2The Second Industrial Revolution The Main IdeaDuring the late 1800s, new technology and inventions led to the growth of industry, the rise of big business, and revolutions in transportation and communication.Reading FocusHow did industry and railroads lead to the Second Industrial Revolution?How did entrepreneurs and public attitudes help the rise of big business in the late 1800s?What conditions prompted workers to organize in the late 1800s?What advances in transportation and communication were made in the late 1800s?
3The Age of Oil and Steel Oil Steel In the mid-1800s people began to refine oil found on coastal waters and lakes for kerosene lamps.In 1859 Edwin L. Drake drilled for oil in Pennsylvania, starting the first commercial oil well.Wildcatters, or oil prospectors, struck oil near Beaumont, Texas, which began the Texas oil boom.It lasted less than 20 years, but oil remains big business in Texas to this day.SteelIn the 1850s a new method made steel-making faster and cheaper and by 1910 the U.S. was the world’s top steel producer.Steel helped transform the U.S. into a modern industrial economy.It was used to make bridges, locomotives, and taller buildings.Factories used steel machinery to make goods faster.
4Railroads ExpandIn the 1850s train tracks crossed the Northeast and reached into the Southeast and the Great Lakes area, but between 1865 and 1890 the number of track miles increased by five times.The federal government helped by giving land to railroad companies, and cheap steel enabled the railroad to expand.Congress authorized two companies to build railroads to the West Coast: the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific.Workers raced for six and a half years to complete the first transcontinental railroad, or a track that crossed the country.In May 1869 the two rail lines met in the Utah Territory, linking east and west. Throughout the country railroads expanded into a vast network.The railroads promoted trade, created jobs, and helped western settlement.Railroads also led to the adoption of standard time, because rail schedules could not accurately depend on the sun’s position, as most people did.
5The Rise of Big Business Big business grew in the late 1800s when entrepreneurs, or business risk-takers, started businesses within an economic system called capitalism, in which most businesses are privately owned.Under laissez-faire capitalism, which is French for “leave alone,” companies operated without government interference.There were inequalities under capitalism, but many believed that Charles Darwin’s theory of social Darwinism, or survival of the fittest, explained how business was like nature: only the strongest survived.A new type of business organization developed called the corporation, which was owned by people who bought stock, or shares, in a company, was led by a board of directors and run by corporate officers.Corporations raised money by selling stock and could exist after their founders left. Stockholders could lose only what they invested.To gain dominance, some competing corporations formed trusts that led several companies to form as one corporation and dominate an industry.Mass marketing helped retailers maximize their profits and department stores and mail-order catalogues revolutionized shopping for consumers.
6Industrial Tycoons Made Huge Fortunes John D. RockefellerStarted Standard Oil as a refineryUsed vertical integration, buying companies that handled other aspects of oil businessUsed horizontal integration by buying other refineriesRefined half of the U.S. oil by 1875Andrew CarnegieGrew up poor in Scotland and, at 12, came to the U.S. to work on railroadsBegan to invest and started Carnegie Steel Company, which dominated the steel industryIn 1901, sold the company to the banker J.P. Morgan for $480 million and retired as a philanthropistCornelius VanderbiltBegan investing in railroads during the Civil WarSoon his holdings stretched west to Michigan and north to Canada.Vanderbilt gave money to education for the public.George PullmanMade his fortune when he designed and built sleeper cars to make long distance train travel more comfortableBuilt an entire town near Chicago for his employees that was comfortable, but controlled many aspects of their daily lives.
7Workers OrganizeIn the competitive, laissez-faire climate of the 1800s, government did not care about workers. Many workers scraped by on less than $500 per year while tycoons got very, very rich.The government grew worried about the power of corporations, and in 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade, though they only enforced the law with a few companies.Factory workers were mostly Europeans immigrants, children, and rural Americans who came to the city for work.Workers often worked 12-to-16-hour days, six days a week, in unhealthy conditions without paid vacation, sick leave or compensation for common workplace injuries.By the late 1800s working conditions were so bad that more workers began to organize, trying to band together to pressure employers into giving better pay and safer workplaces.The first effective group was the Knights of Labor, which campaigned for eight-hour work days, the end of child labor, and equal pay for equal work in Philadelphia.
