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Prepared especially for the Secondary Professional Learning Network of PULASKI COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. August 2011 RIGOR with NURTURING.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared especially for the Secondary Professional Learning Network of PULASKI COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. August 2011 RIGOR with NURTURING."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared especially for the Secondary Professional Learning Network of PULASKI COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. August 2011 RIGOR with NURTURING Designing Assessment & Instruction for Concept-Centered Learning

2 Premise of the Workshop As the United States continues to compete in a global economy that demands innovation, the U.S. education system must equip students with the four Cs: 1.critical thinking and problem solving, 2.communication, 3.collaboration, and 4.creativity and innovation.

3 VA & US History U.S. History II Math 6 Geometry page 2 (in handout)

4 Self Reliance There are three types of baseball players--those who make it happen, those who watch it happen, and those who wonder what happened. Tommy Lasorda teachers/administrators

5 Please bring your handout with you.

6 SAMPLE Pre-assessment that includes differentiation SAMPLE Pre-assessment that includes differentiation page 10 Discuss with your new friend: How do you check for background knowledge and give each student a context for what they are about to learn?

7 Record your responses on the POST-IT and the back of the last page…

8 1. The percent of ALL students PASSING the WRITING SOL tests in The percent of BLACK students PASSING the WRITING SOL tests in The percent of ALL students ADVANCED on the US HISTORY II SOL test in The percent of ALL students ADVANCED on the US HISTORY II SOL test in The percent of ALL students FAILING the WORLD HISTORY I SOL test in The percent of BLACK students FAILING the WORLD HISTORY I SOL test in The percent of ALL students GRADUATING ON-TIME in the Class of The percent of BLACK students GRADUATING ON-TIME in the Class of At PULASKI County Public Schools: SOLUTIONS: 18, 26, 46, 46, 53, 59, 74, 82 59

9 NURTURING “Nurture denotes to supply with food, or to cause to grow. To nurture is to train up with a fostering care…” RigorwithNurturing

10 The Power of Our Questions

11 QUESTIONS TO EXTEND THINKING page 4 – 6 Discuss with your new friend: In your PLC, when planning for learning, (how) do you identify questions to be used during the lesson that engage students in higher-order thinking?

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13 Stool – 42 cm LaToya – 159 cm Shoulder – 135 cm Counter – 73 cm Silk – 108 cm cm below

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17 RIGOR “Engagement that uses the MIND before using the HANDS” RigorwithNurturing

18 Kinds of Evidence – Continuum of Evidence Informal Check for Understanding

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21 Learning By Doing When you realize that people learn naturally from the life they experience every day, it won’t surprise you that the brain is set up to learn better with active, hands-on endeavors. Many students request less bookwork and more hands-on activities. Students are more willing to do bookwork if there is a project or activity as part of the lesson. Building models and displays, fieldtrips and fieldwork, hands-on experiments, and craft activities are all strategies that help students learn.

22 STORYBOARDSTORYBOARDSTORYBOARDSTORYBOARD

23 BLIND SEQUENCING

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25 Category Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 *Setting objectives & providing feedback*.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922

26 What processes can students engage in to identify similarities and differences? Comparing The process of identifying and articulating similarities and differences among items. Classifying The process of grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes. Creating Metaphors The process of identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern in information. Creating Analogies The process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts (e.g., relationships between relationships).

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28 Hey…how have you been able to use this structure to get your students to think? page 9

29 Use your BOUNCE Card to ‘bounce’ your conversation up a notch to higher-order critical thinking Use your BOUNCE Card to ‘bounce’ your conversation up a notch to higher-order critical thinking page 7

30 WHO AM I To develop deeper critical thinking skills, each student must develop refined questioning strategies.

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32 Please bring your handout with you.

33 Making Engagement Manageable and Meaningful page 3

34 Graphic Organizers The integration of graphic organizers into the learning of every content area is now NON-NEGOTIABLE…

35 page 15

36 VENN DIAGRAMS MAPS GLOBES

37 Organizing Student Thinking

38 page 16 & 17 Work with a friend to express a relationship using essential knowledge from your content area that can be expressed with a graphic organizer.

