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POST WWII SUPERPOWERS 1961-1991 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP.

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Presentation on theme: "POST WWII SUPERPOWERS 1961-1991 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP."— Presentation transcript:

1 POST WWII SUPERPOWERS THE COLD WAR HEATS UP

2 NIXON EXTENDS A HAND

3 Nixon In China Nixon sought détente, an easing of tensions with the Soviets and Communist Chinese Nixon becomes the 1 st President to visit China. This action is an attempt to normalize relations with the Communist power. It will eventually lead to the trade relationship we share today Nixon sought détente, an easing of tensions with the Soviets and Communist Chinese Nixon becomes the 1 st President to visit China. This action is an attempt to normalize relations with the Communist power. It will eventually lead to the trade relationship we share today

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5 Trip to the Soviet Union Part of Détente Resulted in a series of nuclear disarmament treaties: Antiballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) and the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT I) Part of Détente Resulted in a series of nuclear disarmament treaties: Antiballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) and the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT I)

6 Jimmy Carter, elected in 1976, insisted on world Civil Rights, which endangered détente He is holding a the Soviets to American Human Rights standards – He also signed SALT II, which limited nukes and launches – Many thought this weakened our defenses – Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979 – U.S. feared Soviet invasion threatened Persian Gulf oil supplies.

7 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979, Soviet military forces invade Afghanistan. U.S. supported and trained the Mujahedeen Afghan fighters who years later become Al Qaeda. Carter imposes economic sanctions on the Soviets and boycotts the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympic Games. So much for detente So much for detente 1979, Soviet military forces invade Afghanistan. U.S. supported and trained the Mujahedeen Afghan fighters who years later become Al Qaeda. Carter imposes economic sanctions on the Soviets and boycotts the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympic Games. So much for detente So much for detente

8 Iranian Hostage Crisis Since the ’50, the US supported the shah of Iran – He was against communism – He gave us access to oil – ’79 – the shah was overthrown by a revolution led by religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini (strict Muslim) – Carter welcomed the shah into the US to undergo cancer treatment Iran demanded his return

9 We refused to send the shah back – Iranian student supporters of Khomeini took the US Embassy and 52 hostages – Trade the shah for the people? Carter refused Hostages were held for 444 days – Carter banned all trade with Iran and severed political ties – Hostages released on inauguration day in 1981 (Reagan)

10 Arms Buildup Reagan believed that an arms buildup would bring a quick end to the Cold War. B-1 Bomber program intensified MX (Minuteman) missile program intensified to match Soviet SS-20 mobile missile units. Conventional forces were rearmed with new and improved weaponry. Reagan believed that an arms buildup would bring a quick end to the Cold War. B-1 Bomber program intensified MX (Minuteman) missile program intensified to match Soviet SS-20 mobile missile units. Conventional forces were rearmed with new and improved weaponry.

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12 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

13 Reagan Doctrine The US government will support any group resisting communist takeover around the globe: The US government will support any group resisting communist takeover around the globe: Contras- Nicaragua Mujihadeen- Afghanistan Solidarity- Poland The US government will support any group resisting communist takeover around the globe: The US government will support any group resisting communist takeover around the globe: Contras- Nicaragua Mujihadeen- Afghanistan Solidarity- Poland

14 Reagan Doctrine Iran-Contra The Iran-Contra scandal of Secretary of Defense Casper Weinberger arranged to sell antitank and antiaircraft missiles to the Iranians for help freeing American hostages in Lebanon. 2.Colonel Oliver North then diverted the funds from the sell to support Nicaragua’s Contra rebels in their civil war against the Sandinistas. 3.This sell was against stated US policy and concealed from the American public. 4.Reagan claimed he had no knowledge of the affair. 5.Reagan temporarily suffered a sharp, but temporary, drop in popularity polls. Thus, even this scandal did not stick to him or become another Watergate. The Iran-Contra scandal of Secretary of Defense Casper Weinberger arranged to sell antitank and antiaircraft missiles to the Iranians for help freeing American hostages in Lebanon. 2.Colonel Oliver North then diverted the funds from the sell to support Nicaragua’s Contra rebels in their civil war against the Sandinistas. 3.This sell was against stated US policy and concealed from the American public. 4.Reagan claimed he had no knowledge of the affair. 5.Reagan temporarily suffered a sharp, but temporary, drop in popularity polls. Thus, even this scandal did not stick to him or become another Watergate.

15 Fall of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev ( ) Last Soviet leader Glasnost (openness) Perestroika (restructuring) Mikhail Gorbachev ( ) Last Soviet leader Glasnost (openness) Perestroika (restructuring)

16 U.S.-Soviet Relations Reagan called the USSR “the evil empire.” Four major summits between USSR and the US. Four major summits between USSR and the US. Reagan called the USSR “the evil empire.” Four major summits between USSR and the US. Four major summits between USSR and the US.

17 U.S.-Soviet Relations June 12, 1987, Reagan asked Gorbachev to “tear down this wall (Berlin Wall).”

18 Fall of the Berlin Wall November 1989

19 Fall of the Soviet Union Boris Yeltsin led a pro-democracy movement in Russia after a coup attempt to overthrow Gorbachev. Renamed the nation Russia in 1992 Boris Yeltsin led a pro-democracy movement in Russia after a coup attempt to overthrow Gorbachev. Renamed the nation Russia in 1992

20 Fall of Satellite Nations Former Soviet satellites formed democracies and free market economies.

21 Commonwealth of Nations Twelve former Soviet republics realigned into this loose confederation dominated by Russia. Replaced the Soviet Union in 1992 Twelve former Soviet republics realigned into this loose confederation dominated by Russia. Replaced the Soviet Union in 1992


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