8City Growth Spurs Transportation Advances StreetcarsHorse-drawn passenger vehicles were the earliest mass transit.By the 1830s horsecars, or streetcars, rolled along street rails.Cable cars were built in cities with steep hills such as San Francisco.By 1900 most cities had electric streetcars, or trolleys.SubwaysAs cities grew, traffic became a serious problem, especially in urban centers such as Boston and New York.The city of Boston opened the first U.S. subway line in 1897.The New York subway line opened in 1904.AutomobilesA German engineer invented the internal combustion engine, and soon inventors tried to use it for a new “horseless carriage.”In 1893 Charles and Frank Duryea built the first practical American motorcar.AirplanesHuman beings had dreamt of flying for centuries.Two American brothers were the first to build a successful airplane.On December 17, 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright flew their tiny airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
9Inventors Revolutionize Communication TelegraphSamuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1837, which sent messages instantly over wires using electricity.Operators tapped out patterns of long and short signals that stood for letters of the alphabet, called Morse Code.The telegraph grew with the railroads, because train stations had telegraph offices.TelephoneTwo inventors devised ways to transmit voices by using electricity.Alexander Graham Bell patented his design first, in 1876.By 1900 there were more than a million telephones in offices and households across the country.TypewriterMany inventors tried to create a writing machine.Chistopher Latham Sholes, a Milwaukee printer, developed the first practical typewriter in 1867.He later improved it by designing the keyboard that is still standard for computers today.Businesses began to hire woman as typists.
10Thomas EdisonThomas Alva Edison was one of America’s most famous inventors.In 1876 Edison opened his own research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where he hired assistants with scientific and technical expertise to think creatively and work hard.Edison spent hours testing ideas, and his team soon invented the first phonograph and a telephone transmitter.Edison was the first to come up with a safe electric light bulb that could light homes and street lamps.He then undertook a venture to bring an electricity network to New York City, and in 1882 he installed a lighting system powered by his own electric power plants similar to ones that were later built all over the U.S.Edison and his team later invented a motion picture camera and projector. In all, he held over 1,000 U.S. patents.
11Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century The Main IdeaA new wave of immigrants came to America in the late 1800s and settled in rapidly changing cities where political corruption was common and minorities faced discrimination.Reading FocusWho were the new immigrants of the late 1800s, and what challenges did they face?What was urban life like at the turn of the twentieth century?How did political scandals lead to reform in the late 1800s?What types of segregation and discrimination did African Americans and other minorities encounter?
12The New ImmigrantsBetween 1800 and 1880, more than ten million immigrants came to the U.S., mostly from northern and western Europe.Near the turn of the twentieth century, a diverse new wave of millions of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Asia came to the U.S. and built tight-knit communities.Because of severe immigration laws, smaller numbers came from East Asia, but when Japan allowed laborers to go to Hawaii to work on sugar plantations, many moved to the mainland.By 1910 nearly one out of every seven Americans was foreign-born.In 1892 the government opened an immigration station at Ellis Island in New York Harbor—some 12 million people passed through Ellis IslandImmigrants faced crowding and low pay, but settled near others from their country and started communities and organizations to help themselves.Some native-born Americans, known as nativists, saw immigrants as a threat to their jobs and safe communities.
13Local and National Political Corruption Crime/poor sanitation led people to give control of local governments to political machines—organizations of professional politicians/crime leadersMachine bosses used corruption to maintain power—votes in exchange for jobs/housing, bribe/intimidate, and election fraudWilliam Marcy Tweed-Boss Tweedled Tammany Hall in New York City (Democratic Headquarters)used graft (use of law for personal gain) to get richThomas Nast’s cartoons exposed this corruption—changed public opinionTweed was sent to prison for fraudMachines were a force in America until the 1960’s—often linked to organized crimeGrant’s presidency was scandalous:Crédit Mobilier—scheme to funnel federal RR money to stockholdersPension Grabs—officials stole pensions from veterans/their survivorsElection of 1876Machines controlled the elections in several statesHayes won as the result of a political bargain—end of reconstructionReform split the Republican party1880—Pres. Garfield was assassinated—spoils system1882—Arthur—Pendleton Civil Service Act—reduced the spoils system
14Farmers Reform Movement In the late 1800s crop prices were falling and farmers began to organize into groups to protect themselves financially.The National Grange, wanted the state to regulate railroad rates.The Supreme Court ruled that only the federal government could regulate.Congress then passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, marking the first time federal government regulated industry.The Farmer’s Alliance wanted government to print more paper money, thinking they could charge more for farm goods if more money were circulating.In 1873 paper money was placed on the gold standard, reducing the amount of money in circulation. Farmers wanted money to be backed by silver.The Farmer’s Alliance started the Populist Party, calling for bank regulation, government-owned railroads and free coinage of silver.Their stand against powerful interests influenced later politicians.
