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Prepared especially for the New Members of the Professional Learning Network of ALBEMARLE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. August 2011 RIGOR.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared especially for the New Members of the Professional Learning Network of ALBEMARLE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. August 2011 RIGOR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared especially for the New Members of the Professional Learning Network of ALBEMARLE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. August 2011 RIGOR with NURTURING Designing Assessment & Instruction for Concept-Centered Learning

2 Premise of the Session As the United States continues to compete in a global economy that demands innovation, the U.S. education system must equip students with the four Cs: 1. C ritical thinking and problem solving, 2. C ommunication, 3. C 3. C ollaboration, and 4. C 4. C reativity and innovation.

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7 Self Reliance There are three types of baseball players--those who make it happen, those who watch it happen, and those who wonder what happened. Tommy Lasorda teachers/administrators

8 Find a new friend in the room. Introduce yourself and share what you ‘do’. Find 2 comfortable seats and relax.

9 a. The number of cavities the sixth graders have? b. The number of people in the sixth graders’ families? c. The ages of the sixth graders’ mothers? d. The heights of the sixth graders in inches?

10 MOVING from ETCH-a SKETCH Learning to Each STUDENT UNDERSTANDING Don’t let the ‘what’ overshadow the ‘how!’

11 The Power of Our Questions

12 QUESTIONS TO EXTEND THINKING page 5 – 7

13 There are three parts to any research-based lesson: Beginning – ‘check for’ and ‘build’ background knowledge of each student; (BL) During – teach and actively engage each student in new content – making connections to prior knowledge; (DL) End – check for understanding - provide each student with an opportunity to summarize (in their own way) and practice the essential knowledge and skills conveyed in the lesson. (EL)

14 SAMPLE Pre-assessment that includes differentiation SAMPLE Pre-assessment that includes differentiation the Civil War PAGE 16

15 Minority Student Achievement in Suburban Schools ~Toward Excellence with Equity, Minority Student Achievement in Suburban Schools ~Toward Excellence with Equity, Ronald Ferguson, Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, 2007 Survey of all students in 15 middle & upper income districts in 10 states; Examined family characteristics, opinions about quality of instruction, achievement motivation, course-taking, effort, comprehension, GPA and other factors; When I work hard, it is because my teacher tells me I can do well. (“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No”) When I work hard, it is because my teacher tells me I can do well. (“Yes,” instead of “Maybe” or “No”)

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17 Category Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 *Setting objectives & providing feedback*.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922

18 18 Identifying Similarities and Differences

19 What processes can students engage in to identify similarities and differences? Comparing The process of identifying and articulating similarities and differences among items. Classifying The process of grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes. Creating Metaphors The process of identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern in information. Creating Analogies The process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts (e.g., relationships between relationships).

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21 Hey… This looks familiar… Which of the high yield instructional strategies do you see in this structure? Hey… This looks familiar… Which of the high yield instructional strategies do you see in this structure?

22 PAGE 7 Work with a partner to create a conceptual learning framework for a topic from your content area.

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24 Accuracy of Background Knowledge

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26 WHY ACADEMIC VOCABULARY? Find a 4-second partner   Tell them who you are and one summer joy;   Find 2 seats. Briefly share what you know about photosynthesis. Tell a chain story about the process of photosynthesis… …without using words that begin with: P, L, T, S

27 Types of pictures: Draw the actual thing. Marine biologist

28 Types of pictures: Draw the actual thing. Abraham Lincoln

29 Mutualism When one thing helps another. Types of pictures: Draw the concept.

30 Change Types of pictures: Draw the concept.

31 Explorer Types of pictures: Draw an example.

32 revolve Types of pictures: Draw the concept.