39 NURTURING “Nurture denotes to supply with food, or to cause to grow. To nurture is to train up with a fostering care…” RigorwithNurturing

40 COUNT OFF at Your Table

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42 Premise: The meaning of a text is NOT contained in the words on the page. Instead, the reader constructs meaning by making what she thinks is a logical, sensible connection between the new information she reads and what she already knows about the topic. Read the paragraph on the next slide and work with your 4-second partner to fill in the missing words. ENJOY! (this is NOT a test) Research Related to Teaching Reading Skills from Cognitive Science

43 The questions that p_____ face as they raise ch_____ from in_____ to adult life are not easy to an_____. Both fa_____ and m_____ can become concerned when health problems such as co_____ arise any time after the e_____ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch_____ should have plenty of s_____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_____ and g_____ should not share the same b_____ or even sleep in the same r_____. They may be afraid of the d_____. The questions that p_____ face as they raise ch_____ from in_____ to adult life are not easy to an_____. Both fa_____ and m_____ can become concerned when health problems such as co_____ arise any time after the e_____ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch_____ should have plenty of s_____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_____ and g_____ should not share the same b_____ or even sleep in the same r_____. They may be afraid of the d_____.

44 The questions that poultrymen face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark. The questions that poultrymen face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark. ~Adapted from Madeline Hunter

45 Accuracy of Background Knowledge

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49 Word: Migration Word: Prisoner Of War Word: Equal Rights Word: Military Intelligence

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51 123 Explain how teachers in your department worked as a PLC (developing and sharing results of common assessments and planning for engaging learning experiences.) How could it be improved? What ideas/strategies did you use last year that improved the understanding of each student? What are essential actions that you will ‘take-away’ from your discussions with peers today? Why are these important

52 123 Explain how teachers in your department worked as a PLC (developing and sharing results of common assessments and planning for engaging learning experiences.) How could it be improved? What ideas/strategies did you use last year that improved the understanding of each student? What are essential actions that you will ‘take-away’ from your discussions with peers today? Why are these important

53 Thank you for your commitment to children! "It's your attitude, not just your aptitude that determines your ultimate altitude." -- Zig Ziglar Dan e4ae.com

54 Knowing the Learner Directions: Rank the symbols (1-4) in order from most (1) like you as a learner to least (4) like you as a learner.

55 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Beach Balls

56 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Microscopes

57 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Clipboards

58 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Puppies

59 “If an educator keeps using the same strategies over and over and the student keeps failing, who really is the slow learner?”

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61 Choice Board or Tic-Tac-Toe This assessment strategy allows students to select their own preferences but still achieve the targeted essential knowledge and skills. After Reading Choice Board

62 Choice Board Verbal/LinguisticBody/ KinestheticVisual/Spatial Musical/Rhythmical Wild Card Your choice after getting the approval of the teacher. Naturalist IntrapersonalInterpersonalLogical/Mathematical

63 4 second partner 1.Select a new partner. 2.Identify content to be taught to your students. 3.Outline a Dinner Menu of evidence of student understandings. 4.Enjoy! 4 second partner 1.Select a new partner. 2.Identify content to be taught to your students. 3.Outline a Dinner Menu of evidence of student understandings. 4.Enjoy!

64 Secondary Graphic Organizers

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67 Setting the Context “Policy-makers, educators, and parents are asking that all students meet high standards. To achieve this goal, we must convert our educational goal, we must convert our educational system from a filter that screens some system from a filter that screens some children out, to a pump that propels all children forward.” Carol R. Johnson and Ross Taylor, “Excellence for All in Minneapolis,” Educational Leadership, March 2001, P.10.

68 Introduce your partner to the other people at your table. Tell them something about her/him.

69 There are three parts to any research-based lesson: Beginning – ‘check for’ and ‘build’ background knowledge of each student; (BL) During – teach and actively engage each student in new content – making connections to prior knowledge; (DL) End – check for understanding - provide each student with an opportunity to summarize (in their own way) and practice the essential knowledge and skills conveyed in the lesson. (EL)

70 SAMPLE Pre-assessment that includes differentiation SAMPLE Pre-assessment that includes differentiation the Civil War PAGE 16

71 Research on Imagery as Elaboration 6 37 percentile pts. higher than… …students who kept repeating definitions percentile pts. higher than… …students who were using the terms in a sentence. Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed # of studies

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74 Factors Influencing School Improvement SchoolTeacherStudent 1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design 9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge 11. Motivation

75 MOVING from ETCH-a SKETCH Learning to Each STUDENT UNDERSTANDING Don’t let the ‘what’ overshadow the ‘how’!

76 PAGE 7 Work with a partner to create a conceptual learning framework for a topic from your content area.

77 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

78 When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be 27 percentile points higher than students who do not know what they are learning.