15The 1896 ElectionAfter the election of 1892, a major railroad company failed, triggering the Panic of 1893.Stock prices fell and millions lost their jobs. President Cleveland blamed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which required the government to buy silver with paper money redeemable in either gold or silver.Silver was still an issue in the 1896 election, when Republicans nominated William McKinley, who favored the gold standard and Democrats chose William Jennings Bryan, who defended silver.Bryan made a dramatic speech saying using the gold standard was like crucifying mankind on a “cross of gold.”This speech won Bryan Populist support, but terrified business leaders gave money to the Republicans, and McKinley won the election.
16Segregation and Discrimination After Reconstruction, southern legislatures passed laws that restricted African Americans’ rights, but prejudice existed nationwide.Some white southerners tried to restrict African Americans’ right to vote by requiring voters to pay a poll tax and pass a literacy test.Southern legislatures passed the Jim Crow Laws to create and enforce segregation in public places.One law requiring separate railway cars for African Americans and whites was tested by Homer Plessy, an African American. His case went to the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson. They upheld segregation, saying “separate but equal” facilities didn’t violate the Fourteenth Amendment.In addition to legalized discrimination, strict rules governed social and business interactions between black and white Americans.The worst outcome of discrimination was lynching, or murder by a mob. Nearly 900 African Americans were murdered between 1882 and 1892 by lynch mobs.
17Opposing Discrimination Two approaches to fighting racism emerged. Some advocated accepting segregation and learning skills to rise up, others believed African American should strive for full rights immediately.Two leaders represented these groups.Booker T. WashingtonBorn into slaveryBelieved African Americans had to accept segregation for the momentBelieved they could improve their condition by learning farming and vocational skillsFounded the Tuskegee Institute to teach African Americans practical skillsW.E.B. Du BoisBelieved that African Americans should strive for full rights immediatelyHelped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rightsMembers of the Niagara Movement later founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
18Progressivism The Main Idea Progressives focused on three areas of reform: easing the suffering of the urban poor, improving unfair and dangerous working conditions, and reforming government at the national, state, and local levels.Reading FocusWhat issues did Progressives focus on, and what helped energize their causes?How did Progressives try to reform society?How did Progressives fight to reform the workplace?How did Progressives reform government at the national, state, and local levels?
19Progressivism and Its Champions Industrialization helped many but also created dangerous working environments and unhealthy living conditions for the urban poor.Progressivism, a wide-ranging reform movement targeting these problems, began in the late 19th century.Journalists called muckrakers and urban photographers exposed people to the plight of the unfortunate in hopes of sparking reform.Jacob RiisDanish immigrant who faced New York povertyExposed the slums through magazines, photographs, and a best-selling bookHis fame helped spark city reforms.Ida TarbellExposed the corrupt Standard Oil Company and its owner, John D. RockefellerAppealed to middle class scared by large business powerLincoln SteffensShame of the Cities (1904) exposed corrupt city governmentsFrank NorrisExposed railroad monopolies in a 1901 novel
20Fighting for Civil Rights Progressives fought prejudice in society by forming various reform groups.NAACPNational Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleFormed in 1909 by a multiracial group of activists to fight for the rights of African Americans1913: Protested the official introduction of segregation in federal government1915: Protested the D. W. Griffith film Birth of a Nation because of hostile African American stereotypes, which led to the film’s banning in eight statesADLAnti-Defamation LeagueFormed by Sigmund Livingston, a Jewish man in Chicago, in 1913Fought anti-Semitism, or prejudice against Jews, which was common in AmericaFought to stop negative stereotypes of Jews in mediaThe publisher of the New York Times was a member and helped stop negative references to Jews
21Reforming the Workplace By the late 19th century, labor unions fought for adult male workers but didn’t advocate enough for women and children.In 1893, Florence Kelley helped push the Illinois legislature to prohibit child labor and to limit women’s working hours.In 1904, Kelley helped organize the National Child Labor Committee, which wanted state legislatures to ban child labor.By 1912, nearly 40 states passed child-labor laws, but states didn’t strictly enforce the laws and many children still worked.Progressives, mounting state campaigns to limit workdays for women, were successful in states including Oregon and Utah.But since most workers were still underpaid and living in poverty, an alliance of labor unions and progressives fought for a minimum wage, which Congress didn’t adopt until 1938.Businesses fought labor laws in the Supreme Court, which ruled on several cases in the early 1900s concerning workday length.
