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Complex Patterns of Heredity Advanced Biology DNHS.

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Patterns of Heredity Advanced Biology DNHS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Patterns of Heredity Advanced Biology DNHS

2 Complex Inheritance Patterns Sometimes the laws and principles of genetics established by Gregor Mendel do not always explain the inheritance patterns seen in an organism. Sometimes the laws and principles of genetics established by Gregor Mendel do not always explain the inheritance patterns seen in an organism.

3 Incomplete Dominance The heterozygous or hybrid individual will show an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous individuals The heterozygous or hybrid individual will show an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous individuals Example – Snap Dragons flower color red crossed with white = pink Example – Snap Dragons flower color red crossed with white = pink

4 R = red R = white RR R R RR RR RR Genotype: Phenotype: All RR hybrid All pink ¼ RR; ½ RR; ¼ RR ¼ red; ½ pink; ¼ white

5

6 Codominance The heterozygous individual will show the phenotypes of each of the homozygous individuals The heterozygous individual will show the phenotypes of each of the homozygous individuals Example – chickens, black+white=checkered (black and white) Example – chickens, black+white=checkered (black and white)

7 Multiple Alleles Situation wherein there exists more than two alleles for a specific trait. Situation wherein there exists more than two alleles for a specific trait. Example – Blood type in humans (A, B, O alleles) Example – Blood type in humans (A, B, O alleles)

8 Sex Linked Traits When a trait is seen in one sex more often than another due to a gene that is carried on one of the sex chromosomes When a trait is seen in one sex more often than another due to a gene that is carried on one of the sex chromosomes Examples – eye color in fruit flies and hemophilia and color blindness in humans Examples – eye color in fruit flies and hemophilia and color blindness in humans

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11 Polygenic Inheritance When a trait is influenced by many genes When a trait is influenced by many genes Tends to be a wide range of phenotypic variation Tends to be a wide range of phenotypic variation Examples: skin color, hair color, height in humans Examples: skin color, hair color, height in humans

12 A situation in which there is an individual of unknown genotype A situation in which there is an individual of unknown genotype To determine the genotype you would cross it with a pure recessive individual To determine the genotype you would cross it with a pure recessive individual Test Crosses

13 Pedigree A graphic genetic family tree that follows a trait through several generations A graphic genetic family tree that follows a trait through several generations

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15 Aneuploidy A condition of having an abnormal chromosome number A condition of having an abnormal chromosome number Example – Downs Syndrome, Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies (Turner Syndrome) Example – Downs Syndrome, Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies (Turner Syndrome)

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