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81 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

82 Research-based Strategy: Cooperative learning Percentile Gain 27 The GARDEN Plot

83 Self-Assessment Tool

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85 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

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89 1.Remember it. (Describe its colors, shapes, and sizes. What does it look like?) 2.Understand it. (What does it make you think of?) 3.Apply it. (What can you do with it? How is it used?) 4.Analyze it. (How is it made or what is it composed of?) 5.Evaluate it. (Take a stand and list reasons for supporting it.) 6.Create it. (Generate a new version of it. How is it an improvement from the original?) CUBING 2010

90 Georgia Content Standards Verbs PROBLEM SOLVING AnalyzeDeriveDiscoverEvaluateExplore PredictSolveSurveyVerifyInvestigate REASONING CategorizeClassifyCompareContrastDifferentiate DescribeEstimateExplainGeneralizeInterpret JustifyOrderHypothesizePredictInfer PrioritizeRankValidateSummarize COMMUNICATION ClarifyCorrespondDescribeDiscussDemonstrate ExhibitExplainExpressPersuadePortray RestateShowSpeakStateWrite

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92 Momentous Discovery When teachers regularly and collaboratively review assessment data for the purpose of improving practice to reach measurable achievement goals, something magical happens. Michael Fullan

93 KEY QUESTION: Why are common assessments so important? “You can enhance or destroy students’ desire to succeed in school more quickly and permanently through your use of assessment than with any other tools you have at your disposal.” Rick Stiggins, Assessment Trainers Institute WHY do we ASSESS: 1. INFORM INSTRUCTIONAL DECISIONS 2. ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO TRY

94 Talk to Me… Directions – –Form a team of EIGHT (8) people… – –Determine the person with the most sisters and then send them to pick-up your team ziplock bag… PLEASE DO NOT OPEN!!! – –Determine the person with the least sisters and send them to pick-up a grid sheet for each person. – –Distribute a grid sheet to each team member.

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96 Follow-up Debriefing Each pair should share with your other team members the method you used to graph the figure. Discuss with your team: –Which method appeals to you? –Is there another method that you would prefer? Prepare for a “pairs choice of method” with a new graph.

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98 Key Question Did your performance on the second attempt to complete the grid exercise improve after having an opportunity to self-assess your initial strategy?

99 Formative Assessment Formative assessment is the process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust teaching and learning for the purpose of improving student learning. Council of Chief State School Officers, October 2006 Notes: Process rather than a particular test…. It is not the nature of the test itself that makes it formative or summative…it is the use to which those results will be put.

100 The Power of Our Questions

101 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

102 Low-level Questions Short answer Shallow thinking High-level Questions Elaborate answer Deep thinking High-Consensus Right or Wrong answer “What” to think Low-Consensus No single correct answer “How” to think Review Asker knows answer Checking for correctness True Asker doesn’t know answer Invitation to think Path to Thinking Questions NOT Just Remembering Facts

103 Genius Questions What if…? Is ______ the reason for…? I wonder why…?Can…? If…?Would you rather…? What is it that…?What would it take to…? When is it…?Why is it that…? Who could…?Would ______ be possible if…? How is ____ like _____?Is it possible to…? When is…? Could…? What could happen if…?How can…? If it were possible…?What is your opinion about…? Are there…?Is it right to…? Why is…?I wonder when…? How…?I’m wondering if…? Where did…?How could it…? Do you…?Why are…? Does it matter if…?If I ______, could_____? When is it …? What can…?

104 Revised Bloom’s Revised Bloom’s Creating

105 Questioning Strategies Think Time Question Exchange Journaling Numbered Heads Jigsaw Learning Centers Timed Pair Share Writing and Discussing

106 “Success is the sum of small efforts repeated day in and day out.”