22The UnionsILGWUIn 1900, the International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union organized unskilled workers.In 1909, the ILGWU called a general strike known as the Uprising of 20,000.Strikers won a shorter workweek and higher wages and attracted thousands of workers to the union.IWWIn 1905, the Industrial Workers of the World formed to oppose capitalism, organizing unskilled workers that the American Federation of Labor ignored.Under William “Big Bill” Haywood, the IWW, known as Wobblies, used traditional tactics like strikes and boycotts but also engaged in radical tactics like industrial sabotage.By 1912, the IWW led 23,000 textile workers to strike in Massachusetts to protest pay cuts, which ended successfully after six weeks.However, several IWW strikes were failures, and, fearing the IWW’s revolutionary goals, the government cracked down on the organization, causing dispute among its leaders and leading to its decline a few years later.
23Reforming Government City Government Reforming government meant winning control of it:Tom Johnson of Cleveland was a successful reform mayor who set new rules for police, released debtors from prison, and supported a fairer tax system.Progressives promoted new government structures:Texas set up a five-member committee to govern Galveston after a hurricane, and by 1918, 500 cities adopted this plan.The city manager model had a professional administrator, not a politician, manage the government.State GovernmentProgressive governor Robert La Follette created the Wisconsin Ideas, which wanted:Direct primary elections; limited campaign spendingCommissions to regulate railroads and oversee transportation, civil service, and taxationOther governors pushed for reform, but some were corrupt:New York’s Charles Evan Hughes regulated insurance companies.Mississippi’s James Vardaman exploited prejudice to gain power.
24Election ReformsProgressives wanted fairer elections and to make politicians more accountable to voters.Proposed a direct primary, or an election in which voters choose candidates to run in a general election, which most states adopted.Backed the Seventeenth Amendment, which gave voters, not state legislatures, the power to elect their U.S. senators.Some measures Progressives fought for includeDirect primary: voters select a party’s candidate for public office17th Amendment: voters elect their senators directlysecret ballot: people vote privately without fear of coercioninitiative: allows citizens to propose new lawsreferendum: allows citizens to vote on a proposed or existing lawrecall: allows voters to remove an elected official from office
25ProhibitionProgressive women also fought in the Prohibition movement, which called for a ban on making, selling, and distributing alcoholic beverages.Reformers thought alcohol was responsible for crime, poverty, and violence.Two major national organizations led the crusade against alcohol.The Anti-Saloon LeagueThe Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), headed by Frances Willard, which was a powerful force for both temperance and women’s rightsEvangelists like Billy Sunday and Carry Nation preached against alcohol, and Nation smashed up saloons with a hatchet while holding a Bible.Congress eventually proposed the 18th Amendment in 1917, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol. It was ratified in 1919, but was so unpopular that it was repealed in 1933.
26Rise of the Women’s Suffrage Movement After the Civil War, suffragists, who had supported abolition, called for granting women the vote but were told that they should wait.Many were angered that the Fifteenth Amendment granted voting rights to African American men but not to women.Women organized into two major suffragist groups:Women began to see success in the West, as in 1869 the Wyoming Territory granted women the vote, followed by the Utah Territory a year later and five more western states not long after.Susan B. Anthony Tests the LawSusan B. Anthony wrote pamphlets, made speeches, and testified before every Congress from 1869 to 1906 in support of women’s rights.In 1872 she and three of her sisters registered to vote, voted for a congressional representative in Rochester, New York, and were arrested two weeks later.Before her trial, Anthony spoke passionately about women’s voting rights, but the judge refused to let her testify on her own behalf and fined her $100.Anthony didn’t pay the fine, hoping to be arrested so she could be tried through the courts, but the judge did not imprison her.In 1873 the Supreme Court ruled that even though women were citizens, that did not automatically grant them voting rights, but that it was up to the states to grant or withhold that right.