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When Heredity Does Not Follow Mendelian Rules. Complex Patterns of Heredity Incomplete Dominance RR R' RR RR Neither phenotypes is completely dominant.

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Presentation on theme: "When Heredity Does Not Follow Mendelian Rules. Complex Patterns of Heredity Incomplete Dominance RR R' RR RR Neither phenotypes is completely dominant."— Presentation transcript:

1 When Heredity Does Not Follow Mendelian Rules

2 Complex Patterns of Heredity Incomplete Dominance RR R' RR RR Neither phenotypes is completely dominant R = Red R' = White RR' = Pink RR = Red R'R' = White

3 Incomplete Dominance R R R' R’ R R RR R' Neither phenotypes is completely dominant R = Red R' = White RR = Red R'R' = White RR' = Pink

4 Codominance Both possible phenotypes can be expressed R R R' R’ R R RR R' Both phenotypes are expressed in heterozygotes R = Red R' = White RR = Red R'R' = White RR' = Spotted Striped Striped Checkered Checkered Etc. Etc.

5 Multiple Phenotypes from Multiple Alleles Traits controlled by multiple alleles B b B b B B bB bb b B

6 B = Blue Feathers b = Chocolate Feathers B A = Ash-red Feathers B dominant to b B recessive to B A b recessive to B b recessive to B A

7 Multiple Phenotypes from Multiple Alleles Traits controlled by multiple alleles BABA b B b B BABA bBABA bb b B

8 Multiple Phenotypes from Multiple Alleles Traits controlled by multiple alleles BABA B B b B BABA BBABA bb B B

9 Multiple Phenotypes from Multiple Alleles Traits controlled by multiple alleles BABA BABA b b BABA BABA BABA BABA bb b b

10 Sex Determination 22 Pairs of Homologous Chromosomes: Autosomes X X Y X X X XX YX Y X 1 Pair of Sex Chromosomes

11 Sex Linked Inheritance Traits located on sex chromosomes: Sex-linked traits XrXr XRXR Y XRXR XRXR XrXr XRXR XrXr YXRXR Y XRXR X R = Red Eyes X r = White Eyes Males = ½ Red Eyes Males = ½ White Eyes Females = All Red Eyes

12 Polygenic Inheritance Traits controlled by multiple genes ABC ABC abc abc AABBCCAaBbCc AaBbCcaabbcc

13 Sickle-Cell Disease H H' H H’ H H H'H H Codominance

14 Sickle-Cell Disease H H' H’ H' H H

15 Sickle-Cell Disease H H’ H H

16 Multiple Alleles and Blood Type

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19 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans Color Blindness X R X G X r X g Y X R X G X r X g Y Y X R X G

20 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans Hemophilia: 1:10,000 males 1:100,000,000 females XHXH XhXh Y XHXH Y Y XHXH XHXH XhXh XhXh XHXH XHXH

21 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans Hemophilia: 1:10,000 males 1:100,000,000 females XhXh XhXh Y XHXH Y Y XhXh XHXH XhXh XhXh XhXh XHXH

22 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans Hemophilia: 1:10,000 males 1:100,000,000 females XhXh XhXh Y XHXH Y Y XhXh XHXH XhXh XhXh XhXh XHXH

23 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans Hemophilia: 1:10,000 males 1:100,000,000 females XhXh XhXh Y XhXh Y Y XhXh XhXh XhXh XhXh XhXh XhXh

24 Changes in Chromosome Numbers in Humans Meiosis, Anaphase (normal)

25 Changes in Chromosome Numbers in Humans Fertilization Normal

26 Changes in Chromosome Numbers in Humans Meiosis, Anaphase Down Syndrome: Trisomy 21

27 Changes in Chromosome Numbers in Humans Fertilization

28 Changes in Chromosome Numbers in Humans Fertilization

29 Abnormal Number of Sex Chromosomes

30 Sex Determination 22 Pairs of Homologous Chromosomes: Autosomes X XX Y X XX YX Y Result of Non-disjunction X X

31 Trisomy(21)Down Syndrome Monosomy:Turner Syndrome Hexapoid:Wheat Trisomy(13)Patau’s Syndrome Triploid:Apples Polyploid:chrysanthamums

32 Tool of Genetics Punnett Square Pedigree Karotype DNA Fingerprinting


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