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Evidence of Evolution How Scientists Determined that Living Things Change Over Time Video #3 – “How Do We Know Evolution Happens?”“How Do We Know Evolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence of Evolution How Scientists Determined that Living Things Change Over Time Video #3 – “How Do We Know Evolution Happens?”“How Do We Know Evolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence of Evolution How Scientists Determined that Living Things Change Over Time Video #3 – “How Do We Know Evolution Happens?”“How Do We Know Evolution Happens?”

2 Fossil Record Fossil = remains of any living things or their prints Fossils include: –Bones –Casts or molds –Impressions Top left – impression of a worm; center – cast of a mollusk; right – humerus bone of a turtle “Becoming a Fossil” “Becoming a Fossil” – 2:34

3 Comparative Anatomy- body parts Comparing the structures of organisms Similarities indicate evolutionary relationships.

4 Comparative Anatomy, cont’d Homologous structures – have similar insides these have a similar structures and may or may not have a similar function indicate common ancestry:

5 Comparative Anatomy, cont’d Analagous structures – have similar outsides these have a different structure but similar function indicate common environmental pressures:

6 Comparative Anatomy, cont’d The pelvis (and femur) of a whale is a vestigial structure; it suggests that ancestors of whales had four legs Humans also have vestigial structures Tonsils & Appendix Whale Evolution Whale Evolution – 5:09 Vestigial structures – seem to have little or no importance in modern organisms –Indicates that the structures were useful (a long time ago)

7 Comparative Embryology Closely related organisms appear to go through similar stages as embryos “Common Past, Different Paths” – 1:36Common Past, Different Paths

8 Comparative Biochemistry / Molecular Biology There is a common genetic code DNA Analyzing and comparing DNA sequences and proteins can show a relationship among species. “The Common Genetic Code” – 4:20The Common Genetic Code

9 The genetic similarities between humans and primates indicates that we share a common ancestor – NOT that humans came from apes! Humans are more similar (genetically) to chimpanzees than to gorillas or orangutans. This suggests that humans and chimpanzees split / branched off from our common ancestor more recently than gorillas and orangutans. “Human Chromosome 2” – 3:27Human Chromosome 2


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