding environment. Work involves motion of changing of temperature Types Gravitational potential energy (GPE) Kinetic Energy (KE) Elastic Potential energy (EPE) Non-mechanical energy (TE, EE, LE…)
Types of energy GPE, based on their position. However because atom’s mass is so small, an atom’s GPE is negligible
Kinetic Energy The energy associated with movement. Atom’s motion can be significant on it’s own scale
Motion on microscopic scale is felt as heat on our scale Therefore kinetic energy associated with the motion of particles is called Thermal energy
Thermal energy Increase in heat increase in kinetic energy Increase in heat increase in motion of atoms
Amount of thermal energy in an object Depends on: The amount of motion of each particle The number of particles that make up the substance
Thermal energy may not uniformly distributed in an object
Thermal Energy and temperature This is a type of non-mechanical energy The thermal energy of an object is equal to the total kinetic energy of the atoms in the object. Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the object
Temperature and heat Temperature and heat are related but not the same concept Heat is the transfer of energy from higher energy particles to lower energy particles.
Temperature Is not related to how much material is in the object but related to the amount of energy in each particle of the object
Temperature and motion of particles The lower the temp, the slower the particles Absolute zero (-273°C) all particle motion stops What place can obtain a temp. reading of absolute zero?
HOW CAN SOLIDS CAN HAVE MORE THERMAL ENERGY THAN GASES?
More atoms in a smaller space Total amount is more, but amount per atom is less
Connections between energy and state of matter Greater energy means less rigid attachment between atoms/molecules The hotter the object is, the more energetic its atoms and molecules are The hotter the object is, the less attached the atoms and molecules are to each other
States of matter States of matter are physically different Solids, liquids and gases differ in: – The amount of energy in each particle – This affects: distance between atoms/molecules How tightly connected are atoms/molecules
Solids Particles are tightly bound to other particles Positions in the object are fixed The motion of particles is limited to vibration
Liquids Particles move more rapidly than solids Particles can slide past each other, not as tightly bound A greater freedom of motion, but not uninhibited
Gases Fastest particles Nearly impossible to bind particles together Uninhibited (will go anywhere that is possible)
Relating state of matter and object’s shape, volume, particle’s speed and energy SolidLiquidgas shapeDefiniteDefined by container Defined by container volumeDefinite Defined by container speedslowfasterfastest energyLeast per particle More per particle Most per particle
Changes in states of matter Require a change in the kinetic/thermal energy of the particles that make it up