33 Research on Imagery as Elaboration 6 37 percentile pts. higher than… …students who kept repeating definitions percentile pts. higher than… …students who were using the terms in a sentence. Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed # of studies

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36 50 POINTS50 POINTS50 POINTS 100 POINTS 200 POINTS Sara Palin Organizing Theme: Things someone would say… Hillary Clinton Michelle ObamaU.S. Women’s Soccer Team Lady Gaga The Queen of England FAMOUS WOMEN OF 2011 EDITION

37 50 POINTS50 POINTS50 POINTS 100 POINTS 200 POINTS Science Experiment Hypothesis Energy Electron DissolveAtmosphere

38 50 POINTS50 POINTS50 POINTS 100 POINTS 200 POINTS Health/PE Wellness Equipment Body Mass Nutrition EnduranceMovement

39 50 POINTS50 POINTS50 POINTS 100 POINTS 200 POINTS FINE ARTS ILLUSIONARCHITECTURE VISUAL COMPOSER MELODY RHYTHM

40 Great Sites for Images

41 50 POINTS50 POINTS50 POINTS 100 POINTS 200 POINTS

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44 COUNT OFF at Your Table

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48 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

49 When students know what they are learning, their performance, on average, has been shown to be 27 percentile points higher than students who do not know what they are learning.

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51 Organizing Student Thinking

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53 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

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55 Stool – 42 cm LaToya – 159 cm Shoulder – 135 cm Counter – 73 cm Silk – 108 cm cm below

56 Self-Assessment Tool

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58 Kinds of Evidence – Continuum of Evidence Informal Check for Understanding

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62 CategoryAve. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922 HIGH-Yield Instructional Strategies

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66 1.Remember it. (Describe its colors, shapes, and sizes. What does it look like?) 2.Understand it. (What does it make you think of?) 3.Apply it. (What can you do with it? How is it used?) 4.Analyze it. (How is it made or what is it composed of?) 5.Evaluate it. (Take a stand and list reasons for supporting it.) 6.Create it. (Generate a new version of it. How is it an improvement from the original?) CUBING 2010

67 Virginia Standards Verbs PROBLEM SOLVING AnalyzeDeriveDiscoverEvaluateExplore PredictSolveSurveyVerifyInvestigate REASONING CategorizeClassifyCompareContrastDifferentiate DescribeEstimateExplainGeneralizeInterpret JustifyOrderHypothesizePredictInfer PrioritizeRankValidateSummarize COMMUNICATION ClarifyCorrespondDescribeDiscussDemonstrate ExhibitExplainExpressPersuadePortray RestateShowSpeakStateWrite

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69 Momentous Discovery When teachers regularly and collaboratively review assessment data for the purpose of improving practice to reach measurable achievement goals, something magical happens. Michael Fullan

70 KEY QUESTION: Why are common assessments so important? “You can enhance or destroy students’ desire to succeed in school more quickly and permanently through your use of assessment than with any other tools you have at your disposal.” Rick Stiggins, Assessment Trainers Institute WHY do we ASSESS: 1. INFORM INSTRUCTIONAL DECISIONS 2. ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO TRY

71 Talk to Me… Directions – –Form a team of EIGHT (8) people… – –Determine the person with the most sisters and then send them to pick-up your team ziplock bag… PLEASE DO NOT OPEN!!! – –Determine the person with the least sisters and send them to pick-up a grid sheet for each person. – –Distribute a grid sheet to each team member.

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73 Follow-up Debriefing Each pair should share with your other team members the method you used to graph the figure. Discuss with your team: –Which method appeals to you? –Is there another method that you would prefer? Prepare for a “pairs choice of method” with a new graph.

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75 Key Question Did your performance on the second attempt to complete the grid exercise improve after having an opportunity to self-assess your initial strategy?

76 Formative Assessment Formative assessment is the process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust teaching and learning for the purpose of improving student learning. Council of Chief State School Officers, October 2006 Notes: Process rather than a particular test…. It is not the nature of the test itself that makes it formative or summative…it is the use to which those results will be put.