107 Three types of curricula exist in any classroom: The Intended Curriculum: content/skill specified by the state, division, or school at a particular grade level. The Implemented Curriculum: content/skill actually delivered by the teacher. The Attained Curriculum: content/skill actually learned by the students. Intended Curriculum Implemented Curriculum Attained Curriculum Effective Instruction #2: focuses Effective Instruction #2: focuses on essential knowledge and essential skills Virginia’s Essential Knowledge, Skills, Vocabulary & Processes

108 Content-Related Evidence of Validity (Attained Curriculum) Essential Skills & Processes Essential Knowledge Essential Vocabulary LEARNING TARGET (attained curriculum)

109 Effective Teaching Methods: Applying Research on How the Brain Learns From Whole-class instruction Lecture and recitation Working with better students Sage on the stage Assessment based on test performance Competitiveness All students learning the same thing the same way Primacy of verbal skills To Small-group instruction Coaching Working with weaker students Engaged students Assessment based on product Cooperation All students learning the same thing in a different way Integration of visual and verbal thinking Small-group instructionSmall-group instruction CoachingCoaching Working with weaker studentsWorking with weaker students Engaged studentsEngaged students Assessment based on productAssessment based on product CooperationCooperation All students learning the same thing in a different wayAll students learning the same thing in a different way Integration of visual and verbal thinkingIntegration of visual and verbal thinking

110 Find a new friend in the room. Find 2 comfortable seats and relax.

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112 An Effective Instructional School… Opportunity to Learn TimeMonitoring Pressure to Achieve Parental Involvement School Climate LeadershipCooperation Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback Parental and Community Involvement Safe and Orderly Environment Collegiality and Professionalism

113 Getting the Biggest Bang for Your Buck! Researchers conducted studies to identify those instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement for ALL students in ALL subject areas at ALL grade levels. Results of the studies conducted by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock identified the TOP NINE strategies that have a STRONG EFFECT on STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT.

114 Category Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922

115 Word Sort Applications Classify words based on student identified attributes. Match linguistic and nonlinguistic pairs that represent the same concept. Use a ‘Concentration Game’ approach to identifying similarities. Create sentences that contain an identified word from the sort. Provide students with the previous years cards to check for prior knowledge.

116 SHAPE Rectangle Triangle Square Circle ATTRIBUTE Side Corner Square Corner Round

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118 ? ? ? ? How can you use the Where do I belong? structure to support your role as teacher/administrator?

119 “A pupil from whom nothing is ever demanded which he cannot do, never does all he can.” John Stuart Mill “No one Rises to Low Expectations.” Carl Boyd

120 Venn Diagram Similarities and differences Show relationships Questions –How is something unique in characteristics? –What characteristics are shared?

121 Advanced Organizers Use Visuals –Advanced organizers help students organize the information and retain 5 times more of the information.

122 Finding Similarities and Differences Directions: Use the Venn Diagram rings to create a diagram similar to the graph below. Sort the Attribute Blocks using the criteria below. Think! YellowThin Large

123 Category Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 *Setting objectives & providing feedback*.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922

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127 Comprehension Can Be Taught! Narrative TextExpository Text Comprehension Strategy The True Story of the 3 Little PigsChapter 3 “The American Revolution” Previewing What is the story about? What might the story be about? What do I already know about the American Revolution? Self Questioning Why is the wolf telling the story?Why did this war occur? Making Connections How does this pig story compare to others I have heard? How does the information in this chapter compare to the movie we saw? Visualizing Is my mental picture of the wolf still good? Should I change it? What did an American soldier look like? A British soldier? Knowing How Words Work Does the word make sense in the sentence? What clues in the text can I use to figure out the word representation? Monitoring Does what I am reading make sense? Does what I am reading make sense? Did French soldiers fight in this war? How can I find out? Summarizing What has happened so far? What is the most important information in the chapter? Evaluating Do I believe the Wolf’s story? Why? How does this story rate to other I have read? How would my life be different if we had not won this war?

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131 What did you already know about the topic before you read the book? Tell two questions that can be answered by reading this book Tell what this book is mostly about. Be sure to include three important details? Where could you find more information about this topic? Choose a color to describe the topic. Explain why you chose that color. Pretend you have to teach what you learned from reading this passage to a new student. What will you tell about the topic? If you could create a sound to describe the topic what would it be? Why? A title for a fiction book on this topic might be - Did the passage leave you with unanswered questions? If so, what are they?

132 BRAIN BREAK Select Team Leaders

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134 DO OR

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138 Suggested Use of Instructional Strategies Beginning Set Objectives Provide feedback Questions, cues, advanced organizers Cooperative Learning Identifying similarities and differences During During Nonlinguistic representation Nonlinguistic representation Notetaking and summarizing Notetaking and summarizing Questions, cues, advanced organizers Questions, cues, advanced organizers Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Identifying similarities and differences Identifying similarities and differences End End Reinforce effort Reinforce effort Provide recognition Provide recognition Evaluate Evaluate Self-Assessment Self-Assessment

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