77 Thank you for your commitment to children! "It's your attitude, not just your aptitude that determines your ultimate altitude." -- Zig Ziglar Dan e4ae.com

78 Factors Influencing School Improvement SchoolTeacherStudent 1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism 6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design 9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge 11. Motivation

79 MOVING from ETCH-a SKETCH Learning to Each STUDENT UNDERSTANDING Don’t let the ‘what’ overshadow the ‘how’!

80 Teachers must recognize that “Reading comprehension and achievement tend to be positively related. Almost without exception instruction in vocabulary and/or reading skills paid off in terms of greater achievement, especially in the area of problem solving” (Earp, 1970, p. 531). Reading Comprehension in the Content Area The Publix Theory

81 Knowing the Learner Directions: Rank the symbols (1-4) in order from most (1) like you as a learner to least (4) like you as a learner.

82 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Beach Balls

83 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Microscopes

84 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Clipboards

85 Knowing the Learner Learning Style of Puppies

86 “If an educator keeps using the same strategies over and over and the student keeps failing, who really is the slow learner?”

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88 Choice Board or Tic-Tac-Toe This assessment strategy allows students to select their own preferences but still achieve the targeted essential knowledge and skills. After Reading Choice Board

89 Choice Board Verbal/LinguisticBody/ KinestheticVisual/Spatial Musical/Rhythmical Wild Card Your choice after getting the approval of the teacher. Naturalist IntrapersonalInterpersonalLogical/Mathematical

90 4 second partner 1.Select a new partner. 2.Identify content to be taught to your students. 3.Outline a Dinner Menu of evidence of student understandings. 4.Enjoy! 4 second partner 1.Select a new partner. 2.Identify content to be taught to your students. 3.Outline a Dinner Menu of evidence of student understandings. 4.Enjoy!

91 Low-level Questions Short answer Shallow thinking High-level Questions Elaborate answer Deep thinking High-Consensus Right or Wrong answer “What” to think Low-Consensus No single correct answer “How” to think Review Asker knows answer Checking for correctness True Asker doesn’t know answer Invitation to think Path to Thinking Questions NOT Just Remembering Facts

92 Genius Questions What if…? Is ______ the reason for…? I wonder why…?Can…? If…?Would you rather…? What is it that…?What would it take to…? When is it…?Why is it that…? Who could…?Would ______ be possible if…? How is ____ like _____?Is it possible to…? When is…? Could…? What could happen if…?How can…? If it were possible…?What is your opinion about…? Are there…?Is it right to…? Why is…?I wonder when…? How…?I’m wondering if…? Where did…?How could it…? Do you…?Why are…? Does it matter if…?If I ______, could_____? When is it …? What can…?

93 Revised Bloom’s Revised Bloom’s Creating

94 Questioning Strategies Think Time Question Exchange Journaling Numbered Heads Jigsaw Learning Centers Timed Pair Share Writing and Discussing

95 “Success is the sum of small efforts repeated day in and day out.”

96 Three types of curricula exist in any classroom: The Intended Curriculum: content/skill specified by the state, division, or school at a particular grade level. The Implemented Curriculum: content/skill actually delivered by the teacher. The Attained Curriculum: content/skill actually learned by the students. Intended Curriculum Implemented Curriculum Attained Curriculum Effective Instruction #2: focuses Effective Instruction #2: focuses on essential knowledge and essential skills Virginia’s Essential Knowledge, Skills, Vocabulary & Processes

97 Content-Related Evidence of Validity (Attained Curriculum) Essential Skills & Processes Essential Knowledge Essential Vocabulary LEARNING TARGET (attained curriculum)

98 Effective Teaching Methods: Applying Research on How the Brain Learns From Whole-class instruction Lecture and recitation Working with better students Sage on the stage Assessment based on test performance Competitiveness All students learning the same thing the same way Primacy of verbal skills To Small-group instruction Coaching Working with weaker students Engaged students Assessment based on product Cooperation All students learning the same thing in a different way Integration of visual and verbal thinking Small-group instructionSmall-group instruction CoachingCoaching Working with weaker studentsWorking with weaker students Engaged studentsEngaged students Assessment based on productAssessment based on product CooperationCooperation All students learning the same thing in a different wayAll students learning the same thing in a different way Integration of visual and verbal thinkingIntegration of visual and verbal thinking

99 Find a new friend in the room. Find 2 comfortable seats and relax.

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101 An Effective Instructional School… Opportunity to Learn TimeMonitoring Pressure to Achieve Parental Involvement School Climate LeadershipCooperation Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback Parental and Community Involvement Safe and Orderly Environment Collegiality and Professionalism

102 Getting the Biggest Bang for Your Buck! Researchers conducted studies to identify those instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement for ALL students in ALL subject areas at ALL grade levels. Results of the studies conducted by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock identified the TOP NINE strategies that have a STRONG EFFECT on STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT.

103 Category Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 Setting objectives & providing feedback.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922

104 Word Sort Applications Classify words based on student identified attributes. Match linguistic and nonlinguistic pairs that represent the same concept. Use a ‘Concentration Game’ approach to identifying similarities. Create sentences that contain an identified word from the sort. Provide students with the previous years cards to check for prior knowledge.

105 SHAPE Rectangle Triangle Square Circle ATTRIBUTE Side Corner Square Corner Round

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107 ? ? ? ? How can you use the Where do I belong? structure to support your role as teacher/administrator?

108 “A pupil from whom nothing is ever demanded which he cannot do, never does all he can.” John Stuart Mill “No one Rises to Low Expectations.” Carl Boyd

109 Venn Diagram Similarities and differences Show relationships Questions –How is something unique in characteristics? –What characteristics are shared?

110 Advanced Organizers Use Visuals –Advanced organizers help students organize the information and retain 5 times more of the information.

111 Finding Similarities and Differences Directions: Use the Venn Diagram rings to create a diagram similar to the graph below. Sort the Attribute Blocks using the criteria below. Think! YellowThin Large

112 Category Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identify similarities & differences Summarizing & note taking Reinforcing effort & providing recognition.8029 Homework & practice.7728 Nonlinguistic representations.7527 Cooperative learning.7327 *Setting objectives & providing feedback*.6123 Generating & testing hypotheses.6123 Questions, cues, & advance organizers.5922

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114 Comprehension Can Be Taught! Narrative TextExpository Text Comprehension Strategy The True Story of the 3 Little PigsChapter 3 “The American Revolution” Previewing What is the story about? What might the story be about? What do I already know about the American Revolution? Self Questioning Why is the wolf telling the story?Why did this war occur? Making Connections How does this pig story compare to others I have heard? How does the information in this chapter compare to the movie we saw? Visualizing Is my mental picture of the wolf still good? Should I change it? What did an American soldier look like? A British soldier? Knowing How Words Work Does the word make sense in the sentence? What clues in the text can I use to figure out the word representation? Monitoring Does what I am reading make sense? Does what I am reading make sense? Did French soldiers fight in this war? How can I find out? Summarizing What has happened so far? What is the most important information in the chapter? Evaluating Do I believe the Wolf’s story? Why? How does this story rate to other I have read? How would my life be different if we had not won this war?

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118 What did you already know about the topic before you read the book? Tell two questions that can be answered by reading this book Tell what this book is mostly about. Be sure to include three important details? Where could you find more information about this topic? Choose a color to describe the topic. Explain why you chose that color. Pretend you have to teach what you learned from reading this passage to a new student. What will you tell about the topic? If you could create a sound to describe the topic what would it be? Why? A title for a fiction book on this topic might be - Did the passage leave you with unanswered questions? If so, what are they?

119 BRAIN BREAK Select Team Leaders

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121 DO OR

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125 Suggested Use of Instructional Strategies Beginning Set Objectives Provide feedback Questions, cues, advanced organizers Cooperative Learning Identifying similarities and differences During During Nonlinguistic representation Nonlinguistic representation Notetaking and summarizing Notetaking and summarizing Questions, cues, advanced organizers Questions, cues, advanced organizers Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Identifying similarities and differences Identifying similarities and differences End End Reinforce effort Reinforce effort Provide recognition Provide recognition Evaluate Evaluate Self-Assessment Self-Assessment

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